This chapter includes basic
background knowledge of research explaining the key elements of information
which is the foundation for the study. The inclusion of reasons for conducting
this research are discussed and a methodology write up as an introductory part
of study is included and also incorporates a brief summary of limitations that
came across in this research and a list of definitions for key word also
Marriage refers as a “Mithaq” means
a solemn covenant between a wife and a husband and this agreement would be in
writing. In Islam and the Quran marriage is a contract. Since an agreement
can only be reach in between two parties if they give free consent and such
statement make clear that such a contract cannot be relate to children The
Universal Declaration of Human Rights declares that both these individuals must
take this decision with a consent at legitimate age .Marriage is a
pleasurable bond, a promise to live, matrimony of love and respect in between
two souls .The aim of living a satisfying life gets ruined and however the
way life thought to live doesn’t exist now and this all becomes reality
when a child both a girl and boy forcibly subjected to do early marriage as
UNICEF defined early marriage as Child Marriage if a marriage is practicing
before the age of 18.UNICEF define early marriage that occur before the age of
18 years or Early marriages are defined as marriages under the
age of eighteen. In a condition that an individual to be able to make own self
think includes abstract thought process, take decisions and to let live life by
taking responsibilities ,individual should require to have certain level of
mental and spiritual maturity which is physiologically equal to period which
will continues till the age of eighteen .Marriage is encountered as a
moment of celebration or a milestone in individual’s life but early marriages
give no such reason for celebration and ,a term child marriage
is used to define as marriage or union that take place before 18
years of age, endangers the life trajectories of young girls in many ways,
United Nation Children’s Fund (UNICEF) reported that up to 3% of girls
before the age of 15 get married in Pakistan and 21% are married before turn to
18 . These are the current statistics of the Pakistan Demographics and Health
Survey done in 2012-1013.Child Marriage are forced marriage as one or both the
partners without giving consent or marry without giving right to refuse.1956
Supplementary Slavery Convention called Child Marriage as Child slavery.
Supplementary Slavery Convention recognize the following actions relating to
females in context to marriage related to slavery and all have been reported in
Child Marriage. The decision taking to promise or giving a female without
giving her an authority to say no by her spouse or parents or in consideration
with some financial incentives or in case of widow inheritance or associated
that female with some values. The Law of child protection (3rd July
2005) said that, a child is a person who didn’t turn eighteen or even if
he/she reached stage. UNICEF reported that woman aged 20 to 24 who were married
before they were 18 year. A boy and a girl both victimized but girls get
affected most as it takes away their emotional, physical and mental wellbeing
and limits their childhood and decision making ability and mobility.
Marriages is a serious violation of young girls human rights deeply rooted in
Pakistani culture, customs and traditional practices.
Spite of being illegal by international law, this practice continues and
strongly entrenched in sociocultural norms and continue to rob young girl’s
childhood. Millions of girls depriving from their basic rights to health, to
educate and to empower. Child Marriages denies young girl’s rights to make
decisions for their health and wellbeing.
framework is needed that would facilitate better to advocates and understand
policies and laws that perpetuate Child Marriages.
Pakistan Child Marriages incident rates are unknown because of the complexity
of this issues and it may often shrouded at provincial level in a wall of
Marriage is a global issue that occur across countries, religions, ethnicities
and cultures. Young girls victimized in every region throughout the world.
Child Marriages not reduced, around the world, cruel number of women who
married as child will increase by 1.2 billion by 2050.In developing countries
one in three girls get to married before the age of 18.today more than 700
million women were married as Child.
The main objective for doing this research
was to explore the immense long existed rationales of Child Marriage practicing
in Pakistan. It analyze various religious, social, cultural, traditional,
behavioral, economic and political aspects.
determine the prevalence and embedded trends of Child Marriage.
determine the causes exhibiting Child Marriage.
determine and comment on the implication and consequences related to Child
Very little research has been done on Child
marriage prevailing causes and implication in Pakistan. This lack of research
creating a knowledge gap that directly affects the work of governmental
authorities and policy makers. With this present analysis will enable
experts to necessitate to have more understanding of Child Marriage drivers
across the globe.
In December 2013 World Health
Organization arranged meeting of group of experts in alliance with Girls not
Bride and UNICEF to identify areas for research and addresses knowledge gap
areas. Participants discussed them in relation to following areas
and intra country dissimilarity in child marriage trends and prevalence: It’s a
globalize issue with varying rates within and among different countries.
Researchers reported to explore specific segmented analysis in order to address
diversity relating to Ethnicity, Geography, socio-economic and educational
Marriage consequences: As it is associated with early pregnancies (births to
adolescent’s incidence are around 90% globally in context to child marriage)
and child marriage evidence based impact on neonatal, child health and
reproductive is expanding. Low level of understanding raising the consequences
of domestic violence and mental health issues contributing developmental, gender
and social equity outcomes
to Prevent Child Marriage in Effective Way: In 2011 ICRW done with systematic
review of intervention give evidences that how this dilemma should we deal with
but limited evaluations found with small number of countries but experts need
to have some more attention to rethink how to react to many different drivers
of this offensive act and scale more effective program to deal with
There is no rigorous data available in
Pakistan to make an estimate on number of child marriages as very few cases
reported to police and governmental authorities does not menace this act
To identify the gaps
associated with Child Marriages incidences and to propose a framework what we
should need to do to fill this gap is required.
To highlight the
contributing factors related to government, society, culture, socioeconomic
status and education and propose a framework as an action plan to overcome with
it, so that government and regulatory bodies reframe laws
and make policies that will help to restructured this problem.
The research will be done in slums of
Definitions of key words using in this
research are as follows,
Poverty: It depends on your access to social
services and on income level. In 1995 United Nation World Summit For Social
Development define poverty is a state designated by rigorous deprivation of an
individual basic human needs such as Health, education, food, shelter, safe
drinking water, sanitation facilities. The World Bank describe an individual
living on less than with US$ 1.90 per day and defines moderate poverty with
less than US$ 3.10 per day.
Child Marriages: In 2009 UNICEF define early
marriage that occur before the age of 18 years
It can be defined as a future action or
reasoning evolved with Child Marriages while making any logical judgment that
can be the basis for circumstantial evidence.
Social Class: Homogenous group of
individuals living in a society practicing common social values having
similar life interest with enjoying equal position of respect in a society
which is being constructed on conceptual structures education, occupation,
income and place of residence .social class can be categorized in Pakistan as
Upper Class, Middle Class and Lower Class based on income levels.
For income level of Rs 4,000 and less than
25,000were categorized as lower class.
For income level of Rs 25,000 to 65,000 less
per month were categorized as middle class.
For income level of Rs 65,000 to 250,000 per
month were categorized as Upper class.
Family Honor: The stigma
and family distress attached with parents and spouse to premarital sex and
child bearing before marriage
Social pressure: Define as
if a girls left unmarried by the age 15 villagers, neighbors and family naive
start making doubt her chastity and health well-being .
Haq Mehr: It is defined as the amount of
money which the wife is entitled for by her husband in Islam.