Toxoplasma be a reasonable strategy to reduce

 

Toxoplasma
gondii (T. gondii) is a omnipresent,
obligate intracellular protozoan parasite in humans and animals. The T.
gondii has high prevalence in throughout the world  and a third of population is infected. ( ) tachyzoites proliferate
swiftly inside a variety of nucleated cells and diffuse  all over host tissues during the acute stage
of the infection that leads to parasite forms cysts in various organs, particularly
the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle, createing chronic infection. Current
treatments are inadequate, as they only control the growth tachyzoite stage but
do not eradicate the cyst stages related with chronic infection (reviewed in Roberts et al.,
2002).

Infection
in immunocompetent individuals is commonly ignored and self-limiting disease, leads
 to a latent chronic infection. There are
several groups where the significances of infection could be mainly severe and would
be candidate are vaccinated. chronic infection in immunosuppression individuals
may result in reactivation of a latent infection Such as toxoplasmic encephalitis
in AIDS patients. T. gondii is a major cause of congenital disease with severe
Symptoms. Pregnant women are more likely to acquire the infection (Gilbert and Gras, 2003; Avelino
et al., 2004). Therefore, vaccination of women before they get to gestation
age may be a reasonable strategy to reduce or eliminate this risk. Accordingly
the improvement of vaccine that can prevent 
T. gondii infection. Numerous vaccination research against toxoplasmosis
have been exmined with stage specific antigens such as inactivated or
attenuated vaccine, viral and bacterial vectors to subunit or recombinant
protein and DNA vaccine ().
 The candidate secretory antigen contain
membrane- associated surface antigens (SAGs), rhoptry proteins (ROPs), dense
granule proteins (GRAs), micronemes proteins (MICs),apical membrane antigen 1
(AMA1) which have been estimated in animal models (). Among these antigens, SAG1 is major surface
antigen of the tachyzoite form of T. gondii, was shown to educe both cellular
and humoral immune response.() ROP2 and GRA4 proteins are main in cellular invasion, these
protein cause conservation of the parasitophorous vacuole and persist the parasite
inside host cells, and have been found in all stages of the parasite (Dlugonska, 2009; Nam, 2009).
 An apical membrane antigen 1 of T.gondii
(TgAMA1), which is a microneme protein, acting significant role in joining and
incursion of host cells 18,
and thus promoting the parasite replication 19. Consequently, because of the intricacy of
the parasite life cycle and the variability of parasite antigens a multiepitope
vaccine containing T and B cell epitopes is a new aspect and remarkable
strategy in the development of vaccine. Meanwhile It is potential and enduring cellular
and humoral immunity. With this regards, in the present study, design of
synthetic multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) containing T and B cell epitops of
SAG1, ROP2, GRA4 and AMA1 were primarily predicted by bioinformatics software.
Then a multiepitopes of  T. gondii as
well as recombinant plasmid were constructed. At the end, the immune response
were evaluated after vaccination of BALB/C mice afterward challenge with T.
gondii RH strain.

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