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This essay is an in-depth study about the European Union and its ‘near abroad’. In this essay I will outline the EU’s policies towards the adjoining states of former Communist Bloc which refers to eastern bloc countries of the Warsaw pact such as   Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and how successful they have been. The Soviet’s optically discerned NATO as a threat and composed their own coalition in 1955. It was called the Warsaw Pact which included the Soviet Union, Albania and Yugoslavia. The term ‘near abroad’ which is utilized by the Russian Federation to allude to the fourteen Soviet successor states other than Russia. Amid the Yeltsin time Russia needed to adapt to the crumple of Communism in 1991 and the joining of the former communist bloc and the EU, new challenges have resulted to both the EU and Eastern European nations. The collapse of the previous communism bloc and the consequent change of their political, financial and social frameworks, required a significant change in their worldwide connections. Subsequently relations with the European Union, and its broadening, were inseparably connected to the interior arrangements of progress from socialism to free enterprise. The challenges have led to a powerful urge for some of the former communist bloc countries to be distinguished by the European Union in social and political terms and to join the Western European states which was due to the unexpected disintegration of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia and the related savage inter­ethnic clashes. and the change to a market economy, and the end of the Cold War and the loss of their superpower status. This caused a national personality emergency that induced key moves in Russian remote arrangement toward what it assigns the close abroad. It was first used by Russia which referred to its relations with the other previous republics of the Soviet Union and it inferred the presence of an uncommon and unequal relationship for example Ukraine is one of Russia’s ‘new abroad’ countries.  Russia is known as the second most powerful country in the World after the United States because of their military power, they have the most power compared to the ‘new abroad’ countries. According to the Realism scholars such as Hans Morgenthau stresses that the concept of power is a fundamental principle and the core of international politics. Morgenthau has quoted ‘struggle for power’,  he argues that ‘power’ is a desire for human nature. It plays a vital role in International relations and world politics. Russia is one prime example of the concept of ‘struggle for power’, since decades they are struggling to be the world’s most powerful country but however, the United States have always taken the number one rank. Power is what every country desires and has many benefits but also it comes with a lot of implications which can lead to things such as war.    During the year of 2003 the European Union which is the most influential and important actors of regional integration, extended their borders for their neighboring countries such as the six Eastern European partner countries which are Georgia, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus. The ENP additionally incorporates the nations of the southern Mediterranean, however the partitioning line between the EU and these nations was not moved with the 2004 growth, and the issues postured by those fringes have for some time been a worry.  Southern Mediterranean nations were incorporated into the ENP to adjust the EU’s southern and eastern ”measurements”, reacting to worries of southern part and non-part states. Through the ENP, the EU works with its southern and eastern neighbors to accomplish the nearest conceivable political affiliation and the best conceivable level of economic integration. The EU and their neighboring countries have come up with endeavors to encourage the battle against the corruption and advance great administration through the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP). This allows the EU and the former communist bloc to work together for economic and political purposes which will help them improve. The EU serves as a free trade area and allows part states access to a bigger internal market. The policy allows both the EU and the accomplices to be more grounded and ready to manage inward and outside difficulties. This policy has been successful in improving the former communist countries such as allowing them to have access to a wider internal market which will benefit the countries to grow. However, this policy has some implications which prevents it from being fully successful as the European Neighborhood Policy have not succeeded in accomplishing their objectives as one of their main objectives was ‘peace’, However, there is still war between Armenia and Azerbaijan which clearly shows there is still no peace as they clash to have control Nagorno-Karabakh which is in Azerbaijan but is controlled by the Armenian majority.  This clearly shows how this policy has not been fully successful and it needs improvements such as bringing in policies which can benefit the EU and also the neighboring countries. For example, taking the war between Armenia and Azerbaijan into consideration the EU can bring a policy which will allow both of the countries to come together in peace and solidarity by allowing them to make a fair decision and both the countries being able to have equal control on Nagorno-Karabakh.  The large development gap between the EU and the ENP states can prevents the EU to meet their objectives to help the ENP states to improve more difficult. The EU hasn’t been fully successful with adjoining some of the former communist bloc countries to the EU. One of the countries were Yugoslavia which went through major crisis during the 1990, this was the disintegration of the state. It consisted of six states which were Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. Serbia had two self-governing territories which were Kosovo and Vojvodina. By the year of 1922 Yugoslavia was collapsing as the rise of nationalism led to the fall of communism in the Balkans. During June 1991 Slovenia and Croatia decided to break away from Yugoslavia which led to conflict with Serbia. Many people were killed in Croatia and a similar situation occurred during the period of 1992 when Bosnia broke free from Yugoslavia which angered the Serbians as they wanted to remain a part of Yugoslavia. During this process many people were killed in this brutality.  During the referendum in Slovenia the approach of the EU was normal in a way that disregarded the likelihood for potential issues, in spite of the presence of numerous signs for a conceivable calamity. It underlined that this applies just to the strategy of the EU on the grounds that on the off chance that we could guarantee the same for the singular European forces it would be naive. As per a few meanings of remote approach, indeed, even the choice not to anything is as yet an outside policy. Overlooking the Yugoslav issue was a choice and a typical position in the remote arrangement of the EU. After the referendum of Slovenia, the EU altered the course of the issue to remote arrangement from inactive to active.  The EU policies were not successful during the Yugoslavia crisis as many people died in the process and the EU took the matter lightly which led to conflict still continuing and many people being killed during the crisis. EU claims to be ‘helpful’, however, during this crisis they were unsuccessful dealing with the crisis. During the period of the crisis the EU could have took a better approach to dealing with the situation and could have created a peaceful environment as the EU is powerful and has powerful allies such as the United States.   Karl Marx also known as ‘the father of Communism’ wrote the Communism Manifesto during the year of 1848, this became an inspiration for the Communist Party. Marxism is a belief system of monetary uniformity through the disposal of private property. The convictions of Marxism focus on the possibility that imbalance and experiencing result free enterprise. Under free enterprise, private businessmen and companies claim every one of the processing plants, gear and different assets called “the methods for creation.” These proprietors, as indicated by comrade convention, would then be able to misuse specialists, who are constrained offer their work for compensation. Marxists such as Ernest Mendel (late capitalism) view the processes after the Second World War as leading to an inevitable crisis in the orthodoxy of capitalist markets. Thus, further he predicted that inequality particularly economic inequality would lead to greater instability.  In 2006 the European Commission set out an extensive new approach to European Union trade policy urgencies allowed Global Europe. In a globalized economy, in which Europe sells their goods and gets goods in return from their suppliers. The European Union trade policy allows the EU and their Neighboring countries to trade and export their goods through Europe and the other continents. This policy has been successful towards adjoining former Communist bloc countries. As it allows them to improve the stability of their economies. Trade allows those countries to have a lot of money coming in which allows them to improve the growth of their countries. This helps to create opportunities and jobs which benefits not only the citizens but the governments. The trade policy allows fairness while the different states trade their goods and will prevent any corruption or illegal factors. Trade is a major development tool which is used by the EU and the partner states which allows different countries to connect and also promote their values to another state. However, the EU trade policy has some implications, which is exporting drugs and illegal weapons through Europe and their adjoining states. Which can lead to many negative factors from occurring such as terrorism.  The former communist bloc countries can be impacted by this implication as many people misuse trading to undertake illegal activities.  The policy is successful as it allows former communist bloc countries to also trade their goods with other countries around the world to improve their economic growth. Which will not only benefit them but the EU will also be benefited. Migration policies are highly multifaceted; it can also change in different countries throughout the globe. European states have all decided for the development of the lawful migration, which is to well manage and also the improvement of integration actions for migrants and their relatives. They also have to cooperate with the countries that the migrants have come from.  Since the 1999 the European Union have been progressing on their common immigration policy. All the EU states have approved that the EU should have rules and regulations on immigration and visa for the 27 states.  They have common rules, EU-wide rules, immigration and visa rules that are valid across the EU. These rules are set in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union 2009. One of the rules is Entry and residence condition for migrants, so that all migrants that enter the EU countries will have to enter with certain conditions, which is set by the EU.  These rules are effective for the EU, as they will allow the flow of migration within the EU to be more stable and also allow the security to the migrants who are entering the EU. The National Immigration rule allows all the EU countries to decide on how many migrants they will take for the purpose of work.  The EU Migration policies have been successful in adjoining the EU and the former communist bloc countries by allowing many refugees to enter EU countries for the purpose of a better life.  According to the Migration Policy Centre the former communist bloc state Armenia have took 200,000 refugees from Azerbaijan due to the Nagorno-Karabakh war during 1988 and 1992. Many refugees fled their countries mainly because of war and conflicts. For example, the conflict in Syria the civil war has caused millions of deaths.  The government and a rebel group are fighting against each other. Countries such as the USA and the UK are getting involved by sending air strikes, which is causing more destruction. Many people have fled to the EU countries and their Neighboring states. This shows that the EU Migration policies have been highly successful towards the adjoining of the former Communist states. The Migration policies allows both the EU and their Neighboring countries to improve their border control which will also help these countries to prevent terrorism and other factors. According to Scholars such as James Frank Hollifield, he wrote a book which is called ‘Immigrants, Markets and States:  The Political Economy of Post-War Europe’, in this book he has wrote about Switzerland and many other countries and the benefit of immigration but also the negativity of it. He has written ” Foreign workers contributed significantly to Swiss economic growth by helping employers avoid labor shortages while keeping wages in check.” He clearly expresses that migrants allow the economic growth in countries such as Switzerland as they prevent labor shortages while also being paid fairly, usually employers want labor migrants as they pay them low compared to the citizens of the country. It is a benefit for the business but also a benefit for the country as it allows economic growth. This clearly shows how Migration Policies can benefit the EU and also for their Neighboring countries as it leads to stability of their economy.  However, the Migration policy is more beneficial for the EU compared to their Neighboring countries which include some of the communist bloc countries as they are creating diversity throughout Europe but not in the Neighboring countries as many refugees are fleeing to the EU.  In order for the EU to manage their migration policy efficiently and allow the growth in the EU and their Neighboring countries, they need to work together with the Neighboring countries that the migrants have come from and also the countries that the migrants pass through to get into the EU. This approach allows them to balance the three important Migration policy goals effectively.  Which are encouraging movement and permitted migration to the EU; this goal also allows development in the migrant’s home countries by improving the living standards. The Second goal is safeguarding intelligible policy making within the EU so that the global method to migration is fully integrated into all EU creativities outside the Union, which includes the growth of aid work and also foreign relations.  The third goal is to promote legal migration whilst avoiding irregular migration.  These Migration Policy goals are highly effective, as they will help to improve the flow of migration within the EU and also the Neighboring countries which will lead to economic growth. Russia also known as the Soviet Union is the largest Neighboring country of the European Union. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the relationship between Russian and the EU has been improving drastically.  Russia wanted to improve their relationship with the EU for economic growth. They believe that the EU will help them improve economically. However, the crisis between Ukraine and Russian have changed the security condition in Europe. Not exclusively did these occasions demonstrate that the European Union’s strategy towards Eastern Europe must be updated, yet they likewise demonstrated that numerous times of common endeavors to assemble trust, straightforwardness and serene space amongst Russia and the EU had fizzled. In spite of the fact that it is troublesome for a few government officials to concede, the European security framework, which was viewed as a standout amongst the most stable ones, has slammed.  The occasions, which occurred just past the Eastern outskirt of the EU, were unforeseen. In any case, there ought to have been no stun. The European Union had disregarded some essential activities made by the Russian government before the Russian-Ukrainian emergency rose. The war has been a major threat for the European Union.   The Ukrainian emergency has not just allowed Central and Eastern European worries but however, has brought additionally new difficulties and predicaments. A standout amongst the most imperative of these was the fate of the EU’s banner task:  Eastern Partnership. The way that Ukraine was relying on the EU was self-evident. In any case, not just this nation was precisely watching the European Union’s activities. The EU reaction to the emergency, and its conduct towards Russia, were critical for different nations occupied with the Eastern Partnership venture. The basic outside arrangement of the EU stays being developed. The specific interests of its individuals assume a pivotal part in outer undertakings, and the assessments about the means which ought to be taken as a reaction to Russian mediation vary starting with one nation then onto the next. This crisis can affect the EU and its Neighboring countries such as they rely on Russia for supplies.  An implication of this is that Russia will stop the provisions coming through Ukraine in view of the issues between them makes dangers for European buyers. Hence, In the coming years, the EU and their neighboring countries will most likely be compelled to find different providers or manufacturers.  The EU will have to work together with the former communist countries and come up with some solutions to stop the war and create peace between the countries or the situation can become worse. Which will not only affect the economic growth of the EU but also their Neighboring countries will be affected. The main reason of the Eastern Partnership and also the Neighboring policy was for EU to improve economically, environmentally and politically.  In my conclusion, there were many factors relating to the success of how the different European Union Policies has been a useful tool in adjoining the former Communist bloc countries such as Ukraine, Yugoslavia, Russia (Soviet Union) and other. Many EU policies have not only been beneficial for the former Communist bloc states but also the EU states as they allowed these countries to improve their growth and improve their financial stability. Moreover, these policies are not always successful. For example, the Immigration policy can lead to overpopulation, job shortages, terrorism and other. Many people disguise themselves as refugees to enter different countries to undertake terrorist activities which will affect the economy of the state negatively. For example, in Germany a Syrian refugee undertook a terrorist activity in 2016 which killed 12 innocent civilians. There are many more cases which is similar to this. This is a major threat of the Immigration policy as many people take advantage of this policy for their own benefits.  The security policy is important as it is used by the EU and the ENP states to improve the security of their countries in order to prevent any security threats from occurring and allowing the citizens of the states to feel secure. This policy helps the ENP and the EU to make decisions regarding their security and also is in place if any of the states have any security threats the other states will come to help them. This policy allows former communist bloc countries which allows them to seek help from the EU if they are under any security threats. Overall, this essay was based on the past and present effects of the EU policies in the former Communist bloc and how successful it was. From my perspective the EU policies were highly successful towards the adjoining of the former Communist bloc states as it allowed not only them to improve but also helped the EU to improve. It has brought more peace and stability in the EU and the Neighboring countries compared to before. However, it has some implications which can help to improve the policies and make it even-more successful.  


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