The woods considers the rarest type of

The essence of intrapersonal communication is and I quote from (Wood, 2008) ” … a communication within ourselves, or self talk.” (p.13) And it is also “…a cognitive process that goes on inside us.” (p.13) and it is also a type of communication that deals with the conversation between people.According to Wood (2009) the definition of Interpersonal communication is: …a communication that happens between 2-3 people in a personal level. (p.19) It is a selective, systemic, unique, processual (is an ongoing process) transactions that allow people to reflect and build personal knowledge of one another and create shared meanings. (p.21)There are also three characteristics of interpersonal communication. First is the most impersonal way of communicating and that is the I-It communication which is when you view the other person as a “tool” or an object and talk with them in an impersonal manner. For example, the conversation between you and a waiter/ress wherein the waiter or waitress would ask you for your order and you would only reply with the items that you want to order and a note of gratitude such as thank you. The second would be the I-You communication which is when you acknowledge the person that you are talking with and identify them as individuals playing their role in society by addressing them with the diction “you”. An example would be a conversation that you and your classmate (the one that you are not that familiar with) have, you would ask the person “Do we have homework tomorrow?” and your classmate will answer “Yes we have two papers due tomorrow actually, I think I might faint with the workload.” And you two would laugh and joke around about it but do not engage in conversation about personal things, such as what you are going to do on the weekends.  The third would be the I-Thou communication in which Julia woods considers the rarest type of interpersonal communication. This is because you would see acknowledge the other person as a unique individual that you can entirely be truthful and open with and trust them to receive us as who we are. This can happen in a situation where you are with your family or beloved partner.  Wood (2011) has said that a group consists of “…three or more people who interact over time, depend on one another, and follow shared rules of conduct to reach a common goal.” (p. 230). Group communication is divided into two. The first being in the primary group such as social groups and the second being the secondary group, such as committees or task groups. Wood (2011) have stated that the conversation in a task group has the following characteristic of “…existing to solve problems, develop policies, or achieve other substantive goals.” (p.230) whereas the characteristics of a social group tends to be relaxed, informal and more focused on the interpersonal climate than on task (as cited in Wood, 2011, p. 229).  Firstly, the meaning of organization is “… the result of the process of organizing; dynamic system in which individuals engage in collective efforts for goal accomplishment (Zalabak, 2015:16). There are two characteristics of communication in organizations. First is horizontal communication which is communication to the people that has the same status as you. Second is vertical communication which is the communication that you have that has a higher/lower organizational status than you. Keeping in mind that both of these are communication both ways (Prasetya, 3 November 2017, Personal Notes: Communication in Organisations). The basic meaning of public communication is “The dissemination of information occurs from one person to many others such as the audience.” (Prasetya, 10 November 2017, Personal Notes: Public Communication). This type of communication has three primary characteristics which are to inform, to entertain and to persuade.  Intercultural communication is a communication that occurs between individuals from different cultures and to an extent, nearly every conversation is an intercultural communication because everyone has a different cultural background (Prasetya, 17 November 2017, Personal Notes: Communication, Culture & Society).2a. According to Spencer culture is “A system that consist of ideas, values, beliefs, custom habits and language that is continued from generation to generation (with its changes and growth).” (Spencer,1982 in Wood, 2014:157) whereas according to Taylor (1871) in Ruben, Stewart and Householder the meaning of culture is “A concept about science, beliefs, art, moral lessons, law, customs and every integrated and complex integrated abilities and habits, which is shared by members of a society.” But Koentjaraningrat has said otherwise. According to him culture is “A system of ideas, actions, and the masterpiece of human beings in the context of the lives of the society that is engraved in them by learning.” (Koentjaraningrat, 2012)2b.  The relationship between culture and communication is of the following:        The following sentence is an agreement/convention on which communication is based that is found within a culture. Culture is created, shared, maintained and change through communication. In addition to that, every conversation (to an extent) that we have both verbal and non-verbal is influenced by their own culture. This create intercultural communication, which is hard to do, because nowadays there is a big difference between cultures resulting in more cultural barriers that we need to overcome.  (Prasetya, 17 November 2017, Personal Notes: Communication, Culture & Society)2c. The best attitudes that we should use to respond and face cultural differences in communicating is of the following. Firstly, do not be naive and base your conversations on stereotypes. An example of this would be that, in culture X there is two ways of conversing, it depends on whether you live on the west side or the east side. One way is considered using the coarse version of the language from culture X, but the west considers this version to be normal and polite whilst on the east side of culture X they have -what is considered- the softer version of culture X. For people that only know one version of the language of culture X, they would quickly draw a conclusion and impression of the said person. To furtherly explain, there is person A who is not from culture X and only know the coarse, met person B who is from culture X that coincidently also speaks the coarse version. Person A knowing that the background culture of person B is harsh, will automatically assume that if person B is speaking they do not mean any harm it is just their way of speaking. This is not being understanding this can be seen as being naive because you should also see the personality of person B before judging if that person is really being nice to you or not. This can be seen as a contradict to another attitude that I want to point out which is avoiding negative judgement towards cultural differences, and avoid saying negative comments towards each other’s culture as this also reflect the type of person you are and your true personality. Another point would be study about cultural differences as an anticipatory action to reduce the chances of culture shock. An example we can take is from my own personal experience, I had a newly transferred Indian classmate back in fourth grade of primary school. At first, I was confused as to why when he agreed on something he would shook his head left to right instead of up and down, but then I realized after studying his behaviour that in the Indian culture shaking your head from left to right means yes. Hence in this way we can avoid ignorance. From this example alone, we can also pull another point which is, instead of changing a part of the other person’s identity we can both adapt towards both cultures and try to understand before judging rashly. 3a. According to the online Collins Dictionary the meaning of technology “…refers to methods, systems, and devices which are a result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes.”  But on the contrary Marshall McLuhan (1964/1994) has said that technology is everything that extends man. In addition to that, firstly, the growth of technology cannot be stopped and it ahs a deterministic characteristic in human’s lives, first and foremost the way that it shapes a new culture. Secondly, technology has a counter and recounter, an example of this would be how when there is a virus we would create an antibiotic but this antibiotic is also a form virus, and within time, when the antibiotic is not strong enough, they would make a new antibiotic that would recounter the first antibiotic and this is a never ending process (Prasetya, 28 November 2017, Personal Notes: Technology, Society, Communication)3b and c. Technology for communications has a unique point that no other technology has and that is of the following. Firstly, what communication technology can do and no other technology can do is to link so many people towards each other whilst letting them interact and also while make great impact on the lifestyle and lives in general of the society. An example of this would be the cellphone app called Instagram which is a part of technology that is made for communications. Instagram has made a new need for people, what I mean by this is that a person now needs to show people what they are eating for lunch or dinner (example). Another example would be facebook and twitter, these social media has created a positive and also a negative. The positive being that it makes people want to interact with one and another more, whilst also wanting to know what is going on in each other’s lives. In addition to that facebook has also created another positive culture which is online shopping. In my opinion online shopping can be called as a new culture because in doing that people adjust to a new common behaviour and action, a common type of language as well as creating a new lifestyle for the society. In addition to that by using facebook and twitter word travels faster which can be both a positive and a negative thing.  But on the other hand, it has created a new form of bullying and slander, that is called, online bullying. In my opinion this type of bullying is worse because, as I said before, words spread faster hence the bullying can be more widespread.  

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