The made in that time (Rangel). Selective

The first question to be asked is what is GMO or otherwise known as a Genetically Modified Organism? They are not the horrible abominations television or media depicts; they are organisms that could help the world and change it forever. GMO/GMA (genetically modified animal) can and most likely will be the future of farming, husbandry, and pets, and will affect how those listed below will be treated and how human society will be affected by it. Up to 71% of people in America know little to nothing about GMOs, but still an overwhelming number of people dislike to downright hate it (Funk). The first thing is GMOs are not harmful to people in most circumstances thanks to really strict laws placed on them in the United States. Also GMOs does not mean putting two living organism’s DNA together to see what happens that is called transgenic it’s a part of it, but it’s mostly just the betterment of the species in question. In most cases the GMO plants are better for the environment, like giving back to environments, taking less from it. Thanks to this, farmers who have started planting GMO plants are making more money than before (Schmidt). Thanks to GMOs, plants can produce more food and be more nutritious than before. Thanks to genetic modification and selective breeding it can make plants and animals better than any previous generation. For better or the worse,  GMOs are here and available to the human race, but humans have been modifying plants and animals a long time before labs were a thing. Genetically modified organism or GMO, which how it’s going to be referred to for the rest of the paper, is the modification of any living thing by man. So with that definition, humans have been modifying animals and plants for over 30,000 years from the first dog all the way up to goats that produce spider webs in their milk is what humans have made in that time (Rangel). Selective breeding is the process early man used on plants and animals. Humans would find desired traits from two dogs and to get more like them they would breed those two together as many times as possible, then the breeder spread the dogs babies to other dogs to then mate and keep doing this process until all dogs have this trait. This is the first time man messed with the traits and DNA of all animals that are close to human be it shorter tails to more a calmer demeanor for the common house dog. Then it slowly went to scientists experimenting with simple life forms like bacteria and simple plants and twisting the bacteria  DNA and splicing new DNA or just better strands of it. Of course there is a big difference between selective breeding and going into the animal’s DNA and changing it. With selective breeding, humans are acting like nature with survival of the fittest getting rid of all of the unwanted traits for the wanted ones. But with modern GMOs, people like religious and animal-activist groups think scientists are playing God and or toying and corrupting His creations for a more extreme example. When in truth it’s scientists taking taking better strands of DNA or smothering the unwanted parts of the already-existing parts in the animal’s DNA to then make the animal have the wanted DNA or not have it. Then that genetically modified animal has a good chance to pass on its modified DNA to its kids. Then just from one or two genetically modified animals, they can make generations of them. That doesn’t mean scientists can make a half shark half bee all they can do is modify the animal’s own DNA or insert little bits of other animals DNA to change the outcome slightly. The people to first make a modern GMO creation were two scientists named Herb Boyer and Stanley Cohen (Arnold). They both were working on two different projects with DNA, then they met each other and saw their research would help each other so they started working together. they replaced an E. coli antibiotic-resistant gene and put another one in its place, and every other bacteria from that one had that change. Showing that changing DNA of a creature and it staying the same was not a theory but a fact. Now other scientists can use their research to start their own. More people experimenting with different levels of success with a few people mixing two different types or more. Plants are the most genetically modified organism, because their DNA is the most changeable and most useful if it works (Phillips). These GMO plants have increased crop yields, need less nutrients, need less water, and fewer pesticides to keep them safe and living. In the United States alone, 85 percent of corn grown is genetically modified in one way or another. Soy is the most heavily modified plant; almost any and everything has been used to change its genetic makeup. The more scientist got to grips with plants they started mapping genomes which is sequences of DNA of other living things. Then with those mapped sequences of DNA out scientists started moving onto animals. The first GMO animal humans modified was a mouse that successfully combined with foreign DNA the creator was Rudolf Jaenisch in 1974 (“Transgenic”). That was just Rudolf figuring out how to modify animals so every genetic scientist looked at his experiment and used it for theirs. It started slowly at first, but more and more people started modifying animals using scientific means and using their own ways of modifying them. The first FDA approved GMO animal has been allowed in market, but they did not label their product, so nobody knew they ate the GMO fish, but they said it tasted the same or even better (“Glenza”). The GMO salmon grow twice to three time bigger than a normal salmon. It takes 12 month shorter than a normal salmon to grow same rate and takes 20-25 percent less food to grow the same amount a normal salmon would need to grow. But that’s the only FDA approved GMO animal there are still many more out there. All made for different reasons food, cleaning up oil spills, making less pollution, or just making a hard-to-get resource growable. One of those hard-to-get resources is spider silk: Goats have been made in University of Wyoming that has the orb-weaving spiders dragline silk protein gene inserted in the milk making gene to produce spider silk (“Zyga”). This silk can be used in many applications, it’s many times stronger than kevlar,  than human ligaments, and it is as strong as steel but five time lighter. Scientists would have already been using this spider silk if all spiders produced enough silk, but orb-weaving spiders are the only ones that would make it profitable to farm, but they are cannibalistic by nature these reasons just told make farms not worth the time, effort, or money (“Ferguson”). That’s why some scientists tried putting spider DNA into another animal and decided on goats because they aren’t too big and produce a lot of milk for their size. There are more ideas in the works like using silkworms to make spider silk and evan alfalfa as another way to make silk. Of course spider silk isn’t the only thing scientist are making having cows fart less because they produce the 10% of the greenhouse gases in the world (“Using GMOs”). Scientists are trying many things some of the most important things being  modern medicine like. Insulin was for many years made by using cow and pig organs to make it, but after a lot of companies backed out of that business, they decided on having E. coli bacteria produce insulin, and it’s exactly the same as human insulin (“Coatney”). That insulin is better for the human body and has little to no chance of being be rejected by the body and is actually cheaper now than it was once was. With the increase in population, the world is getting more and more crowded, and humans are going to need more food with less land. Normally that would be impossible because farming usually takes a fair sized piece of land.


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