This 15 min a day had a

This chapter will provide an overview on
the conducted study. General topics of the background of study, statement of
problem, research question, research objective, hypothesis, significance of study,
delimitation, limitation, definition of terms and research framework.


1.2       BACKGROUND

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Everyday people are doing the physical
activity whether they are consciously doing or unconscious. According to Carl
(2012) physical activity is any activity that we do in order to keep our physical
fit as well as our health. It can include, everyday activities, for example,
running or cycling to work or school, doing housework, gardening, or any active
or manual work that you may do as part of our daily routine.

According to Carl (2012) physical activity
can be classified in variety of ways. It can be included on our daily routine activities
such as minimal movement that we doing unconsciously during sleep also can be
as physical activities.  Some research
showed that, doing physical activities have their own good impact on our
health.  According to Wen (2011) when compared
with individuals in the inactive group, those in the low-volume activity group,
who exercised for an average of 92 min per week or 15 min a day had a 14%
reduced risk of all-cause mortality, and had a 3 year longer life expectancy.
Every additional 15 min of daily exercise beyond the minimum amount of 15 min a
day further reduced all-cause mortality by 4% and all-cancer mortality by 1%.
These benefit were applicable to all age groups and both sexes, and to those
with cardiovascular disease risks. Individuals who were inactive had a 17%
increased risk of mortality compared with individuals in the low-volume group.
Physical activity that people commonly do are, running, swimming, playing
football and cycling.


Running is one of the best exercise that
people do to maintain their health nowadays. In other study showed that those
who are practice running on daily life will had a 3.2 years longer life
expectancy, compared with those who are not running. (Kim,2011). It is assumed that the ancestor
of mankind creates the ability to run for long distances about 2.6 million
years ago, probably in order to hunt animals. By time passed by, this running
activity are evolved and develop, people make running as a part of competitive
religious festivals in various areas. (Kim, 2011). But, nowadays, running activities become more developed,
people used jogging and running to maintain their fitness as well as their
health during their free time or become part of their life to be a professional
athlete. According to Yeoman (2012), in order to promote healthy lifestyle,
some organizer organize running event and put a valuable prize to encourage
people participate in the activities.







Many research had been done regarding the physical
activity, which gaining popularity among peoples, for example, the study of
participation, constraint, impacts, and benefits of physical activity globally Rasciute,
S., & Downward, P. (2010), Mullahy, J., & Robert, S. A. (2010), Fox, C. K., Barr?Anderson, D.,
Neumark?Sztainer, D., & Wall, M. (2010).

However, only a few research has been
conducted on the determinant factors of leisure time physical activity (running
activity specifically) participation among Malaysian people. Some social
research towards public people had been done globally, the physical activity participation
of public people had always give an attention to the negative perception who
spend their leisure time watching television or socialising, (Chu, A. H., &
Moy, F. M ,2013). Based on the article that was published by Utusan Online on
12th August 2007, Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a killer no. 1 in
Malaysia. This is not surprising because 25 percent of our population is
classified as obese – three million have high cholesterol levels, 2.1 million
have diabetes and 10,000 cases of stroke are recorded annually. Inadequate
physical activity is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. In
comparison, the risk of coronary heart disease associated with the absence of
physical activity ranges from 1.5 to 2.4, an increased risk comparable to high
cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and smoking. According to the WHO
report in 2002, approximately 60% of the world population are not sufficiently
active (Newall,2013). One of the fact that get 85% of the Americans do not
participate in regular physical activity or the exercise and they have their
own reason for example such as limited enjoyment, competence, body-related
factors, lack of motivation and other reasons an (Brudzynski,2010). Therefore,
who have low socio-economic status with high number of immigrants are at
increased risk for developing obesity, (Durand,2011).

Due to current situation, researcher will
conduct a study that focused on motivation for participation in the physical
activity focus in running events among Malaysian and will compare motivation
factors between genders towards participation in running events.


1.4       RESEARCH


The following research question were
formulated in this study to determine the factors that motivate the involvement
in the running activity:

1.      What are the factors that motivate student
of sport science and recreation to involve in running activity?

2.      Are there any differences in motivational
factors for running activity participation with different gender?






1.      To identify the motivation factors that
motivate student of sport science and recreation to involve in running activity

2.      To compare the differences in intellectual factors
for running activity participation with different gender.

3.      To compare the differences in
competency/mastery factors for running activity participation with different

4.      To compare the differences in social
factors for running activity participation with different gender.

5.      To compare the differences in
stimulus/avoidance factors for running activity participation with different


1.6       HYPOTHESIS

Based on research objective, the hypothesis

Ho: there is no significance difference in intellectual
factors to participate in running activity

Ho: there is significance difference in
competency/mastery factors to participate in running


Ho: there is significance difference in
social factors to participate in running activity.

Ho: there is significance difference in
stimulus/avoidance factors to participate in running activity.








The significance of study is:

The purpose of this study is to provide
knowledge on motivation for participation in running activity among Malaysian.
Besides that, this information can assist running activity towards encouraging
public to involving in recreational activities especially running activity.
Lastly, this study was conducted to check the validity of the study




The researcher only focus on participants
of running events in Malaysia.  Furthermore,
the study is based on running activity, so the respondent should be taken from running
event who usually involve in running activity. Respondent age will be 18 years
old and above because normally at this age there are matured enough to think
and make their wise decision making.






The emotional of respondent can’t be
controlled, they might answer the questionnaire with dishonest and it can give
effect to the data. In addition, some of the questionnaire are not return back
to the researcher, and it give difficulties to the researcher to collect data.






1.10.1 Physical activity

The term ‘physical activity’ describe many
form of movement, including activity that involved large skeletal muscle and
required substantial energy expenditure. (Caspersen,1985)


1.10.2 Motivation

Motivation as the degree of determine,
drive or desire with which an individual approaches or avoids behaviour




1.10.3 Running activity

Running activity involving those who
participate in running program or event whether it is for the sake of
competition or charity. 


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