Rationalization-making mistakes Essay

Fatty going ID to the burger king. Ego- the part of the personality that mediates conflicts between and among the demands of the d, the superego, and the real world. Develops from id and acts as the reality principle makes compromises between the wants and reasonable capabilities. This one finds a way for people to get what they want in the real world. Us pepper- the component of personality that tells people what they should and should not do. This is what develops last and becomes our moral guide. Tells us what we should and should not do.

Psychodrama conflicts: this is the conflict between the three personality components. Our personality is supposed to be shaped by the number, nature and outcome of these conflicts. So ego will block the guilt that we would feel from making socially unacceptable action because of the old, or thought about violating superego’s rules. Be able to differentiate and give examples of Fraud’s defense mechanisms Repression- unconsciously pushing away bad memories, urges, or ideas from conscious awareness. Ex. A person loses memory from bad event.

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Shutter island Rationalization-making mistakes seem reasonable. Ex. I spank my children cause its good for them. But actually you are just really mad about ark. Projection- unconsciously placing one owns unacceptable thoughts on someone else. Ex. Instead of thinking I hate him the person states ” he hates me” Reaction formation- defending from bad impulses by acting opposite to them. Ex. Sexual interest in married coworker might come out as dislike. The meaner someone is to you the more they like you. Sublimation- expressing unacceptable urges into symbolic socially acceptable actions.

EX. A sexual or aggressive desire might come out as artistic creativity or athletic excellence. Displacement, deflecting impulse from original target to less threatening one. Ex. Anger at a boss might come out as hostility towards a clerk. Denial- simply discounting the existence of threatening impulses. Ex- a person might completely deny having any physical attraction to a person of the same sex. Compensation- striving o make up for unconscious impulses of fears. Ex- a business exec. Extreme competitiveness might be aimed at compensating for unconscious feeling of inferiority.

Know fraud’s stages of development and the consent nuances of becoming “fixated” on one of these stages Oral stage-first stage in, which the mouth is the center of pleasure and conflict. Birth to age 2 By becoming fixated at this stage due to early or late weaning, the person might become an overeater, or childlike dependence (late weaning) to the use of “biting’ sarcasm (early weaning). Anal stage-ego develops focus shifts from mouth to anus. And the kid will try to compete with parental demands for socially appropriate behavior. Age 2 to 3 If the kid gets harsh treatment when being poop trained then as adults they will probably be Very neat.

If training is too lax then as adults they might be disorganized or impulsive(expelling feces symbolically) Phallic Stage-conflict hafts to genital area, where boy want to please mother and kill father. Ages 3-5 Boys- Oedipal complex-superego based off father. Superego of male begins to developed Girls- Electra complex-superego based off mother jealous of boy, penis envy, and unresolved conflicts can lead to difficulties in dealing with authority, and inability to maintain stable love relationships. Latency period- in this stage sexual impulses lie dormant. Ages 5 to adolescence The sexual tendencies lie dormant at this point.

Genital Stage-begins during adolescences when sexual impulses appear at the conscious level 2??? What are some issues with Fraud’s original psychodrama theory? What changes have “Infusorians” and other modern users made? Carl Jung Analytic Psychology Neo-Freudian approach The libido is not just a sexual instinct but rather a more general life force. Focused toward creativity, growth-oriented conflict resolution, and productive adjustment of basic impulses in light of real-world demands Extroversion vs… Introversion Proposed a collective unconscious, which contains the memories, we have inherited from our human and nonhuman ancestors. No evidence for this) Alfred Adler Process of striving for superiority in self fulfillment, and we want to gain some control over the environment. Striving for superiority is the drive for fulfillment as a person, not just a desire to do better than others. Personality shaped by attempts to meet social needs. Karen HORNY believes in womb envy because men feel inferior because we cannot carry children. Object relations-this is the theory of how others influence their view of, and reactions to, the world. They believe that early childhood love for caregivers is vital to their development.

This will shape people’s thoughts and relationships later in life. Attachment theory- focuses specifically on the tally attachment process. As time passes the children will allow for more and more separation from their primary caregiver. The Psychodrama approach: Most comprehensive and influential. People do employ the defense mechanisms, but people are not sure if always in the unconscious level. BAD- it is based entirely on case study, may not apply to people in general. He talked to upper class Viennese women and in a time when sex was unspoken in public Freud might have changed the information found in the studies to benefit him.

Trait theory What separates traits and types? What are traits? What characteristics must a trait have. Trait approach-this is the view that personality is a combination Of characteristics that people display over time and across situations. Personality traits are stable and the same over time, two they are stable across situations , third people differ in the amount of the trait they possess. Traits vs… Types: traits are quantitative differences, how much characteristics people have, Types- are qualitative difference, whether someone possesses a characteristic at all.

Be familiar with the following trait theories: Lopper’s, found 18000 different ways to describe human behavior in dictionary, and you could describe most people with 7 central traits(obvious traits), we can also have secondary traits- these are more specific to certain situations “dislikes crowds” 16 clusters of traits make up the basic dimensions Of personality Essence’s, Also used factor analysis, Based on inherited differences in the nervous system Two dimensions, Introversion-extroversion, Need for arousal, Emotional stability, Sensitivity to stress has the circle format.

Big Five. -This study uses factor analysis, you can find yourself in the big five roof of: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neurotics. And these few traits seem to present the most important ones in human possession. This is a good way of relating people from completely different backgrounds. Know the most important traits from each theory and what makes each unique. What are some issues with the trait approach? What might this approach offer that others do not?

One problem is that these traits are better at describing people instead of understanding them. There is a fixed and sometimes superficial list personalities and fail to show how personalities imbibe to form complex individuals. Be familiar with the Social-Cognitive approach. Know what theories it arose from. Learned patterns of thinking in guiding behavior Personality is learned in social situations The Social-cognitive Approach- this is the view that personality reflects learned patterns of thinking and behavior.

Scientists look at conscious thoughts and emotions for clues to people differ from one another and guide their behaviors. Was not based of clinical testing instead it came from human animal learning. Came from behaviorism, functional analysis, analyzing the behavior by studying what responses OCCUr under what conditions of operant reward and punishment. Skinner finds behavior as an object to obtain rewards. Behaviorism and John B.

Watson Skinner’s functional analysis Rewards and punishments develop personality Analysis of thoughts limited by behavioral focus Current focus is on changes in cognition and expectations, as well as learning Sanderson and be prepared to compare and contrast Reciprocal Determinism and Cognitive Affective Theory Reciprocal Determinism: Based on self-efficacy, or leaned probability about success in certain situations. Bandeau would watch how behavior, environment, and thoughts interact with each other.

Cognitive Affective Theory- a person and a situation will interact to produce a behavior. The scientists who favor this will say that learned beliefs, feelings, and expectancies characterize each individual and make that individual different from other people. Most important cognitive person variables: Encodings-beliefs about outside people and world Expectancies-Inc. Self-efficacy and what can be expected following various actions Affects-feelings and emotions Goals and values- what a person believes in and wants to achieve.

Competencies and self-regulatory plans- things a person can do and ability to plan and follow through Interaction of person and situation produce behavior If a person is placed in a situation then they will behave with behavioral signatures said Michel. Problem, no role for unconscious thoughts in determining behavior. Be able to explain the humanistic approach to personality. Know the goals associated with this theory. The goal Of this theory is to grow. Focus on humans’ unique mental capabilities Human behavior is motivated mainly by an innate drive toward growth Prompts people to fulfill their unique potential

Focus on phenomenology Explaining people’s actions requires understanding their worldviews through their own eyes. Be able to compare and contrast Growth Theory and Self-theory: Growth theory by Mascot regards to personality as expression of a basic human tendency toward growth and self-actualization, like in Self-theory. He said self-actualization was not a human capacity but instead a human need. Deficiency motivation, which was the preoccupation on material things that we don’t have, would distract people, and this makes people bored and disappointed with life.

Like they would be jealous of what they do not have in relationship, whereas a person with growth motivation would focus on what is missing but have satisfaction with what they have. Rogers Self Theory- emphasized actualization theory as in the other one, his centerpiece was that he believed that when a person can come to the realization of the “l” or the self then they will come closer to self-actualization. He said starting when we are kids people want a sense of positive regard from people around us.

He believes is our good experiences because we have earned approval then our self-concept will become positive.. But Rogers says that people will feel comfort when we find incongruence in people’s and our emotions. Conditions Of worth this happens whew people are evaluated and not their behavior. Don’t make a person think that they are wrong for the wrong reason, make sure to explain. (Fingerprinting dog) Be familiar with the personality assessments that we talked about in class. Be able to say what approach they fit, explain them, and discuss what various results would mean.

Projective- contain items or tasks that are ambiguous, meaning that they can be perceived in many different ways. The TAT was developed for this test and measures need for achievement and other needs. And also the Rorschach inkblots test is used as a projective personality measurement. The claim is that these tests are ambiguous and they say that these tests can measure aggressive and sexual impulses that in most cases people would be able to hide. On the other hand the responses to these tests are harder to put a value on in numerical scores for scientific analysis.

Non- Projective- these are objective personality measures. These questions will be directly relates to a persons thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. These are usually multiple choice or true-false, they can be given to many people at the same time. Thematic Apperception- NEO-PI-R- Nonproductive test-this is designed to measure the big five personality factors. IMP if the goal of the test is to diagnose a psychological disorder then it Is common to use this IMP test. 566 item true false test.

These tests have been found to have sometimes incorrect results because answer differences can also be related to the persons cultural differences. Inkblot test these test consist of inkblot that people will be asked for their interpretation of the image, and then their response will tell a psychologist what they are most likely thinking. Chapter 15: Clinical Disorders Be familiar with the “3 Ad’s” and be able to apply them to behaviors to assess whether or not they are disordered Deviance- this is whatever is unusual or rare, that people do not do commonly.

One is deviant when they are a statistical infrequency, so when they are nonconformist. I don’t believe that this is a disorder because it does not have to always have a negative effect on the person or people around them. And cultures are not all the same so we cannot say one culture is deviant from another. Distress-this is pretty much personal suffering. This group can also include people who are distressed cause they are gay, and I don’t believe that it is always a disorder. Dysfunction- this is pretty much impaired function.

With dysfunction you will have trouble fulfilling certain roles in the world around you Be familiar with the following models of psychopathology Biophysically-this is when mental disorders are regarded as resulting from the combination and interaction of biological, psychological, and coloratura factors. Medical- this believes that biological factors are the main reason for these mental disorders, like physical illness, disruption on imbalances in bodily processes, and genetic influences. Psychodrama-this is said to happen because the mind is unable to solve inner conflicts, or to overcome the effects of stressful events.

Freud was one of the earliest to challenge this ideal with his psychodrama beliefs. This pits people’s inborn conflicts against their socially acceptable morals. Humanistic- this is the idea that these disorders appear when people’s natural tendency towards growth is blocked. Coloratura-his is a way of looking at mental disorders in relation to gender, age, ethnicity, and other social and cultural factors. Diathesis- stress-this is the notion that psychological disorders arise when a retrospections for a disorder combines with sufficient amounts of stress to trigger symptoms.

This says that the things from above can come together and then cause psychological disorders. Know the ADSM-IV 5 axis approach to diagnosing mental health. Know what goes in each of the five axes. Most importantly, know how the five are used together to assess mental health. First the person has to fall under some classifications before they can be treated. This book will lie out symptoms and other disorders on certain axes. It keeps with the bio psychological approach, and will evaluate all relevant dimensions to combine a broad outline of their arson’s biological and psychological problems.


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