1. Pupil gets an thought about the early rebellions against the English regulation. 2. Pupil additions knowledge about the political. administrative. economic. societal. spiritual and military causes for the eruption of the Revolt of 1857.
3. Pupil understands the causes for the failure of the rebellion and the consequences of the rebellion.
4. Student recognises the significance of Queen Victoria’s Proclamation. The period after the Battle of Plassey witnessed development of the wealth and resources of India by the East India Company. The British treated the Indians as conquered people. They introduced new political. legal and economic establishments in India. They were wholly different from those predominating during the 18th
Century. Many people were affected due to their political and economic policies. They became unhappy. The grudges of the Princes. soldiers and the people added to the turning discontent. It resulted in mutinies and rebellions in some parts. But the great rebellion of 1857 was the most of import one.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. in his celebrated book. “Discovery of India” . has written. “the really fact that a state with such a great celebrated yesteryear should be ruled over by a smattering of people from a distant Island is something that makes me wild. ” It was the interior feeling of the full state.
Early rebellions against the British Rule – ( 1765 – 1856 ) : There was resistance. by and large against the British. by the Hindu Sanyasins and Muslim
Fakirs in the eastern parts of India. In South India. Palayakkars ( Poligar ) resisted the extension of the British authorization in their country. They rose against the British under the leading of Maruthu Brothers. Veera Pandya Katta Bomman. Pulithevanand
Veluthambi. They all were noted for the nationalism. bravery. self-respect and forfeit. The Sepoy Mutiny atVellorein 1806 manifested to the British that the Indians were non inactive to accept everything. The Barrackpore mutinyin 1824 was another of import rebellion against the British authorization.
The First War of Indian Independence orThe Great Revolt of 1857: The Indian soldiers in the East India Company’s ground forces rebelled against the British in 1857. The English historiographers have painted this rebellion as a mutiny of the sepoys. But the Indian historiographers describe it as the First war of Indian Independence. It is besides known as the Great Revolt of 1857. Lord Canningwas the Governor-General of India at that clip. The causes of the Great Revolt were many. They may be classified as political. administrative. economic. societal. spiritual. military and immediate causes.
Political Causes: The appropriation policy of British was one of the major causes. The footings of the Subsidiary pacts signed by Wellesley with different swayers were ne’er honoured unless it suited the British involvements. The Doctrine of Lapseintroduced by Dalhousie led to the straight-out appropriation of eight provinces. Nana Saheb lost his pension. Rani of Jhansi was non permitted to follow a boy. They turned against the British. They were the most able leaders of the rebellion. The appropriation of Oudh and deposition of its swayer Wazid Ali Shah. made Oudh the most outstanding Centre of the rebellion. Bahadur Shah II. the Mughal Emperor and his replacements were humiliated by the British. They were prohibited from utilizing their hereditary castle. the Red Fort. in future. Besides. the Muslims were in general dissatisfied with the British. They felt that they had lost their political power.
Administrative Causes: The Indians disliked and distrusted the disposal of the British. For illustration. the replacing of Iranian linguistic communication by English as the tribunal linguistic communication was non liked by the people. The judicial system of the British was dearly-won. mechanical and involved much clip. The hapless could pull no advantage from it. The rich disliked it because they could be brought to test even by entreaties of the common work forces who had been subservient to them for centuries. The constabulary system of the British was non effectual by that clip. The people ever felt insecure of their belongings. life and honor. The most affected portion of British disposal was the gross system. Under the British the provincials and the landlords suffered every bit. The provincials had to pay heavy gross revenue enhancements. The landlords were devoid of their particular privileges. The British excluded the Indians from all high civil and military occupations. So the educated Indians who expected to acquire paid employment in the service of the company were defeated.
Economic Causes: The economic development of the state. the immense drain of wealth and the disappearing of the native industries dislocated the economic life of the people in India. The British crippled Indian trade and industry. They imposed heavy protective responsibilities in Britain while British goods were imported into India at a nominal responsibility. The machine made British goods flooded the Indian markets and ruined Indian industry. With the disappearing of the old blue Zamindars and swayers. the Indian craftsmans and craftmen lost their backing. The Indian weavers and handicraftsmen were forced to work harmonizing to the desires of the retainers of the company. They in return received really small rewards. Naturally they lost their involvement. It destroyed the cotton fabric industry of India which was the largest and most good industry.
Thousands of people who held administrative stations under the Indian swayers were deposed. Loss of employment affected others who were dependent on those employees for their support. Lord Bentinck’s recommencement of rent-free term of offices reduced the landholders to poorness. The out-break of seven dearths in the first half of the 19th century made the economic hurt more acute. Social Causes: The British regarded the Indians as an inferior race. They exhibited racial haughtiness. They showed disdain in their dealing with the Indians. The Indians could non go in first category train compartments. They were kept off from all societal assemblages. They were non allowed to blend up with the English work forces. The conservative subdivision of the Indians were alarmed by the rapid spread of Western civilization and English instruction in India. Measures like the suppression of Sati and female infanticide. remarriage of widows and the right of heritage to Christian converts offended the Indian orthodox sentiments.
Religious Causes: The Christian missionaries were active in propagating Christianity. These activities created a sense of fright in the heads of the Indians. They suspected that the British were out to destruct their faiths and change over India into a Christian land. R. D. Mangles. a member of the British Parliament. declared openly that ‘Every British must seek his uttermost to change over every Indian to Christianity and the streamer of Christ should beckon triumphant from one terminal of India to the other.
This declaration created a great choler and incredulity against the British regulation. Religious sentiments were aroused when the British imposed revenue enhancements on the lands belonging to temples and mosques. The priests and the maulvis showed their discontent against the British regulation. All these activities made the British unpopular.
Military Causes: The Indian soldiers were called the Sepoys. They constituted the bulk of the British ground forces in India. In fact. the blade of the British power rested on the trueness and strength of these Indian Sepoys. But they were treated with disdain and made to experience inferior by the British. They were paid less than their British opposite numbers. The Indian sepoys had no opportunity of publicity in the ground forces. They were prohibited from their traditional spiritual patterns like have oning a Crocus sativus grade on their brow. turning face fungus and erosion turbans. Lord Cannings’ Government passed in 1856. “The General Services Enlistment Act” . It compelled the Indian Sepoys to function abroad. if there was demand. They had to traverse the seas. It made them angry against the British.
Immediate Cause: The immediate cause was the debut of new enfield rifles by the British. The cartridges were greased by carnal fat. The slugs had midst covering which had to be bitten off before lading. Believing that the fat of cow and hog had been used to grease these cartridges both the Hindu and Muslim sepoys refused to utilize them. They thought that this would pique their spiritual tradition because the cow is sacred to the Hindus and the hog is abhorrent to the Muslims. On 29 March 1857 at Barrackpore. near Kolkata.
Mangal Pandey. a immature Indian Sepoy from Bengal Regiment. refused to utilize the lubricated cartridge. and shot down his sergeant. He was arrested. tried and executed. When this intelligence spread many sepoys started the rebellion.
The class of the Revolt: The Sepoys brokeout into unfastened rebellion at Meerutin April 1857. They refused to touch the lubricated cartridges. They were courtmartialled and sentenced to ten old ages strict imprisonment. The regiments in Meerutrose in unfastened rebellion on 10 May 1857. They broke and opened the prison. They released the captive soldiers. Then they marched to Delhi on 11 May and brought it under their control. They proclaimed the loath Bahadur Shah II. the old male monarch of Delhi. as the Emperor.
The rebellion at Cawnporewas led by Nana Saheb. the discontented adopted boy of Peshwa Baji Rao II. The military personnels of Nana Saheb were led by a loyal and gallant leader Tantia Tope. In Lucknow. the rebellion was directed by Begum Hazrat Mahalof Oudh. In Central Indiathe rebellion was guided by Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi. She was one of the greatest nationalists of India. Dressed in male garb. she fought like a true soldier with unprecedented bravery and military accomplishment. She captured Gwalior. She fought really courageously till she was killed in the conflict in June 1858.
Harmonizing to the British historiographers. nowadays at the clip of rebellion. Rani Lakshmi Bai was the best and the bravest of the leaders of the Revolt of 1857.
At Bareily. the capital of Rohilkhand. the Sepoys revolted. They declared a Rohila Chief as the Governor. Kunwar Singh. the 80 twelvemonth old landlord of Jagdishpurwas the most outstanding military leader of Western Bihar.
The greatest heroes of the rebellion were nevertheless. the 1000s of sepoys. provincials and the craftsmans who joined the leaders. They fought valorously with great bravery. In some topographic points the civil population rose in rebellion. In fact. the engagement of provincials. craftsmans and general population gave the rebellion its existent strength. It made the rebellion a popular rebellion. However. the rebellion failed to win due to effectual suppression by the British.
Causes for the failure of the Revolt: Assorted causes led to the failure of the Revolt of 1857.
Lack of Integrity: There was no integrity among the Rebels. The thoughts of patriotism and integrity had non yet developed. There was no common intent among the Rebels. The Sepoys of Bengal wanted to resuscitate the mediaeval glorifications of the Mughals. Nana Saheb and Tantia Tope tried to re-establish the Maratha power. Rani Lakshmi Bai fought to recover her lost State. Second. the rebellion was non widespread. It took topographic point merely in the Northern and Central parts of India. Even Bombay. the Punjab. Sind. Rajastan and South India remained quiet. The British managed to acquire the trueness of the Sikhs. Afghans and the Gurkha regiments. The Gurkhas really helped the British in stamp downing the rebellion. Lack of Modern Weapons and Techniques: Mere engagement or gallantry could non fit the latest arms of the British. The sepoys who joined with the civilians could non confront the well organised and good disciplined ground forces of the British. The deficiency of resources both in trained work forces and money made the Rebels to give up the battle on many occasions. The Telegraphic system and Postal communications helped the British to rush up their operations.
Leadership: There was deficiency of good leaders on the portion of the Indians. There was no administration and planning. The Rebel leaders were no lucifer to the British Generals. Rani Lakshmi Bai. Tantia Tope and Nana Saheb were brave but they were non good generals. Finally the English command of the sea enabled them to acquire timely support from England.
Consequences of the Revolt: 1. After the rebellion. the English East India Company’s regulation came to an terminal. 2. The disposal of India was taken over by the British Crown. 3. By a particular Act. both the Board of Directors and the Board of control were abolished. In their topographic point the office of the Secretary of State for India was created. He was assisted by an India council of 15 members. 4. The Indian ground forces was exhaustively reorganized and 5. The policy of ruthless conquerings in India was given up. The British realized the error of antagonizing the swayers of the Indian provinces.
End of East India Company’s Rule: With the suppression of the rebellion in 1858. a new stage appeared in the history of the British regulation in India. There were of import alterations in the British policy towards India. There were administrative alterations besides.
Act of 1858 and Queen Victoria’s Proclamation: In August 1858. the British Parliament passed an Act. It put an terminal to the regulation of the East India Company. The British Crown took over the disposal. The Governor–General of India was besides called as Viceroy. It meant the representative of the Crown.
Queen Victoria was the swayer of Britain at that clip.
A announcement was issued in her name. Lord Canning. the Governor – General read it out at a Durbar held at Allahabadon 1November 1858. The Queen’s Proclamationis described as the Magna Cartaof the Indian people. It assured some privileges to Indians. It confirmed the earlier pacts of East India Company with the Princes. It promised to pay due respect to the ancient traditions and imposts of India. The right of acceptance was given to the Indian princes. The policy of appropriation was ended. The Announcement declared that all Indians would be eligible to come in the administrative services on the footing of their instruction and ability. irrespective of race and credo. Unconditional forgiveness was granted to the Rebels except those who had been responsible for the slaying of the British during the rebellion. Learing result
1. Pupil will be able to indicate out the early rebellions against the British.
2. Pupil will be able to remember the political. administrative. economic. societal. spiritual. military and immediate causes of the Great Revolt of 1857.
3. Pupil will explicate the class of the Revolt.
4. Pupil will narrate the causes for the failure of the Revolt.
5. Pupil will be able to explicate the consequences of the Revolt.
6. Pupil will explicate about the Queen’s Proclamation.
I. Choose the correct reply
1. In the South. Palayakkars led the rebellion under the leading of
a. Rani Lakshmi Bai b. Nana Saheb
c. Maruthu Brothers d. Tantia Topi
2. The English Historians paint the rebellion of 1857 as
a. Mutiny of Sepoys B. The Great Revolt
c. War of Independence d. Freedom Struggle
3. During the clip of the Great Revolt. the Governor-General of India was
a. Wellesley b. Dalhousie
c. Canning d. Clive
4. The machine made British goods flooded the
a. English markets b. Indian markets
c. Arabian markets d. American markets
5. General Services Enlistment Act was passed in
a. 1856 B. 1857
c. 1858 d. 1859
6. The Revolt at Cawnpore was led by
a. Nana Saheb b. Rani Lakshmi Bai
c. Mangal Pandey d. Peshwa Baji Rao II
7. Kunwar Singh was a
a. Teacher b. Sepoy
c. Landlord d. Craftsman
8. The Sepoys of Bengal wanted to resuscitate the mediaeval glorifications of the
a. Marathas b. Mughals
c. Sikhs d. Hindus
9. Rani Lakshmi Bai led the Revolt at
a. Cawnpore B. Cardinal India
c. Lucknow d. Delhi
10. Viceroy agencies
a. Representative of the Crown b. Captain of the ship
c. General of an ground forces d. Religious leader
II. Fill in the spaces
1. The Palayakkars were noted for their ____________ and
2. Indian historiographers describe the Revolt of 1857 as
3. The most able leaders of the Revolt of 1857 were
4. The Indian Sepoys were prohibited from their traditional and spiritual patterns like____________ . ____________ and
5. The General Services Enlistment Act insisted that the Indian Sepoys should serve____________ .
6. The military personnels of Nana Saheb were led by____________ .
7. The leaders who tried to re-establish the Maratha Power
8. The____________helped the British in stamp downing the
9. The ____________and____________systems helped the
British to rush up their operation during the Revolt.
10. Queen Victoria’s Proclamation was read by____________
III. Match the followers
1. Sepoy Mutiny of Vellore — 1857
2. Barrackpore Mutiny — Emperor
3. The Great rebellion — Jhansi
4. Bahadur Shah II — 1824
5. Rani Lakshmi Bai — 1806
1. Mangal Pandey — Cawnpore
2. Bahadur Shah II — Oudh
3. Nana Saheb — Central India
4. Begum Hazrat Mahal — Delhi
5. Lakshmi Bai — Barrackpore
IV. Answer briefly
1. What do you cognize about the Palayakkars? Name some of them.
2. How did the appropriation policy of the British lead to the Revolt?
3. Why were the muslim community dissatisfied with the British?
4. How did the British cripple Indian Trade?
5. What were the grounds for the disappearing of cotton industry in India?
6. Give a short note on R. D. Mangles’ declaration.
7. What was the immediate cause for the Revolt of 1857?
8. Bring out the consequences of Meerut rebellion.
9. What was the portion of Rani Lakshmi Bai in the Revolt?
10. Mention the accomplishment of Kunwar Singh.
11. Why the Revolt was non widespread?
12. Prove that there was no common intent among the leaders of the Great Revolt of 1857.
13. What was the importance of Queen Victoria’s announcement?
48 V. Answer in item
1. What were the causes for the Great Revolt of 1857?
2. How did the Revolt spread in Northern and Central parts of India?
3. Enumerate the causes for the failure of the Revolt of 1857.
4. State the consequences of the Great Revolt of 1857.
VI. Practical exercisings
On the outline map of India mark the undermentioned Centres of the Revolt:
Delhi. Cawnpore. Lucknow. Meerat. Barrackpore. Barielly. Gwalior. Allahabad.