Surface studied on a new 3D Chemical

quality is an important phenomenon for AM. Regarding surface quality, Boschetto
et al. 8 worked on a mathematical surface profile to
predict the surface roughness. They modeled a mathematical surface, used this
model as a function of process parameters and tried to characterize all the
parameters related with roughness by using a profilometric analysis. Moreover,
Krolczyk et al. 9 studied on the analysis of the roughness and
texture of the surfaces of the machined parts manufactured via FDM method. They
tried to identify the surface integrity of these parts. They used infinite
surface integrity machine for the surface integrity analyses. They concluded
that the smooth gradients existed on the surface after turning while FDM
surface had steep gradients. Furthermore, Kuo and Su 10 developed a method to improve the surface quality
of a wax injection tool, which was manufactured by FDM technology, by using
aluminum filled epoxy resin as filler. They achieved a surface roughness
improvement up to 80% by using their proposed technique. Aditya et al. 11 worked on a vapor smoothing technique to improve
the surface quality of ABS prints. They used acetone vapor to increase the
smoothing of the surfaces by removing the lines due to printing process. They
used the advantage of solubility of the ABS material in acetone vapor. This
approach is highly utilized by the 3D printing community. Lucknow et al. 12 studied the effects of the powder size on the
surface roughness. They used contact infiltration treatments cycle in 3D
printing process. They concluded that when non-reactive highly polished
surfaces are used as contact place for the printed face, the greatest
improvement can be achieved about the surface roughness than a process where
standard filtering processes were used. Takagishi et al. 13 tried
to develop a new technique to improve the surface quality of 3D printed resin
products. They studied on a new 3D Chemical Melting Process (3D-CMF). In this
technique, they used pen tips to apply the solvent to certain sides of the
printed part. They proposed that more precise shaping with less solvent can be
achieved by using this technique. Wang et al. 14 tried to improve the surface quality of the 3D
printed parts via optimizing the printing direction. They developed an
algorithm which provides a segmentation of a part into some patches whose surfaces
normal are aligned perpendicularly to the printing direction. In other words,
the parts were divided into some patches such that each of them was printed in
an orientation where the surfaces normal were separated from the printing
direction. They proposed that the stairway effects on the surfaces of the 3D
printed parts can be removed by using this method. Lanzetta and Sachs 15 worked on surface quality improvement of 3D
printed parts by using bimodal powder distribution. They studied the
interaction of binder and powder which is the key interaction for 3D printing
process. They concluded that by using bimodal powders, the surface finish can
be improved due to the improved binding quality of the building blocks, i.e.,
individual printing lines. Zhao et al. 16 studied on a new method to fill the interior of
the parts. They examined the continuous Fermat Spirals for infill. In their
work, the infill patterns were constructed as a one continuous line by
connecting the Fermat Spirals. They concluded that this method gives better
surface quality for the interior structures and the exterior of the parts.
Furthermore, this new kind of space filling method gives possibilities to
prevent the curves from being locked in pockets, gives possibilities to select
the start and end points and makes the toolpath planning easier for production.


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