Since that earth was a stationary sphere

Since the beginning of the times universe has been evolving and life with it. The only known and existent form of life is the human kind. Through the ages, what we call centuries, civilizations tried to figure out what was out there in the sky. They used to believe that stars and celestial bodies were part of the firmament and that everything revolves around the earth even the sun and moon. Before that, a Greek philosopher called Empedocles said there were four elements: earth, water, air, and fire. Later Aristotle fights that there is a fifth element and the stars and planets are made from it, aether. Aristotle observed that the positions of the stars appeared to be fixed in relation with each other, and their bright didn’t changed. He said that also the constellations never changed and stayed in the same positions and revolved around earth daily. The moon and sun always orbited the earth for them, because of that Aristotle came with the Geocentric┬áModel. It stablished that Earth was the center of the cosmos, putting the planets and objects orbiting around it. Aristotle made observations through the time and in a Lunar eclipse stablished that earth was a sphere. Then it concludes that earth was a stationary sphere meaning that it doesn’t move from its place, never spinning or changing position. He believed that the atmosphere was the same as earth, stationary. The theory also involves that the comets are made from the gases and by the friction of the volcanoes with the atmosphere produce them, and if they ignited quickly, they produced shooting stars. Everything that Aristotle said and the Geocentric model stayed strong and widely accepted by everyone until the 16th century.After years of supporting the geocentric model by everyone, Aristarchus, an astronomer and mathematician Greek, was the first one that proposed the Sun was the center of the Cosmos and everything revolves around the Sun including earth. Later on another Greek mathematician Archimedes published a book called “The Sand Reckoner”. In the book he mentioned that Aristarchus formulated a hypothesis “the fixed stars and sun remain unmoved” and “Earth revolves about the sun.” He later persuaded an astronomer but by the time he found the truth behind the heliocentric theory, another mathematician called Ptolemy published the Almagest prevailing the geocentric model. Until later one young boy Nicolaus Copernicus in the 15th century revived the heliocentric model. Aristarchus also believed that stars were too much further away than he before imagined. Also, he estimated distances to the sun and moon but with the sizes relatives to the earth. He was very accurate with the moon distance but he underestimated the sun’s distance and failed because of inaccuracy with one of his measurements.To most of the people that lived in the 15th century in Europe the cosmos was answered by the greeks Aristotle and Ptolemy with their theories about the geocentric model and geocentric view. Ptolemy also drawn a star’s catalog. Then Nicolaus came in the picture. He was from Poland, he studied astronomy, mathematics, and philosophy. He also studied the cannon law. Most people were scared to think outside the common said because the bible say that the sun moves whereas Earth does not move Everyone that contradicted this view risked being accused of heresy. Nicolaus Copernicus once said “In so many and such important ways, then, do the planets bear witness to the Earth’s mobility. Based on the years of observation of Nicolaus he based his theory on number of basic proportions. First Earth rotates on its axis daily, and this rotation accounts for most of the daily movements of the stars, sun, and planets across the skies. Copernicus in his beliefs he thought that it was just too unlikely thtat thousand millions of stars were spinning fast around the Earth every 24 hours. Instead of that he stablished that the stars were fixed in long distances and because of the movements of the planet the stars seemed to move like that. He added that the oceans and atmosphere were part of the planet and that they don’t spin fast and object don’t fly off because of it was part of the spinning motion naturally, Copernicus mentioned: “We should only say that not merely the EArth and the watery element joined with it have this motion, but also no small part of the air and whatever is linked in the same way to the Earth”. Later he said that Sun was the center of the whole universe and not only Earth which is simply just one of the planets, and all of the planeets revolves around the Sun. The Copernicus idea was better detailed than Ptolemy and Aristotle, it was easier to understand because it explained the movements and variation in the brightness of the planets without recourse of anything that Ptolemy posted. Like Earth, Mars is another planet and how you explain that two planets at different speeds and different amount of time to complete a revolution around the sun, means that one way or another sometimes they will be closer on the same side of the sun and sometimes away from the side to side of each other. This only at first was more likely to accept because it could explain Mars and his variations of brightness through the time. Nicolaus said: “The distance between Earth and the sun is an insignificant fraction of the distance from Earth and sun to the stars.”Even Corpernicus work was excellent and one of the greatest theories ever made it took a century to be accepted. One of the main problems was that even when he fixed the Ptolemaic system, later other astronomers would have to make amends and fix Copernicus system. Another fault was that by Nicolaus beliefs he thought that the orbits were perfect circles which Johannes Keppler confirmed that Nicolaus was wrong and the orbits were ellipticals and not circular. The Roman Catholic Church new Nicolaus was right but they didn’t want to believe and declared that the work of Copernicus was heretical and was banned for reading for almost 200 years. Galileo Galilei years after made some discoveries that led him a fight with the church and try to make the Catholic church change its mind, but even though it didn’t come out Nicolaus Copernicus book: “De Revolutionibus”. The Heliocentric view and Copernicus model was far away accepted in the early 18th century and it was because the English astronomer James Bradley proved in 1729 that Earth moves in relation to the stars. The proof that Earth Spins came with the first demonstration of Foucault’s pendulum in 1851. Nicolaus Copernicus ideas were a mind blown to much astronomers at that time. It was so huge that it was marked as “Scientific Revolution”.Nowadays thanks to Copernicus and his big ideas together with other important astronomers we can say that the Milky Way chaos it was almost resolved for them because even they had discovered that, new things creates every single day and Cosmos evolves every second and every hour. With our instruments and technology now we can measure too much things they couldn’t at that time, but we still known 5% of the cosmos, so there is a 95% waiting for us to think outside the box like Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, and many of those brilliant minds.

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