Summary of Instructional ProblemI currently teach 4th grade, and I’ve found that many students do not have the basic knowledge of how to add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers. In order to do multi-digit multiplication and division, students must first master addition and subtraction. I believe that students must be retaught how to add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers, and they must be able to relate it to the real world. Current Conditions and Desired ConditionsCurrent ConditionsCurrently, 0% of students have mastered addition and subtraction, according to the California State Standards. Students are struggling with the rules of addition and subtraction of multi-digit whole numbers. Because of this lack in knowledge, students are also struggling with multiplication and division. Desired ConditionsAfter completion of the unit, students will be able to add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers. Students will be able to understand that mastering addition and subtraction is related to being able to master multiplication and division. Students will meet the California State Standards for 4th grade in math. Data Collection ProcessDiscussion of Data Collection Instruments Used I completed my needs analysis to learn more about not only my class of 4th graders, but all of 4th grade within my school building. My goal was to determine whether or not their struggles in math are due to their lack of understanding of addition and subtraction with multi-digit whole numbers. The instruments that I used to gather my data were teacher surveys, student observations, and standardized test scores from the assessment earlier in the year. The sources that were used include my 4th grade team, my 32 students in my classroom, and the math exam taken at the beginning of the year.By using the teacher survey, I was attempting to learn what teachers thought the problem could be about. I thought I would be able to see how other teachers have attempted to address the problem since they had worked with 4th grade longer than I have. I figured that these teachers would be familiar with the struggle that 4th grade has with addition and subtraction of multi-digit whole numbers. With my students as my focus, I knew observing them would be important. I also thought it would be important to hear from the students themselves. I used a google form to ask questions about their thoughts on the problem. The problem was completely about them, so I thought it would be good to see what they had to say. Finally, I used standardized test scores. I felt that this would be beneficial to look at the quantitative data from their test scores from the beginning of the year. I thought it would be great to see the breakdown of this standard via the standardized test. This allowed me to see where my students stood amongst all 4th grade. I was able to see that it was common for students to not master addition and subtraction of multi-digit whole numbers in 4th grade. The exam also allows me to see where students were at the beginning of the year versus how they are at the end of the year. Discussion of Sources of Data The first instrument that I used to collect data was the Teacher Survey. I chose this as a good starting point because I know that teachers are the experts. The 4th grade team has worked with 4th grade longer than I have. I knew that they would have great input into what the problem could be and it allowed me to gain a different perspective. The survey was strictly for 4th grade teachers. This included 2 male teachers and 1 female teacher (excluding me). When creating the survey, I came up with 5 questions to ask the teachers about their thoughts regarding 4th grade struggles with addition and subtraction of multi-digit whole numbers. I began by asking if the students had what they needed at the beginning of the year to be successful in 4th grade. I wanted to know if the students were prepared at the end of 3rd grade to move on to 4th grade, successfully. I included questions regarding the learning styles of students as well as teaching styles of teachers. I also had a final question regarding their thoughts on their own lessons and how they went. Using this survey as a tool for my needs analysis was effective because the 4th grade teachers on my team have worked with the students enough to know how they work and how they learn best. They’ve kept detailed records including work samples and grades. The teachers have years of experience with 4th grade and know what to teach them. The next instrument that I used to collect data was student observations. I pulled small groups aside every day during our hour of math. These students were some of my highest and some of my lowest students. I pulled 2 above-average students, 1 average student, and 2 below-average students. I created a formative assessment for these students. Based on my observations, I was able to see the mistakes that they were making in addition and subtraction. After they finished, I asked the students how they felt they did. My above-average students felt great. They were confident in their abilities and they said that they only struggled with one problem. This one problem involved lining up numbers based on place value. My below-average students struggled. They didn’t feel great about it and I could see them struggle on the questions. They mentioned that they didn’t feel they did well throughout the formative assessment. I also asked the students if they remembered learning this from last year. My above-average students said that they did remember while the others did not. This is one of the biggest reasons for their lack of mastery in this skill. The lesson did not stick for each student. I felt that this was an important instrument to use because it allowed me to hone in on why each student was struggling or why they were doing well. The third instrument that I used to collect data was the Standardized Test. The test was actually a California State test that all of 4th grade does. This allowed me to see where my students started off the year without any additional instruction. This allowed me to see how they did in the beginning of the year versus how they performed at the end of the year, after I had taught them how to add and subtract. I felt it this was an important instrument to use because it allowed me see how they did based on certain math standards. The test was designed for each specific standard for 4th grade. Data Gathered Through Other Sources I did not use any additional data from any other sources.Results of Data AnalysisData Analysis Techniques UsedI analyzed the information that I received from surveying the 4th grade teachers. From each question asked, I analyzed the answers received. I found that each 4th grade teacher in my school felt very much the same. We each felt that the students were struggling with addition and subtraction. We also learned that it seemed to be because most of them did not remember the information from the previous year. The teachers also stated that the students seem to learn the best from visual representation of the material. We did all agree that most students were not mastering addition or subtraction of multi-digit whole numbers. I analyzed the information that I received from observing my 32 4th graders. This data allowed me to formatively assess each student. I pulled small groups of students with a variety of different levels and learning styles. I was able to observe many similarities in mistakes being made. I found that students felt either very confident which increased their ability, or they were not confident at all which decreased their ability. The students informed me that they do best when they work with a partner after hearing me teach. This allows them to not only learn from me, but get one more perspective on how to solve the problem. I analyzed the information that I received from the standardized test scores. The test breaks down each question based off of the essential math standards. This allows me to easily see where my students were struggling, and in which areas they had mastered. Almost 0% had mastered addition and subtraction with multi-digit whole numbers. Several questions were asked over this essential standard, and most students missed each question. I later was able to see that this was because of the failure to line numbers up based on place value. Results of AnalysisTeacher SurveysStudent Observations Standardized Test ResultsFinding of Needs Analysis All of the information that I have received collectively lets me know that 4th grade students in my class do not understand addition and subtraction of multi-digit whole numbers. They don’t understand them enough to master or pass 4th grade math at the moment. The students do not have the prior skills needed to be successful in this skill. The type of instruction that needs to be designed is a unit on place value to begin with. The unit needs to break down each place value. It also needs to focus on lining up the numbers based on place value so that they are familiar with the proper placement. Students will also need to practice the addition and subtraction algorithm. Goal Of InstructionAt the end of the unit, students will be able to master addition and subtraction of multi-digit whole numbers by using the algorithm and by practicing with real-world word problems by showing mastery on the summative assessment. They will be able to solve problems involving addition and subtraction by using place value. Students will be able to understand that place value is part of understanding addition and subtraction and explain why it can cause difficulty in solving a problem. Students will show mastery of addition and subtraction by achieving mastery on the California State test. ReferencesCommon Core Math Content Standards. (n.d.). Common Core State Standards Initiative.Retrieved January 11, 2018 fromhttp://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/4/introduction/