The function of work in society is important
issue of discussion in the last few years. The essence of work is changing quickly and we
should consider ourselves developers of new era. Moreover, some believes the
word job has become ancient. (Bridges, 1994; Arthur and Rousseau, 1996),
Furthermore, job certainty has decreased and unqualified worker has increase in
the work force (Ritzer, 1998; Levin et al., 1990). Some commentators even believe
that work vanishing or a major portion of the population (Rifkin, 1995;
Aronowitz and Cutler, 1998). Some believes that America is producing highly
skilled workers of different professions (Handy, 1989; Barley, 1996; Pink,
1998). Some debates that most of the claims are exaggerated, these people
believe that the change in the nature of work is happening at a slow rate and
society is adapting to the change is geographic concentration, technology and
employment operation (Farber, 1995). The demand for labor is derived demand as they are needed to
produce goods and services, so to understand the changing nature of work one
has to start with the way product market have been changing. Globalization and
free trade has increase competition thus, causing changes in the form of
reduction on prices and therefore on labor and other production costs and
increased pressure to compete in tasks quickly, innovation, variety.
(Cappelli et. al., 1997). Deregulation in service
industries has cause barrier to entry to decrease as a result number of new
entrants are increasing as a result cost of structures has decreased as
outdated technology have no sunk cost. Moreover, utilize work system and
employment contracts rely on nonstandard employment arrangements that causes
risk with market uncertainty from the firm to workforce (Belzer, 1994; Keefe
and Batt, 1997; Lipsky and Donn, 1987).
In addition to the
increase in price completion, markets now need to increase their resources and
increase the rate of development and innovate new products. Moreover, they need
to produce different varieties of product. ProdBottom of Formuct cycle times have
declined significantly in recent years (Fine, 1998), and batch production has
risen. U.S. firms due to experimenting with a wide variety of new forms of work
organization (e.g., Appelbaum and Batt, 1994; Cappelli et al., 1997).
have paid less attention to how financial markets influence work structures
than to the effects of product markets. Yet capital markets have always been
recognized as having a major influence on the organizational forms that evolve
in industries and societies (Chandler, 1977; Roe, 1994; Aoki, 1988).
improvements in technology have had enormous effects on the workplace and how
work is conducted. Technology and work are related to each other (Baba, 1995):
work is the processes by which humans convert resources into outputs
(Applebaum, 1992), technologies are the means by which the conversion is done
(Perrow, 1967). Technology defines the ways how a person does his work. Generally,
advancement in technology has three effects on work and occupational
structures. It creates new jobs but also eliminates some existing jobs.
Moreover, it helps increases the skills required on some jobs and decreases the
skills of others.
In case of Morgan-moe’s situation they had to close down stores
due to poor region’s manufacturing economy and had to fire many employees as
their profit was declining. As a result, it can be said that changes in
economic situation can lead to change in work force.
2: DIVERSITY AND AGE
simply means difference. Diversity is identifying that everyone is different in
a variety of different ways. Diversity is understanding the differences between
individual and group. It creates culture and practices to respect and
understand cultural differences. Diversity tells us to create productive
environment which is diverse for client and can be considered as creative
environment. It all about developing a workforce that fully concentrate to
achieve organizational goals as they feel respected and valued (The Law Society
of Scotland, 2013).
refers to the demographic features that specify a company’s workforce, in terms
of race, sex, culture, national origin, age and religion (Dessler,2011). Diversity
is differences among people in age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual
orientation, socioeconomic background, and capabilities/disabilities (George,2011).
From all definitions, it can be said that diversity at the workplace has to do
with tolerance of different aspects of individuals within an organization.
short, we can say that managing diversity has to do with benefits of diversity’s
potentials for instance, greater cultural awareness and wider language skills
while at the same time minimizing the potential barriers such as dis-benefits
and unfairness that can undermine the performance of the company (O’Leary and
Weathington, 2006) cited in (Dessler, 2011).
of the tasks of managing workplace diversity is to recognize the differences
among individuals and help them develop their talent by giving them
opportunities to express themselves. Demographics are a large component of
diversity and are a contributor to increases in diversity. A way has to be
develop on how to manage both old and young workers within the workforce. There
are several distinct characteristics apparent in the older aged workforce.
Older aged workers are viewed as high contributors to the workforce, steadfast,
and loyal to the company (Chordas,2007). Older workers generally viewed as
dependable, loyal, and dedicated they believe to have strong work ethic, good
performance record, and having years of working experience. Organization must
look into the issues relating to medical benefits, job security, and retirement,
to ensure that the future workforce in an organization will have both old and
young aged workers. Gender is another factor in diversity. The percentage of
women joining the workforce has increased over the years. In managing gender in
the workplace, organization must concentrate on the issues of dependent care,
differences in salaries, and available promotional opportunities. One issue
that is associated with women in the workplace is the glass ceiling. The glass
ceiling refers to barriers that women and minorities face which prevent them
from getting promotions into higher level positions. (Buhler, 2002). Rise in
ethnicity has played a major role in workplace diversity management need.
Individuals with physical and mental disabilities are entering the workforce.
Organizations are becoming more educated on disabilities and are more hiring
employees with disabilities. Today’s employees possess higher levels of
education. The educational requirement and job expectations of organizations
has increased from previous years. Many organizations are seeking college
educated and/or experienced workers. This is an aspect that also contributes to
diversity within an organization.
In case of Morgan-Moe. their average
age of is works force is increasing rapidly as most of the young people has
moved to south in search of job. Moreover, stores where encourage to higher
older worker as they have more experience and do not have child care
responsibilities. The old worker were the saving grace for Morgan-Moe in
troubles times. However, there was risk associated hiring old workers as they
are likely to get out if situation gets bad, resulting in Morgan-Moe sink
researchers indicated that goal setting is essential for achievement in
learning process (Anderman, 2011). Santrock (2011) has indicated that it is
essential to set and achieve short-term goals to move towards to long-term
accomplishment. Meaning, long-term goals are always depend on individuals’
efforts to define and accomplish the goals through setting particular goals
and Latham (1990) have extended the goal theory by listing the five main
characteristics or principles of goal-setting For effective motivations, the
presented goals must possess clarity, challenging, the commitment from the
achiever, provide constructive feedbacks, and appropriate task complexity. I.
Clarity- the presented goals should be productive, unambiguous and measurable.
Therefore, goals should be well defined with a clear mention of the deadline
and less misleading information on the expectation of the achievement.
(Johnson, 2012) II. Challenge- the goals must possess sufficient level of
challenge to motivate the individuals to put in more effort in achieving the
goals. The extreme low or high of task difficulty will cause boredom or
avoidance of failure while completing the tasks which affect the result of the
goals. III. Commitment- people will show their commitment if they feel they are
part of the achievement. The most used strategy is to get the individuals to be
involved in the planning, setting up the goals and decision making process
(Johnson, 2012). Additionally, there is a linkage between commitment and task
difficulty where individuals who perceive the goal is difficult and challenging
would to be driven and inspired to achieve the goals (Johnson, 2012) IV.
Feedback- the contain of the feedback should be focus on the progression
checking, figuring out the current obstacles, proposal of solution and the need
of additional resources (Johnson, 2012). Feedback could serve as a clear
benchmark to guide the executors for self-evaluation. The inclusion of praise
and appreciation in the feedback process will be served as rewards to motivate
the executors to continue work hard in the task (Johnson, 2012). V. Task
complexity- for the goals with higher level of complexity, have to ensure the
individuals do not feel too overwhelmed (Johnson, 2012). Therefore, an
organization must give individual or a group enough training and guidance to
achieve a target.
HR team of Morgan-Moe has developed several programs and one of the programs
involves tracking employees absences and leave and shares that information with
individual employees, giving them feedback about thing they control. This
feedback will help employees to know in which position they stand and might
work as an incentive for them to set a certain goal and try achieving it.
Moreover, another program involve manager do weekly brainstorming session,
during which employees try to understand that they can do better in the future
and make suggestion to improve store performance. Taking suggestion from
employees might help Morgan-Moe to set up goal in such a manner that they are
easy to achieve.