There is an increase amount of women working outside to sustain their
economically and socially nowadays. However when gender discrimination exists
in the workplace can be problematic for women in working experiences. The aim of this study is to
examine the relational factors which include education level, organization
culture and structure, family consideration, work-life imbalance and glass
ceiling effect on Malaysian public relations practitioners. In this chapter,
the areas that will be discuss are the research background, research problem, research
objectives, research questions, research significance and definition of term.
to the U.S. News and World Report, public relations is the best job that fall
into third ranking of Best Creative and Media Jobs 2016 list. There are about
70% of women make up the public relations workforce but only 30% of them are
holding top position in public relations industry (Hart 2016). Besides that,
there are 45% of Malaysian women also feel that glass ceiling still exists in
an organization. There are many researches have conducted to differentiate on
how gender shifts in public relations that can affect the professional. Public
relations may have shift from men to women dominant professional yet there are
still less than 20% of women comprise in upper management (Boucher
are influx into public relations industry in 1900s which for women take the
risk to overstep the occupational such as teaching and nursing that consider as
“feminine” fields yet based on Grunig,
Toth, & Hon (2001) state that problems of dwindling status and salary
become pervasive in any field that shifts from male to female domination (cited
by Manickam, Tan and Ayub 2016, p.232).
More than half of
the population of Malaysia is constitute by women and in terms of purchasing
power they are also the largest group from world. Besides that, there are 70%
of women make the household purchasing decisions (Branson, 2012). Therefore,
encourage women to enter into the workforce and hold a high position is
important because women need to enhance the competitiveness in market.
The companies of
Malaysia do not provide any programs to attract more women to stay in the
workplace, so that this is one of the reasons Malaysia have low participant
rate for women (The Malaysian Reserve 2013). Based on the statistic study,
there are 19.2% of women works as clerk and 21% as service worker (cited by Ng
2012). All of the jobs are very low skill and without development space.
Furthermore women also receive low paid salary every month even in the field
that dominant by women. As a conclusion it is very important to study about the
managerial role between men and women in public relations industry that have
more women than men.
To find out the challenges of men and women to get into
managerial role in public relations industry.
To find out the chance for women get involve in top
management is lower or higher compare to men.
To investigate whether the problem of glass ceiling is
still happen in an organization nowadays.
To find out the income level of
public relations practitioners between men and women.
What is the problem and obstacles that public relations
practitioners faced in public relations industry?
What is the stereotype of women faced when they get
involve in top management?
How does the problem of glass ceiling will affect to women
in public relations industry?
Are the income level of public relations practitioners will
be different by gender?
results will identify glass ceiling in public relations industry affect to
professional and provide the valuable insights to an organization for them to
understand the barrier that face by women in their career life and they always
fight for the chances of getting promoted and retain women in public relations
industry. Besides that glass ceiling problem is not only happen in global but
also in Malaysia. The issue of glass ceiling also not only occur in public
relations industry. Therefore the researcher think that this research is very
useful for those organization that facing problem of glass ceiling because
public relations industry is dominated by women but women are hardly get
involve into the managerial role because of the gender discrimination by the
to Bravo et.al (2008), public relations is defined as the management functions that
help an organization to build up and maintain the mutually beneficial
relationships between the public, stakeholders and employees. In addition of
public relations progress the profession through continued professional
development, research, and education. They build relationship, mutual
understanding and increase credibility among an organization and their audience
(Seitel 2011). Besides that, public relations is the agent working with both
modern media of communication and group formation society in order to provide
ideas to the public consciousness. (Judy 2014). In other way to say that the
purpose of public relations is to impress the audience and to embark them in the
certain belief and actions (Elit 2015).
The public relations of this topic are referring to
the role of public relations. It is important to understand that the function
of public relations in an organization. It is important to know whether or not
the public relations is taking their responsible to the society.
If in a sport team management
also is one of the demands of the players but unfortunately the ‘team captain’
as managers and executives very difficult to know that the managerial jobs are
same and still different through organizational standard and functions. The
misunderstanding between the management will make them very hard to appreciate
each other on work and coordinate their work. However for the management that
can understand the similar and different of managerial jobs then they will gain
advantages and make their work more effectively (Kraut, Pedigo, McKenna and
Dunnette 2011, p.286).
The managerial role of this topic refers to the
expert prescriber, process facilitator and communication facilitator. It is
very important to define the term for the future researcher to understand that
public relations actually have been dividing into 2 types which are managerial
role and technician role. Then break down the managerial role into 3 subtypes.