Smart interface and Control Mechanism: The formal

Smart hardware and software, their controller, high
bandwidth IWN, cloud computing and big data analytics are needed to implement
time-critical and safety-critical CPS in new generation smart factory. Several
challenges related to this and their possible solutions 2, 12 are discussed

Intelligent Decision-Making and
Negotiation: The research on MAS that is under the
branch of AI technology can provide some useful results such as the ontology
method and the contract net protocol (CNP) 38 that will enable smart machines
to make decisions by themselves and negotiate with each other to develop smart

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High-Speed IWN Protocols: 24
x 7 un-interrupted connectivity for robust, efficient operation with high
reliability is needed. The emerging technology of 5G aims to address high speed
machine to machine (M2M) communication requirements in Industry 4.0 67. In an
indoor scenario mm waveform (Unlicensed band around 60 GHz) 71, WiFi, visible
light communication and In outdoors MIMO can be utilized for high data rate
communication. Multiple dense small cells centrally managed by Cloud Radio
Access Network (C-RAN) 73 can be utilized to address the high data and
reliability requirements 72. For Factory Automation (FA) IEEE 802.15.3
(high-rate WPANs) For example, Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) such
as WirelessHART 74, WIA-PA 75, and WISA 76 or modified versions of the
IEEE 802.11 standard 77 for wireless local area networks (WLANs) combined
with orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) method may provide
several Gbps data rate.

Industrial Big Data Handling: Instead
of collecting various data and then struggling to think how to use them,
questions on which data (magnitudes, engineering units, range, etc.) should be
collected, where these data are with respect to the physical plant (what
process it refers to), how these data can be collected (one shot,
synchronously, asynchronously, etc.), how to formulate, what is the meaning and
how to analyze should be answered.

Malfunction restrain:
The machine state and its operation history such as the time taken in
processing each operation and operation time of each machine should be
monitored and analyzed to predict problems so that people can respond in
advance. This helps to recognize the performance bottleneck of operations and
load unbalance of machines.

Cyber-Physical interface
and Control Mechanism: The formal methods such as model checking technology
considering differential equations, stochastic processes, etc.  for physical processes along with algorithms, and
programming may be a possible option for dynamic modeling and analyzing large
scale, complex, heterogeneous, self-organized manufacturing system. This concludes
appropriate control methods to enable interaction between the cyber part with
physical part 59.

Encryption and authorization, software verification, certification of
high-confidence software and systems and high-fidelity simulation are useful
for security purpose in the smart factory or Industrie 4.0 applications.
Moreover, the critical information is supposed to store in enterprises’ private
cloud and the unsafe operation instructions are reported to people rather than
being immediately executed 47. Proper prevention measures should be taken
accordingly to restrict these objects to operate in any destructive way due to
attacks by like Denial of Services (DoS), deception attacks, anomaly based
intrusion etc that has drastic societal consequences and direct property loss. 


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