Worldwide they are easily replicated and sold

Worldwide losses because of copyright infringement of intellectual property such as PC programs, music recordings, and film continue at rampant proportions in developing countries (Gerlach, 2009). Copyright infringement refers to the utilization or production of protected information and material without asking authorization from the copyright holder. It means that the merits given to the copyright holder, such as private use of a material for a period of time, are being penetrated by a third-party (Subba Rao, 2003).

The protection of an invention, literary piece, and all other cerebrally produced objects from unaccredited utilization, production, and marketing by anyone with the exception of the creator and its managers are all included in the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). The copyright is the most used method of safeguarding products, including computer programs, music files, and books. These products have been recognized as the leading issues in the recent international trade transactions, because they necessitate huge amounts of money and time for research to create and yet they are easily replicated and sold illegally by pirates at the expense of the inventors (Chiang, 2002). Although computer software relish in copyright protection, the case law governing program infringement is chaotic, inconsistent and even inarticulate to those who must understand it (Ogilvie, 2014).

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According to Business Software Alliance (2007), 35% of packaged programs installed in computers around the world in 2006 were unauthorized and illegal, leading to a global loss of an estimated $40 billion because of software copyright infringement. In the United States economy a total of $58 billion was the estimated loss due copyright infringement from film, music recordings, business programs, and video games (Siwek, 2007).   

In a study conducted by Burden (2003), CD-R piracy was stated as one of major reason why the UK piracy earning rose 30% in 2001. This is equivalent to authorized sales of 27.6 million pounds. Internet copyright can be in different forms with less hassle which copyright material can be stolen and transferred, as well as, suggesting fake CD’s over the internet and the free exchange of transactions on sites such as Napster. Napster has now been defunct due to being blameworthy of contributory role in accordance to third party copyright infringement by an American Court, alike websites still exist. In 2001, BPI’s Anti-Piracy Unit helped in shutting down almost 400 websites marketing illegal music files. On top of civil procedures, copyright infringement can entice criminal consequences given that the copies are transacted for advertising purpose (Hughes, 2008).

In recent years, the Japanese comic book or known as ‘manga’ has reached remarkable admiration inside and outside Japan (Schwartz, 2006). There are many driving forces for making ‘manga’ very popular especially in America and Europe. The western society’s growing affectation with the contemporary culture in Japan, the success of animations, and many distinguishing comic books for teenagers immediately paved way for a fast growing market. Behind the global success of these comic books there is also a simultaneous increase for manga scanlation (Leavit, 2010). Scanlation refers to the instance where fans copy manga titles, translate them to different languages and release these for free. It can be inferred that scanlation has been rampant because of the huge demand of manga outside of Japan. The access of the internet allows the digitalization of these comic books and worldwide distribution through various chat channels (Lee, 2009).

There is no denying that the internet has been a platform for criminals to do wrong doings such as copyright infringement. This is not unexpected considering the unrecognizability it provide, the ease, the speed, and the extent of the market in which to perform illegal acts. Although many illegal activities are known and at least at some point can be protected by information technology security measures, the worry still remains due to the lack of technical knowledge and limited resources of law enforcement organizations.

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