section{What are veering off trajectory into the

section{What is an ICU? eICU? How do they compare and differ?}ICU is an intensive care unit, where patients are admitted when their vital organs like heart, lungs, livers, kidneys are affected and their life is in danger.eICU is an electronic ICU, that provides help and monitoring of critical patients, remotely.Both of them serve the same purpose of providing care to patients at critical stages but differ in some techniques.An ICU involves only staff and monitoring that is on-site, where the amount of the data that can processed is limited to the number of humans available to help. An eICU involves remote monitoring of the patients, done using mics, cameras, monitors and speakers, such that, the remote and on-site team can be in contact. The remote team has access to a lot of data from the bedside of the patient and algorithms, built-in to process and analyze it.Cheryl Hiddleston who runs the eICU program at Emory talks about it cite{Hiddleston}:egin{quotation}With the monitoring that we do, the system pulls different data from the bedside monitor and the electronic medical record and has different algorithms built in it, and it allows us to catch when patients are veering off trajectory into the wrong direction. So we can call the staff at the bedside and help interveneend{quotation}section{What is the historical relationship between HL7 and FHIR?} Health Level 7 was a non-profit standards setting organization set up to tackle the lack of a standard data exchange format as electronic record systems grew across medical departments, in the 1980s.But as technologies improved, there was a need for open APIs that could be used across several online tools.FHIR was an improvement over HL7 that is compatible with newer technologies.section{How does the uninsured impact health care costs? What are 3 chronic diseases that contribute to driving those costs?}According to data from 2015 from the CDC~cite{CentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention2016}, the top 3 most expensive chronic diseases are cardiovascular diseases, smoking related diseases and alcohol related diseases.Closely following in the list are, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and cancer.According to a report cite{CommitteeontheConsequencesofUninsurance2003}, egin{quotation}Uninsured children and adults are less likely to incur any health care expenses in a year than their counterparts who have coverage. On average, those without any form of coverage over the course of a year incur health care costs less than half of per capita health care spending for those under age 65 who have coverage.end{quotation}However, the report cite{CommitteeontheConsequencesofUninsurance2003} goes on to explain that the uninsured have a hidden cost too, egin{quotation}As earlier Committee reports demonstrated, this lower level of utilization is the source of one hidden cost of uninsurance — higher morbidity and mortality as a result of using fewer and less appropriate health care services.end{quotation}Additionally, uninsured people often have similar medical expenses as insured people, but end up paying out of their pockets. This is particularly hurtful, since most uninsured people come from low income familiescite{CommitteeontheConsequencesofUninsurance2003}.section{What is the role of health informatics and how can health information technology be utilized to lower costs and provide better care for patients?}Health IT has great potential in helping health care professionals in making informed choices. extit{The Role of e-Health and Consumer Health Informatics for Evidence-Based Patient Choice in the 21st Century} cite{EYSENBACH2004} considers two important aspects of making an informed choice:egin{quotation}Patient-related information refers to the individual patient and case (diagnosis, pathology, personal risk factors, etc.)General information about the external medical evidence (for example, effectiveness of different interventions for a given disease, etc.)end{quotation}However, just having a lot of information itself does not imply good choices. The role of HIT is to analyze this bulk of information, automate recommendations, while ensuring quality of information, that will help health care providers and patients make decisions.Health IT can lower costs of health care by better and preventative care, so that expensive health care services can be avoided.One example by Dr. Sweeney cite{Hiddleston} is to use machine learning to predict if a patient is ready to be discharged from the hospital, to reduce the chance of readmissions and the associated costs. The data from patients who were readmitted was compared over time with those who were not, to judge a new patient’s health trajectory.

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