Technical II and global economic crisis, more

Technical
and vocational education in contrast to academic education provides skills and
education to create employment opportunities. It not only leads to equity in
the society but also helps in the economic development and sustainable
development. Although TVET was considered important but after the global crisis
in world war II and global economic crisis, more emphasis is being laid on the
provision of TVE which is not only going to help in social stability economic
development but also global employability. In World conference 1999, organized
in Seoul, Republic of Korea, the term “Technical and Vocational Education and
Training-TVET” was formally used to address Workforce Education (WE) and
Technical and Vocational Education (TVE), which led to the development of
UNESCO-UNEVOC in Germany which the International Center for Technical and
Vocational Education and training. The importance of technical and vocational
education cannot be denied globally but still there are gaps between formal
academic education and technical and vocational education. UNEVOC has taken
several measures for the development and provision of quality technical and
vocational education and integrating it with the academic education, however,
there are still gaps in the implementation process. UNESCO (2013), defines
technical and vocational education as:

“Technical and vocational
education is used as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the
educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of
technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills,
attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various
sectors of economic and social life.”

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Pakistan
appeared on the map of the world on 14 August, 1947. Initially the country had
to bear major economical and socio-political issues. Generally Technical and
Vocational Education are used enter changeably. Vocational education was having
focus on specific trades and was associated with lower social classes. But in
late 20th century diversification has been noticed and shifted to retail
tourism, information technology, funeral service, beauty parlor and traditional
craft and cottage industries. On the other hand, Technical Education comes
under the branch of Vocational Education. Technical education covers a wide
area of vocational education that includes fields of trade, commerce, medicine,
agriculture and engineering. The country lacked trained human resources and to
create job opportunities for the people of Pakistan it was necessary to create
enterpnurship facilities.  Technical and
vocational education has always been emphasized in every education policy of
Pakistan. But globally technical and vocational education share an
implementation gap and under consideration by the academic education. To fill the implementation gap and
integration of TEVET in academic education, policy makers have suggested an
integration of vocational education in the secondary education system and other
education system and has termed it as “vocationalization of secondary education
“Wikipedia (2018). 

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