The Primary Purpose of this Experiment is to Determine the Percent Content of Acetic Acid in a Household Bottle of President’s Choice Vinegar. utilizing Titration Techniques. In add-on. a Secondary Purpose for this Experiment that Derives Directly from the Primary Purpose is to Derive Handss On Experience in Titration Techniques. as a Critical Tool in our Quest to Understanding the Chemical Aspect of the World around Us.
Conducting a Titration is the Procedure of Using a Balanced Chemical Equation to Determine the Volume of a Solution with an Unknown Molarity or Concentration that is Need to React with a Pre-Determined Amount of a Second Solution of a Known Molarity and Concentration. In order to Achieve a Proper Titration. nevertheless. a great trade of mensurating. readying. and preciseness was required from me ; get downing with set uping the equipment so that the Stop Cock Tip of the Test Tube located in the Elevated Clamp Handle is located about one to two centimetres above the beaker where the Color Change in the Titration Indicator. in this instance Phenolphthalein. is to be observed. I so proceeded to Pour and Measure 9. 9 milliliter of 0. 5 Sodium Hydroxide Solution. taking attention to let a few beads of the Sodium Hydroxide Solution to drip into the Beaker. in order to Guarantee a More Accurate Reading of the Volume of Solution Used Once the Experiment was Preformed.
Once the Beaker was rinsed with Distilled H2O and the Initial Volume of Sodium Hydroxide was Recorded. the Experiment proceeded by Pouring and Measuring 5 milliliter of President’s Choice Vinegar into the Beaker and Subsequently adding two beads of the Titration Indicator. Phenolphthalein to the Beaker. Now Came the Reaction Portion of the Experiment. where I took attention to Open the Stopcock with Such a Steady Flow that it would Add Merely One Drop of Sodium Hydroxide of all time Two to Three Seconds. while Simultaneously Counting and Keeping Track of How Many Drops of Sodium Hydroxide had been placed into the Beaker. Once. I observed a little colour alteration. I closed the Stopcock and Gently Swirled the Sample to Detect if the Color Change Remained. If it did non Remain. I Carefully Reopened the Stop Cock with a Steady Flow ; I fundamentally repeated this last measure until the Color Change Remained for at least 30 seconds. doing certain to accomplish a balance of non over titrating. where excessively much Na hydrated oxide has been added to accomplish the colour alteration nor under titrating. where excessively small sodium hydrated oxide had been added to the solution and the colour alteration reaction did non stay for a important sum of clip.
Finally. I Recorded the Final Volume of Sodium Hydroxide Solution and Calculated How Much Sodium Hydroxide was Utilized to Make this Reaction. I so repeated this Titration Process for Two More Tests. and Disposed of the Waste Down My Kitchen Sink. Taking attention to Clean All My Equipment and Dispose of any Additional Acids and Bases by Runing the Faucet for Three to Four Minutess after Pouring these Solutions down the Drain.
Datas Table: Measure of NaOH Needed to Neutralize 5 milliliter of President’s Choice Vinegar
Initial NaOH Reading Final NaOH ReadingVolume of NaOH Used
Trial One9. 9 mL1. 9 mL8. 0 milliliter
Trial Two9. 9 mL2. 1 mL7. 8 milliliter
Trial Three9. 8 mL1. 9 mL7. 9 milliliter
Average Volume of NaOH Used in Three Tests: 7. 9 milliliter
1. Calculate the Average Number of milliliter of NaOH Used for the Three Trials and Record. ( 8. 0 mL + 7. 8 mL + 7. 9 milliliter ) = 7. 9 milliliter of NaOH
2. Calculate the Normality of the Vinegar utilizing the Previously Given Equation. Na= ( Nb ) ( Volume B )
1 mol of NaOH= 40 g NaOH
1 mmol of NaOH= 0. 04 g NaOH
Na= ( 0. 5 mmol/mL ) * ( 7. 9 milliliter of NaOH )
5. 0 milliliter
Na= 0. 79 mmol/mL of HC2H3O2
3. Calculate the Mass of the Acetic Acid in Grams Using the Previously Given
Equation. Mass a= ( Na ) ( GMWa )
1 mol of HC2H3O2= 60 gms
1 mmol of HC2H3O2= 0. 06 gms
= ( 0. 79 mol/L ) * ( 60 g/mol ) *Molarity has the Same Value as mmol/mL and mol/L = 47. 4 g/L= Mass a Therefore. No Need for Conversion
4. Calculate the Percentage of Acetic Acid Using the Previously Given Equation. Percentage of Acetic Acid= 47. 4 g/L * 100 %
1000 grams/L =4. 74 % Percent Composition of Acetic Acid in President’s Choic Household Vinegar
A. What is the Average Percent Acetic Acid in Your Vinegar Sample? How does this Compare with the Percent Value Stated on the Vinegar Bottle Label? The Percent Composition of Acetic Acid Recorded in this Experiment for the President’s Choice of Household Vinegar was on Average 4. 74 % . which is Slightly Lower than the Amount Recorded on the Label of the Vinegar Bottle. which Stated Approximately 5. 0 % in the Ingredients Section of the Label. B. Why is it Better to Use White Vinegar Rather than Dark Vinegar for this Titration? My Educated Deduction as to Why White Vinegar was a Better Solution to utilize for this Titration instead than Dark Vinegar is Because in White Vinegar the Color Change in Phenolphthalein is More Readily Observed. which Greatly Reduces the Opportunities of Over Titrating in Comparison to Dark Vinegar. where the Color Change is Not Readily Observed. C. Write a Balanced Chemical Equation for the Neutralization of Acetic Acid with NaOH 1 HC2H3O2 ( aq ) + 1 NaOH ( aq ) ? 1 NaC2H3O2 ( aq ) + 1 H2O ( cubic decimeter ) D.
How Would Your Consequences Have Differed if the Tip of the Burette was Not Filled with Sodium Hydroxide Before the Initial Volume was Recorded? If the Burette was Not Filled with Sodium Hydroxide Before the Initial Volume was Recorded so the Volume of NaOH used during the Titration would Look to Be Greater than the Actual Amount. Since Some of the Initial Volume would Be Composed of Air. therefore Increasing the Value of the Amount of NaOH Used in the Titration and Decreasing the Validity of My Results. E. How Would Your Consequence have Differed if You Had Over Titrated ( i. e. Added NaOH Beyond the Endpoint ) ? If I had failed to accomplish a Balance in My Titration Experiment and in Actuality Over Titrated. Meaning Adding NaOH Beyond the Endpoint. so Logically the Percent Composition of Acetic Acid Would Be Greater in My Results Since Theoretically. My Consequences would Have Indicated that it Took a Larger Volume of NaOH to Neutralize the Acetic Acid in Vinegar.
F. What Happens if You Don’t Wear Goggles and Get Some NaOH in Your Eyess. Sodium Hydroxide. is a Caustic Irritant when it Comes into Contact with Live Tissue. including Moist Ocular Tissue that is Located in Your Eyess. Therefore. if any NaOH does come into Contact with Your Eyes. it is Imperative to Rinse Your Eyess with Cold Water Immediately for 15-20 Minutes. The Extent of the Damage Done to Weave in Your Eyess. is Directly Correlated to the Length of clip the NaOH is in Contact with Your Eye. Therefore. it is Strongly Suggested You Take this Matter Seriously and Seek Medical Attention. Of Course. the Most Effective Type of Safety Measures is in Fact Prevention and Wearing Goggles can Significantly Reduce Your Opportunities of Geting Sodium Hydroxide in Your Eyess. G. A 5. 0 mL Sample of Vinegar was Titrated with 7. 2 milliliter of 0. 55 M NaOH ( aq ) . If the Density of the Vinegar Solution is 1. 00 g/mL. what is the mass per centum of Acetic Acid Present?
Na= ( 0. 55 mmol/mL ) * ( 7. 2 milliliter )
5. 0 milliliter
Na= 0. 792 mmol/mL= 0. 792 mol/L
Mass a= ( 0. 792 mol/L ) * ( 60 g/mol )
= 47. 52 g/L= Mass a
Percentage of Acetic Acid= 47. 52 g/L *100 %
=4. 752 % of Acetic Acid
In Conclusion. in the latter part of the last century. Titrations have gained the Belittling Reputation of being an a Technique taught in Introductory Chemistry Courses within Universities. with small or no Practical Applications within the North American Chemical Industry. Fortunately. nil could be farther from the truth. Not merely are at that place Real Life Applications to Titration Techniques. but Titrations themselves are Utilized in Medicine. Pharmaceuticals. and Fossil Fuels and Energy Production Plants. non to advert about any Major Chemical Industry in North America. For case. Pharmacists use Titration Techniques in order to accomplish an accurate per centum composing mixture of a compound medicine which patients depend on for a broad scope of complaints ( i. e. Anti-Depressants. Allergy Medications. and Antihistamines etc. ) .
Furthermore. even Doctors apply Titrations to find the right proportion of different medical specialties in an endovenous trickle. Still Not Convinced? Look inside you home. Titrations Techniques are employed in order to accomplish a proper balance of pH. concentration of ammonium hydroxide and nitrates. every bit good as a scope of physical and chemical conditions that are critical for the endurance of your Goldfish or any other marine life kept in an fish tank. Therefore. throughout this Experiment I discovered How to Meticulously and Accurately Conduct a Titration. in order to Achieve a Balance Between Over Titrating and Under Titrating. and Produce Accurate Results of a Percent Composition of an Unknown First Solution Knowing the Molarity and Concentration of a Preset Second Solution. which I am perfectly Certain will Serve Me Well in My Future Chemical Caree