In the present day scenario mobile phone has come an essential part of one’s daily life, especially for the young generation. Mobile phones are popular as many people can afford them. Mobile phones are no longer considered as mere communication devices. They are now seen as devices that can support teaching and learning processes. This has lead to the emergence of a new paradigm known as mobile learning. Mobile technologies are gaining momentum in second language learning environments, and research on mobile learning is emerging more regularly in the CALL literature.
Several types of mobile technologies like laptops and Tablet phones are available. But mobile phone is the technology that has started to attract particular attention from educators. One of the primary reasons for the popularity of the mobile phone is the widespread infiltration of the market. This means that there is no need for the institution to provide learners with the hardware in order to incorporate a mobile learning component into their teaching context. Further, cost- wise, mobile phones are relatively cheaper as compared with, for example, wireless laptop computers.
Functions such as Internet ; browsers are available in current mobile phones. This increases, even further, the range f possibilities of mobile phones as tools for learning. Most modern mobile phones have either e-mail or Short Message Service (SMS) functionality. So information can be forwarded to and from mobile phones by teachers or students. Internet-capable mobile phones allow immediate connection to a server, which makes it possible for learners to retrieve updated or specific information as they require it, and for teachers to maintain detailed logs of access.
Mobile learning can facilitate students to learn contents conveniently and also interact with others anytime and anywhere. Learning new scapulars is an integral part of learning a new language. Researchers estimate that in order to understand non- technical English texts, learners should know tallest 5000 lexical items. The problem that a language teacher faces is how to teach this large number of vocabulary during the limited time of the class. Individual words are taught explicitly. The learners memorize the words, which is a difficult learning process.
Teachers kick for alternative ways to traditional class room teaching of vocabulary. They try to make learning interesting and at the same time make the learners responsible for their own earning. One of the ways is to use available technologies and one of the technological advances of modern age is mobile phone which has come to dominate the lives of the students. Vocabulary learning is crucially important for foreign or second language learners’ fluent communicative ability. Without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. Hypothesis and Objectives To design course material suitable for transferring through SMS.
To select a list of vocabulary to be taught to a group of students through SMS. To implement the pilot project. To evaluate the effectiveness through questionnaires Methodology It is a mixed approach. A case design study approach to and implement the project and questionnaire method to evaluate the students’ performance and feed back . First, a set of words along with their descriptions are sent to the students. Then, after a period of time , tests are conducted for the same set of vocabulary to evaluate their learning competency. The methodology is repeated until the learners get hold of most of the vocabulary.
What is mobile learning? Mobile learning is defined as “learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions, using personal electronic devices” (Crampon, 01 3 p. 4) In other words, with the use of mobile devices, learners can learn anywhere and at any time. M-learning technologies include handheld computers, MPH players, notebooks, mobile phones and tablets. M-learning focuses on the mobility of the learner, interacting with portable technologies, and learning that reflects a focal_AS on how society and its institutions can accommodate and support an increasingly mobile population.
There is also a new direction in m;learning that gives the instructor more mobility and includes creation of on the spot and in the field learning material that redecoration uses smart phone with special software such as GAG Cloud Note. Using mobile tools for creating learning aides and materials becomes an important part of informal learning. M-learning is convenient in that it is accessible from virtually anywhere. M-learning, like other forms of e-learning, is also collaborative. Sharing is almost instantaneous among everyone using the same content, which leads to the reception of instant feedback and tips.
M-learning also brings strong portability by replacing books and notes with small RAMS, filled with tailored learning contents. In addition, it is simple to utilize mobile learning for a more effective and entertaining experience. The value Of mobile learning Tutors who have used m-learning programs and techniques have made the following value statements in favor of m-learning: It is important to bring new technology into the classroom. Devices used are more lightweight than books and PC’s. Mobile learning can be used to diversify the types of learning activities students partake in (or a blended learning approach).
Mobile learning supports the learning process rather than being integral to it. Mobile learning can be a useful add-on tool for students with special needs. However, for SMS and MS this might be dependent on the students’ specific disabilities or difficulties involved. Mobile learning can be used as a ‘hook’ to re-engage disaffected youth. TEACHING VOCABULARY Grammar Translation Method The technique used under the grammar translation method to teach vocabulary is the memorization of long lists of vocabulary with their equivalents in the student’s native language.
Direct Method Pictures, examples, sample sentences are used to teach vocabulary. Use of first language (Al ) is not allowed. There is a direct relation between form and meaning. Students are trained to think and communicate in the target language. Audio Lingual Method Meaning is taught directly. First language is prohibited because it may cause bad habit formations. Vocabulary is introduced through dialogues. Community Language Teaching Meaning is paramount. Meaning is conveyed through visual aids, real objects, models, and context. Vocabulary is taught within the context-Bilingual Approach.
This approach provides the most direct form of access to meaning. Vocabulary is taught using oral mother-tongue equivalents at sentence level to convey the meaning of unknown words or structures. The teacher says ACH dialogue sentence twice, with the mother tongue version sandwiched between the two sentences in Q. Pseudopodia According to George Lazing, human beings use only 5-10% of their mental capacity. In order to make better use of our mental reserves, limitations in an individual must be De-suggested. Students should give up the feelings that they cannot be successful.
To help them overcome the barriers to learning, Psychological barriers should be removed. Physical features of the classroom are important because the learner learns not only from the instructions but also from the environment. Lexical Approach This approach emphasis understanding and producing lexical phrases. It focuses on fixed expressions that occur frequently in dialogues. It lays stress on utility- the student learns which is most valuable since the most frequent by used phrases. When the students are taught in this way they perceive patterns Of language as well as have meaningful set uses Of words at their disposal.
Short Message Service Information Short Message Service (SMS) is a text messaging service component of phone, Web, or mobile communication systems. It uses standardized communications protocols to allow fixed line or mobile phone devices to exchange short text messages. SMS was the most widely used data application, with an estimated 3. 5 billion active users or about 80% of all mobile phone subscribers at the end of 2010. The term “SMS’ is used for both the user activity and all types of short text messaging in many parts of the world. SMS is also employed in direct marketing, known as SMS marketing.
SMS as used on modern handsets originated from radio telegraphy in radio memo pagers using standardized phone protocols. These were defined in 1985 as part of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) series of tankards as a means of sending messages of up to 160 characters to and from GSM mobile handsets. Though most SMS messages are mobile-to- mobile text messages, support for the service has expanded to include other mobile technologies, such as ANSI CDMA networks and Digital AMPS, as well as satellite and landlines networks.
Twitter has been described as “the SMS of the Internet” Adding text messaging functionality to mobile devices began in the early 1 sass. The first action plan Of the KEPT Group GSM Was approved in December 1982, requesting “The services and facilities offered in the public witched telephone networks and public data networks… Should be available in the mobile system”. This plan included the exchange of text messages either directly between mobile stations, or transmitted via Message Handling Systems widely in use at that time.
The SMS concept was developed in the Franco-German GSM cooperation in 1 984 by Fairfield Hildebrand and Bernard Glitterati. The GSM is optimized for telephony, since this was identified as its main application. The key idea for SMS was to use this telephone-optimized system, and to transport messages on the signaling tats needed to control the telephone traffic during time periods when no signaling traffic existed. In this way, unused resources in the system could be used to transport messages at minimal cost.
However, it was necessary to limit The length of the messages to 128 bytes (later improved to 160 seven; bit characters) so that the messages could fit into the existing signaling formats. Based on his personal observations and on analysis of the typical lengths of postcard and text messages, Hildebrand argued that 160 characters were sufficient to express most messages succinctly. Advantages and Disadvantages of text message in mobiles Advantages Text messaging is a non-voice communication tool that enables a user to send short messages to another user.
The service is available on all modern phones. Text messaging has some advantages over other means of communications Cheaper Sending a text message is less expensive than placing a regular phone call or video call. A person can easily deny or misrepresent the information on a phone call, but when a text message is sent, it is stored in the sender’s “sent items,” while for the receiver, it is available in their inbox. It is a good way to pep record and remember contents of a conversation Signal Economy Text messaging is more efficient in terms of managing service signals.
Text messaging uses less amounts of service signals than phone calling video calling and/or email, which may require the availability of at least G Discretion Text messaging is a good alternative in situations where phone calling is not appropriate, for example, during a meeting, or you don’t want others to hear Mild Interruption your conversations. Unlike a regular phone call, you can respond to a text message at his/her convenience. A phone call demands an immediate response whether it is invention for the receiver or not.
Reduces Unneeded Talk time Text messaging red cues the amount of time spent talking. A phone call could lead to unnecessary talks, but with a text message, one goes straight to the point. Most phones have text input which enhances speed typing Disadvantages Text messaging facilitates the exchange Of short messages. Text messaging can serve as a substitute to phone calling, could be used in a remote control system, participation in a contest, service requests, advertising, and so forth. However, text messaging has its disadvantages too. Emitted Storage
There is a limit to the number of text messages that could be stored in the phone. If the inbox gets full, a phone can no longer receive anymore messages unless at least delete some of them are deleted. If the SIMI card or the phone goes bad, entire messages could be lost, if not backed up. However, some service providers have deployed a way around this, for example, Glob SMS fever. Length Text messaging when the content is lengthy, is not convenient. A page of a text message could contain 1 characters [including spaces] depending on the bit of the characters.
Although you can send a multi-page text message, he higher the number of pages, the higher the probability of delivery failure. Content A text message is what it is; it can contain only text. It does not support other media, including videos, pictures, melodies or animations. To be able to send a multimedia message, you must use Enhanced Messaging Service (EMUS) or (Multimedia Message service) MS. Not suitable in emergencies: In situations that require immediate response, text messaging may not be the most viable option.
Security Issues Gardner has recommended that confidential messages shouldn’t be sent using the regular consumer SMS as the contents of a common text message loud be seen by the network’s systems and personnel. Not applicable to certain physically disadvantaged persons: For example, a blind person cannot read the contents of a text message on a phone’s regular display Chapter II Implementation of the project Participants in this study were 40 First year English Literature students of our college. It was decided that these student would be taught 30 words through mobile phones.
These thirty words were divided into three sets based on random selection as shown in Annexed l, II & Ill. The students’ level of vocabulary achievement would be ascertained by giving an entry level test allowed by an exit level test. Test items were of objective type with four response options (A, B, C, D) as shown in Annexed IV & V. The selection of the vocabulary was done keeping in mind the need of the students. Words were selected from one particular domain: words describing one’s personality in a positive manner.
The aim was not only to improve their vocabulary skill but also to familiarize them with positive personality adjectives which they might come across in class room learning and which they can use to describe a person succinctly even in their everyday life. Every day, each student was sent woo words for a period Of 15 days. Messages in this project allowed learners to see the meanings of words, example sentences as shows in Annexed VI, Annexed VII. After 15 days duration of the learning period, learners were tested in memory and usage of the learnt vocabularies.
Following this, another 1 days of learning period of the same vocabulary was given as a revision. At the end of the session another test was conducted. The purpose behind the project was to improve the confident level of a learner even while improving his vocabulary and To enrich the vocabulary sources in order to attain the superiority level in usage of language. Most of the students possess mobile phones with SMS facilities. Hence its effectiveness as a tool of teaching. Using web based access to improve this project to a higher level to teach vocabulary for a wider circle.
Problems encountered during the process of the implementation of the project Problems faced with reference to the capacity of the words. During the implementation of the scheme of mobile learning, while sending the SMS to each learner, since the limit of the text was 160 characters, the sender faced certain difficulties. Due to this restriction on the number of characters, finding a suitable text that conveys the meaning was a challenge. Sometimes, to meet the demands of the situation, the text was sent as two messages. 100 messages are allowed according to the message card. For every extra message RSI. Per message had to be paid. This is one of the major financial problems faced by the researcher. Reinventing the language to accommodate the limitations of 160 characters leads to be spelling grammar and punctuation issues. The students may tend to use the SMS language in their academic writing as well. Problem due to late delivery It was necessary to send short text messages to all the learners at the same time. The problem faced was that it was not delivered to all the students at the same time depending upon the different network schemes and to the lateral signal problem.
Some learners received only empty messages and some had technical problems while receiving messages. Problem due to environment If learners feel that the mobile environment is not conducive to learning, it can have a detrimental effect on the way in which activities are undertaken. For example, learners could feel that the mobile phone was “not a tool for tidying’ and that they “couldn’t get into study mode with the mobile as reasons for not using the mobile phone to complete the activities.
Chapter Ill Evaluation of the project Forty first year students were taught vocabulary for 30 days. A Word list which contained 30 words, divided into 3 sets, was taught via SMS. Two tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the learners. The first test know as the entry level test was conducted after a period of 15 days and later it was followed by the exit level test immediately after the completion of another 15 days of teaching. Results of Test The performance of the students varied with respect to their grasping power.
A few students (4) gave their best which was seen their score between% – 100%, (12) students were above average with the score between 60% – 74% (8) students grasping power was average. They could score only between 25% 50th% many students numbering (16) were below average Category Percentage of marks No. Of students Best 75%- 100% 4 Above average -74% 12 Average 8 Below average Below 25 16 Rest Its of Test II SMS for the same list of words were sent again to the same set of students for the next 15 days. The second test showed the following result.
It was found the number of the students below average level reduced considerably and the performance number of best performance increased. An improved performance was seen in the above average and average categories as well. 10 60% -74% 6 A survey was conducted using feedback as shown in Annexed VIII to learn students opinions and recommendations about the use of mobile phones in vocabulary teaching- learning. The analysis of the feedback showed that there was a positive attitude towards this particular method of learning. Analysis of Feedback . How was this learning process? . Do you wish to have more programs like this? 3. How many words were you able to retain? 4. Did you use the SMS for revision after you have read them once? 5. It is easy to read text on mobile phone screen. 6. Do you wish to say anything about the program? From the above responses it was clear that they were satisfied with the present teaching learning method. We realized that they needed more information than what we provided for each word. A few were of the opinion that the physical presence of a teacher would have help them in their learning recess.
Nearly 90% of the learners were happy about the unspecific time, I. E. Regardless of the time the message was received they can read it any place and any time. All the learners were happy that it was not expensive and only a handful felt the lack of adequate interaction. CHAPTER IV Conclusion Technology has always been fascination for the youngsters, especially for college students. Teachers make use of that fascination, and develop it into a motivation towards learning a language. This has been the reason for the reasonable effectiveness of using CIT in language teaching.
SMS, a part of the academic- world. A tool that successfully exists in another field is adapted to promote learning. The purpose was not to the challenge to replace the existing methods of teaching- learning but to show that it can support and enhance student’s learning experience. It is evident from the research that students draw motivation from the novelty of using mobile phones for with learning. Their familiarity and their oppression forms an excellent background for the effective learning of language. As shown by this research the possibilities of using SMS to learn vocabulary limitless.