Woodside should be protected from any potential

Woodside HallDavid Hargreaves Group A: Yanisa Na-thalang: Coursework 3 Executive Summary This report is about the fire protection system of Woodside Hall. Woodside Hall is a 2 building hall of residence consisting of roughly 250 bedrooms, a lecture hall and a 2-stories high dining hall. Having a well designed fire protection system can help save lives of hundreds in an event of fire. There are 2 types of protections to be considered, passive and active fire protection system. Woodside Hall will considering both types of the protective systems. With great understanding and a well design of  passive and active fire protection system, Woodside Hall will be a safe hall of residence for the student of The University of Nottingham. Table of ContentIntroductionTypes of Fire Protection Passive Fire Protection Fire Safety on Steel  StructureFire Safety on Interior materialsFire doorFire wallFire resistant glass Active Fire ProtectionFire safety equipment in buildingSprinkler systemSmoke alarm systemManual Call PointFire hoseFire extinguisherFire escape routeFire escape signEmergency lightReferencesIntroduction As Woodside Hall being a hall of residence, it should be protected from any potential fire incident. In event of fire, great damage can occur if the fire protection system is not plan out properly. To minimize the damage and maximize the safety of students and staff of the hall, Woodside Hall’s fire safety protection system should be planned carefully starting from its structure. Both passive and active fire protection system will be used in planning a sufficient fire protection system of the hall. Types of Fire Protection There are 2 main types of fire protection which are passive and active fire protection. Passive fire protection is a type of protection that will be apply in a remote area or area which is hard to reach in the building such as the steel structure of the building, control room, attic, etc. Active fire protection is a system which is use throughout the building to provide protection, to control and to prevent any domino effect happening from the fire. These systems should be designed carefully in order to extinguish and control fire. The main aim of passive fire protection (PFP) is to protect the building from collapsing by preventing and slowing the spread of fire from the point of origin to other parts of the building so that there will be more time for building occupants to evacuate to a safe area. This system is designed to maintain the item or protect item on the other side of walls, floors, and doors up to 140°C, or at 550°C for structural steel, which it is considered a critical temperature for steel to loses its strength collapse. Smaller items such as fire doors and fire walls are to be tested in live fire with temperature up to 1,110°C. More items (such as water content in concrete slab) are required to be tested to make sure that the building will survive under a realistic condition. Active fire protection is a type of protection that require some action in order to control fire. This system is designed to put out small fire and to control big fire so that the building occupant will have more time to evacuate the building safely.  Active fire protection system includes fire extinguisher, manual call point, sprinkler system, smoke alarm system, fire hose, escape route, fire escape sign, and emergency lighting. All these fire safety equipment should be installed inside the building in place that is easy to reach and see by the building occupants. All equipments should be inspect according to the time it need and it should be replace immediately when need to. All building occupants should be aware of where all the equipments are and know the basics of how to use the equipment in event of fire.  Passive Fire Protection Fire Safety on Steel Structure The strength of steel structure of Woodside Hall will be prolonged by the method of intumescent coating. Intumescent coating is a paint-like material which can provide insulation for up to 200-250°C.The properties of steel will not be protected, but the coating will swell up, with expansion rate of 50:1, when contacted with heat and provide expanded layer of low conductivity char which will allow steel to keep its strength for up to 120 minutes. Thin film of intumescent coating will be apply on steel off site with solvent base material. Therefore, a cleaner and safer site area will be achieved along with smoother and quicker flow of construction process. Fire Safety on Interior MaterialsFire Door The 2 significant functions of fire door is to act as a barrier to stop and/or slow the spread of fire and smoke when closed and to provide the mean of escape when open. Woodside Hall will be using fire door with rating of FD60 which offer 60 minutes fire protection and should be tested by the manufacture against the British Standard: BS EN 1634-1: 2014. In total, there will be 333 single set of doors and 29 double set of doors used in both buildings. On each set of door, there will be certified label (on door and door frame) from British Woodworking Federation (BWF) to indicate the rating of the door and the frame and also to states that the doors and frames is up to standard. Al doors should be seal and fitted with an intumescent seal on all sides of of the gap. This seal will activate around 10 to 15 minutes after the fire had start or when the temperature reach 200°C. The seal will swell up and stop the penetration of hot gas and flames through the gaps of the door between frame and floor. Table below will show information of the appropriate types and size of intumescent seal used on specific fire door. Type of fire doorIntumescent SealsIntumescent Fire and Smoke Seals30/30 Single action door30/30 Double action door10mm x 4mm(Both sides and top)10mm x 4mm(Both sides and top)30/30 Double pairs of doors10mm x 4mm on one centre stile10mm x 4mm on other stile, heads and back edges60/60 Single action door60/60 Double action door20mm x 4mm(Both sides and top)20mm x 4mm(Both sides and top)60/60 Double pair of doors20mm x 4mm on one centre stile20mm x 4mm on other stile, heads and back edgesAvailable: https://www.firesafe.org.uk/fire-doors/ Firewall Firewall is use to compartmentalize the spreading of  fire and smoke into other part of the building. It will subdivide the building into manageable area so that a safe escape route can be established. Interior partition of timber stud with thickness of at least 81mm will be set up will be put up in several parts of the building in order to divide the building into zones for an efficient evacuation process. Figure 3 shows the material used to compose interior partition or firewall that will compartmentalize fire for up to 60 minutes. In Figure 4-7 below, the walls highlighted in blue indicate where the firewall will be locate in the building. Fire collar is to be installed when pipes penetrate through any wall or floor inside the buildings. The uPVC pipes will melt at  the temperature of 70°C, intumescent material in the collar will swell up and close the pipe opening. It will act as barrier to prevent hot gas, smoke and fire to seep through the pipe opening then it melts. Fire Resistant Glass To prevent glass from shattering in event of fire, the glass-curtain wall installed (as shown in Figure 10) will be fire-resistant rated glass tested against the standard ASTM E2307 and EN 1364 Part 3-4. It will provide the mean of protection during the fire event and prevent the spread of flames and smokes. The type of glass that will be use is film safety ceramic glass, which have the integrity period of upto 120 minutes and insulate period of up to 60 minutes. When installing the glass wall,  60mm wide SR system of pre-galvanized steel will be use as frame along with fire resistant gasket to ensure that the pressure at the edge of each glass plate is maintain. To safely install the perimeter barrier (Figure 11-13); 1. The reinforce or backing member should be installed at the safing line, 2. Mechanically attached the curtain wall insulation, 3. The compression-fit safing insulation and the safing impaling clips are installed, 4. Protected aluminium mullions are install, 5. Contain smoke by adding fire coating on top. Active Fire ProtectionFire Safety Equipment in BuildingSprinkler System The sprinkler system will follow the standard of residential fire safety system of BS 9251: 2014. In event of fire, the flames can grow from small fire rapid enough to create a major fire and damage within 30 minutes (Figure 14). By installing sprinkler system, the fire brigade will be able to tame the fire quicker and much less damage will be cost. Sprinkler system cannot put out any major fire, but it can safe life and provide more time for residents to evacuate from the buildings to a safe place. In Woodside Hall, the sprinkler heads will install along all hallways and in each room of the buildings. In larger areas like the atrium, dining hall and lecture theater, the sprinkler head will be in stall for each 45m2 area of the room. This system will use separate pipe system from the rest of the buildings. It will use copper pipe (C-PVP) due to the fact that copper can handle great amount of heat. The size of the pipes that will be use will vary from 20mm to 50mm with the water provider pipe of 60mm. Smoke Alarm System Due to the standard BS5839 Part : 2013, the smoke alarms that will be installed in Woodside Hall are the Grade D smoke alarm (Figure 16). Grade D smoke alarm will have the feature of an interconnected alarm, which means that if one alarm goes off, all other alarm will as well goes off. In every room of the building, there should be smoke alarm equipped in it. Smoke alarm will also be located along the hallway of every floor. Figure 17-20 will illustrate the rough position of where the smoke alarm will be located in the hallway of each floor. To install the alarm, it should be at least 30 cm away from the wall and other fittings on the ceiling. There are no specific distance or where the alarm should be place as long as residents can hear it clearly. When the smoke detector detects smoke, it will sound the alarm and activate the sprinkler system to control fire, residents will then start to evacuate and sound the fire brigade. Manual Call Point Type A manual call point (Figure 21) installed in Woodside Hall  will comply to the standard BS EN44-11. it will be place beside all exit doors in the buildings, and will also be place in the kitchen due to the fact that it is a high fire risk area. The manual call point should be installed at least 1.4 m high above the floor, see Figure 22. To activate it, glass should be break then pressed button as instructed  on the device. The map of where manual call point location will be shown in Figure 23-26. Fire ExtinguisherComplying to the standard BS EN54-11, two type of red signal fire extinguisher will be used in the buildings. Water spray extinguisher (Figure 27) only puts out fire which start from organic matter such as weeds, cloth, paper, and plastic, so it will be installed throughout the building. Powder extinguisher (Figure 28) puts out fire which starts from oil and fat, so it is suitable to pu it in kitchen. For further safety, fire blanket (Figure 29) will also be place in the kitchen, specifically by the stove area to cover any fire that starts while cooking. There should be one fire extinguisher installed in every 300 m2 space of the room and not to exceed 30 m walking distance to reach it (BS 5206). All fire extinguisher should be inspect every 6 months and replace annually. Figure 30-33 shows the layout of where all fire extinguisher will be place. Fire Hose Fire hose places in the building should only be used by certified person (e.g firefighter) only. The fire hose installed inside the building is to help fire brigade tame the fire quicker without having to drag heave hose from the outside. The hose is to be attached with the building’s plumbing system and should be service annually. The hose installed in Woodside Hall will comply to the standard I.S. EN 671-Part 1. The hose will be 30 m long with manual opening. It is to be use with only fire that start with organic material. Figure 33-36 shown below will show the position of where fire hose will be located in the building. Fire Escape Route The fire exit route of Woodside Hall will be the usual route residents take to enter and exit the buildings. There are 3 main exits in both building and lift will not be operating in event of fire. In event of fire, the residents will be taking the shortest route possible to evacuate the building. All residents will be reporting to the assembly point on Beeston Lane. Figure 37-40 will show the exit route of Woodside Hall. Fire Escape Route Sign The way out sign in Woodside Hall will be based on the standard (Figure 41). The sign will be place above head, hanging down from the ceiling. It will be equipped with inside light which will indicate clearly where to head for the exit. Emergency Light The emergency light system will be place along with fire escape sign. It will ensure that all residents can see the way out clearly. Light source for the emergency light system will come from the central battery source from the control room. This way, it is easy to maintain and the battery last for up to 25 years. References Type of Fire protectionHse.gov.uk. (2018). Active / passive fire protection. Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/comah/sragtech/techmeasfire.htm En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Passive fire protection. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_fire_protection.News.lifesafetyservices.com. (2018). Passive Fire Protection vs. Active Fire Protection. Available at: http://news.lifesafetyservices.com/blog/active-vs-passive-fire-protection-2 User, S. (2018). Fireproofing. Icinsulation.com. Available at: https://www.icinsulation.com/en/products/fireproofing.html?gclid=CjwKCAiA7ovTBRAQEiwAo8dPcbsD4yUFuZDYaBuB4F2yDFSGAvM6Lhfa2ex7zK1MhWX6tzEkNv5Z4RoCbY4QAvD_BwE Passive Fire Protection SystemSteelconstruction.info. (2018). Fire protecting structural steelwork. Available at: https://www.steelconstruction.info/Fire_protecting_structural_steelwork Firesafe.org.uk. (2018). Fire Doors : Firesafe.org.uk. Available at: https://www.firesafe.org.uk/fire-doors/ Asfp.org.uk. (2018). Fire Doors – Material II. online Available at: http://www.asfp.org.uk/webdocs/Tyne%20&%20Wear%20Seminar%202013/1b%20NR%20Structural%20FP.pdf Accessed 24 Jan. 2018.Ribaproductselector.com. (2018). Fore Doors – Conduite. Available at: https://www.ribaproductselector.com/Docs/6/01486/external/COL601486.pdf Anon, (2018). Available at: https://www.progressivematerials.com.au/how-do-fire-collars-work/ Fireglassuk.com. (2018). Fire Rated Glass | Fire Glass UK. Available at: http://fireglassuk.com/fire-rated/ Systems, M. (2018). Fire Rated Glass and Glazing – archtoolbox.com. archtoolbox.com. Available at: https://www.archtoolbox.com/materials-systems/doors-windows/fire-rated-glass-and-glazing.html Systems, G. (2018). Fire Resistant Curtain Wall Façades – Wrightstyle.Wrightstyle. Available at: https://www.wrightstyle.co.uk/curtain-wall-facades/fire-resistant-curtain-wall-facades/ Sesam-uae.com. (2018). Fire Resistant – Curtain Wall. Available at: http://sesam-uae.com/safetydxb/presentations/Amir-Toma-Hilti.pdf Active Fire Protection SystemAnon, (2018). Available at: https://web.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-042717-154149/unrestricted/Fire_Performance_of_a_Glass_Curtain_Wall.pdf Firesafe.org.uk. (2018). Residential Sprinklers : Firesafe.org.uk. Available at: https://www.firesafe.org.uk/residential-sprinklers/ Firesafe.org.uk. (2018). Smoke Alarms to BS 5839 part 6: 2013 : Firesafe.org.uk. Available at: https://www.firesafe.org.uk/smoke-alarms-to-bs5839-part-6-2004/ Fire and Safety Advice Centre. (2018). Smoke Alarm Legislation for Landlords explained. Available at: https://www.fireandsafetycentre.co.uk/advice-centre/smoke-alarm-legislation-for-landlords/ Thesafetycentre.co.uk. (2018). Manual Call Points | Break Glass Installation | Mounting Height & Siting : Wireless Fire Alarm Systems | Fire Extinguishers | Fire Alarms. Available at: https://www.thesafetycentre.co.uk/blog/siting_of_manual_call_points.php Firesafe.org.uk. (2018). Fire Extinguishers – Classes, Colour Coding, Rating, Location and Maintenance : Firesafe.org.uk.Available at: https://www.firesafe.org.uk/portable-fire-extinguisher-general/ Firesafe.org.uk. (2018). Types of Fire Extinguishers : Firesafe.org.uk. Available at: https://www.firesafe.org.uk/types-use-and-colours-of-portable-fire-extinguishers/ Park, C. (2018). Fire extinguishers: your legal obligations. IFSEC Global | Security and Fire News and Resources. Available at: https://www.ifsecglobal.com/fire-extinguishers-legal-obligations/Scdf.gov.sg. (2018). Code Red – Extinguisher.  Available at: https://www.scdf.gov.sg/content/scdf_internet/en/building-professionals/publications_and_circulars/fire_code_2002handbooks/_jcr_content/par/download_31/file.res/hb_v5_ch6.pdf Marsden-fire-safety.co.uk. (2018). How many fire extinguishers do I need? – Marsden Fire Safety. Available at: https://www.marsden-fire-safety.co.uk/resources/fire-extinguishers/numbers-of-fire-extinguishers Resources.fireprotec.com. (2018). Simple Answers to 5 Common Fire Extinguisher Location Questions. Available at: http://resources.fireprotec.com/common-fire-extinguisher-location-questions Surrey Fire. (2018). UK Fire Extinguisher Regulations – read our simple guide. Available at: http://surreyfire.co.uk/fire-extinguisher-regulations-uk/ Anon, (2018). 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