tens inequality that women are not as

tens of thousands of years, women have been treated with equality, even in quite a few civilizations, took more of a leadership role in the day-to-day lives of the people in their country. There has been a myth in the past few centuries that has grown into full blown inequality that women are not as good as men are at everything besides having babies. It is so important to note that much of the world has changed the way it thinks about how women have a place in our lives only recently, meaning in just the last few thousand years, in our over 40,000-year existence. What caused the change in the social structure? How did men create a world where they are the leaders? There are so many answers to these questions, but regardless of which answer a person may focus on, the fact remains that inequality is not being tolerated anymore. The progressive movement in Europe, which has been gaining much traction for several decades, has finally made its way over to the U.S., as women have begun to disrupt the status quo of the social hierarchy. What Problems Do Women Face in American Society?The common belief, especially among traditionalists, is that women have a “place”, and that they need to have babies, stay at home, cook dinner, clean the house, do the laundry, take care of the kids, and obey their husbands no matter what. This type of lifestyle is mostly associated with religion. Religious leaders empower men to crush the independence of women. They are threatened with punishment, mental abuse, and even physical abuse in extreme cases. People who live traditional lifestyles often raise their children to abide by certain expectations, like being loyal to their family and faith, no matter what, when they become adults, they will find a man to marry, and then to have as many babies as possible, which she does not get an opinion about. The workplace in American industry is biased towards men. The numbers vary, but women make about $.70-. $75 for every dollar a man makes. This has to do with women being passed up for jobs, even though they may be more qualified, or being passed up for promotions at their current employment. Not only do they make less money on average, but they also have to deal with men harassing them in the workplace. It is far too common for a woman to be harassed by her boss or co-workers, which has prompted the incredible #METOO movement. Several Hollywood stars have recently been accused, their careers have been ruined, because women have been empowered to speak up against sexual assault and sexual misconduct in the workplace. All over social media, women have been coming together, having something in common, they have posted #METOO, to tell everyone that they too have been subjected to these heinous crimes. Women are also ridiculed and criticized for things that are acceptable for a man to do. This has been the case for centuries though. Women in The Dark Ages in England would have body parts cut off if they were caught cheating, but men could visit the brothels, which were located in prominent parts of town, because it was a large industry. There are thousands, if not millions of untold individual stories through the ages about how women were persecuted, oppressed, and were thought of as property. It was not until just several decades ago that women were allowed to vote. Their opinions did not matter. How Can Men and Women Alike Empower Females?Any man in a woman’s life, no matter what role they play, need to encourage women to do the same things as men do and more. Women are now fighting in our wars when, so many young men do not have the courage to sign up. That kind of bravery needs to be celebrated, not shrugged off in disbelief, or saying that they do not belong there. Everyone of age should have a right to defend our democracy, and so many women have stepped up and did just that, albeit for reasons that no one agrees with, but they still answered the call. Women have been leading industries, technology, science, and religion, and everyone was surprised that they could do what men could! If you have a daughter, encourage her to be a strong, independent woman. Teach her that she does not need a man to survive while also teaching her that she can love anyone she chooses, because love is not sexist or racist. Make sure that you encourage the women in your life to stand up for themselves, do not baby them or think that women are fragile dolls, so they can be the strong leader that this world needs them to be. All in All…The way that people learn what the right way to look at the world is starts in the home. As early as a child can speak, understand, and interact with others, parents need to be preaching equality among males and females. Parents need to teach their sons how to treat women as their equals, and they too will teach their children, and soon the world will be a place where women are given an equal, fighting chance to be successful in whatever they choose to do. We will live in a world where women are not objectified because of the overreaching male libido. What needs to happen now is people need to come to an understanding. The justice system needs to properly prosecute sexual offenders of women, not just giving them six months in jail when they violently rape a woman, for which they only spend three months in, and they just get out and do it again. Everyone, leaders, government, elected officials, yes, even the President, needs to understand that women are mighty, and that they should be viewed as equals under physical law, religious law, and moral law, from this day, forward.

Mohammed be Solved by using the service

Mohammed Ibrahimi


In this report I will discussing a problem that has occurred and how it will
Be dealt with 

The purpose of this report is to understand and deal with the customers issue
that has arisen
In this report it will be Solved by using the service quality gap model.

By using the service quality gap model this will help the employees when
dealing with situations with customers step by step until the situation has
been resolved but also to make sure once resolved that the problem will not
occur again to always ensure a customer has a great experience 

Service quality gap model includes five gaps which are: Market research gap 1, Design Gap 2, Conformance Gap 3, Communication Gap 4, and
customer satisfaction Gap 5.

Q) Identify three courses of action including at least one
that relates to supply chain management that would have prevented the situation
from arising.  

Even through the ”The Kitchen” is well known for their
homemade pies and cakes it doesn’t state that the store is only selling
homemade products however this has made the customer feel miss leaded from
buying a product that he thought was freshly made as before the cake was freshly
made till the shop decided to buy it in frozen but did not state the change to
the customers for them feel to be entitled in the change of choice

From following the service gap model there are plenty of
outcomes that could be taken in order to prevent the situation from occurring

Courses of action that ”The Kitchen” could have taken to
prevent the situation from arising would be firstly for the members of staff to
apologize to the customer as he was outraged from hearing that the cake he
purchases is in fact delivered frozen to the shop from a mass producer, the
customer felt the shop was misrepresenting the food products they sell which he
was not impressed with as he states that he would only pay premium price if the
product was freshly made so hearing that the cake he purchases isn’t 
,branching out an apology could make the customer feel better as you are taking
in the matter and the customer will understand and see that you are on the path
of trying to help and correct the situation

The Staff should be fully trained to deal with customers. They should never
treat the customer in such a way as to make them feel angry. If a mistake
occurs then training should enable the staff to deal with such problems and
rectify the mistake so as not the let the company down and above all apologize
to the customer.  putting them at ease. They must make them feel as though
they had a right to complain and that a mistake had happened in the store which
would now be rectified to ensure it will never happen again for that customer
or anyone else and 
Perhaps a discount on the correct product might ease the situation. 


Market research gap 1:
This is understanding
the customers, knowing what their expectations are? and what managers think
they expect. 

Design Gap 2: This is among
management perception and the exact  pattern the customer encounters ,Managers
need to validate the business is setting the level of service they
consider is required.

Conformance Gap 3 – this is from the
experience specification to the delivery of the experience 

Managers need to review the customer experience that their business currently provides
in order to prove it lives up to its requirements

Communication Gap 4: this is the gap
between the transfer of the customer experience and what is conversed to

An lastly customer satisfaction Gap 5:
this is the gap between a customer’s view of the experience and the customer’s expectancy
of the service

ways the store could improve their customer service would be by displaying a
menu stating the cakes and pies they sell with the listed ingredients involved
in them but also having signs made for ones that have been freshly made for
customers to see what they are purchasing or having freshly made cakes in one section perhaps
on different sides of the Store. 

The way the product is advertised Is another way for the customer to be alert
of the product such as noticeable eye catching , colorful , big fronted signs
that will make the customers alert of the section of the store they are buying
the product from before asking to purchase the dessert 

All mass production food items should all have the use by date , when a fresh
made cake is baked a member of staff should display a small print stating
freshly made on this date (for example 4/12/17) by Dave , so customers can
physically see themselves this could stop confusion , as the ones that haven’t
been freshly made from staff won’t have a sign stating freshly made on it and
will have a longer sell by date since the product is brought frozen 

To advertise locally source fresh goods and then supply mass produced frozen
goods under that description is totally wrong and illegal. Customers pay a high
price for handmade items and expect to receive what they paid for. 

To sum up the Store must train staff. The labelling and position of the goods
must be established. For any store to succeed the customers must always be
pleased with their purchases so to this end every customer should be treated as
if they were special this way they will return to the store because they
were happy with the service, meaning they will become regular customers, which
could in fact draw in others customers and thereby increasing turnover. 

The store must be made to realize where cakes pies etc. are label handmade,
locally sourced and organic this must be the case and all homemade food must be
home made. 

It should be pointed out to them that If customers wanted mass produced goods
they could go to their local supermarket and purchase at a considerably lower
cost. Home Made means care and quality to deceive their customers is totally

If a company (Store) do not trade by their original thoughts and promises and
do not seek to keep their good name and loyal customers these said customers
will stop buying their goods. This then leads to rival traders to capitalize on
the initial success of the original company who will never keep their good name
and therefore the risk of bankruptcy. 


An brief conclusion of
the report I have discussed the service quality gaps involving an issue a
customer was facing and how to resolve the problem by using the Service quality
gap model guide to find a solution to ensure the customer comes first and is
happy with the outcome.


Policy a factory outpouring vast amounts of

Policy Memo  DATE: January 20, 2018 TO: Group Members FROM: Lauren Gray SUBJECT: Improving Indoor Air Quality of Minneapolis Public Schools   When talking about air pollution, the first image that usually comes to mind is that of a factory outpouring vast amounts of smog. Often individuals give little thought to the toxins of indoor air pollutants, specifically those within schools. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sites that within schools ” ‘ indoor levels of air pollutants may be two to five times higher than outdoor levels’ ” (MN Department of Health, 2017). Poor indoor air quality is associated with numerous health effects, ranging anywhere from short-term problems such as headaches and skin irritation, to life-long problems like heart disease, cancer, and other respiratory diseases (Kandi Vijayan, 2016). With these health issues, performance and achievement of students is also sited to be significantly lower for those in such environments of poor air quality (EPA, 2018). Not only is the issue a matter of public safety, but also an issue of academic performance. Seeing that indoor air quality of schools is extremely poor across the US (EPA, 2018), this memo will detail 2 major reform actions that can aid in the alleviation of harmful air quality within Minneapolis K-12 public schools. First, we should require annual testing of every Minneapolis public K-12 school to determine the severity of issue. Second, if significant evidence of harmful air quality is present, we should require the installation of air filters to reduce contaminants.  Although there are codes that determine the standard for indoor air quality, they aren’t carefully regulated. The EPA addresses these issues by providing resources like Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) plans to assist schools by giving them practical techniques that can be implemented. While the techniques themselves are useful, they are only guidelines on how to fix the issue – not mandatory policies (Minnesota Department of Health, 2017). This poses a large problem as schools are prime locations for indoor air pollutants because of increasing school enrollment in the same amount of space, aging buildings, ventilation systems that are not up to code, and high concentrations of diesel exhaust from drop-off sites (Indoor Doctor, 2016). In the Minneapolis area, the average age of K-12 public schools can range from 38 to 90 years old, depending on the area. Age is often a tell-tale sign of degrading facilities, which can consequently lead to mold (Raghavendran, 2017). Minneapolis schools clearly need to examine the state of public school air quality.  I propose that the K-12 Minneapolis public schools should be required to have extensive, yearly air quality tests of common pollutants, allergens, and other contaminants. This will require the school district to hire a small staff to perform and analyze the tests. After recording the test results, if air is deemed poor, facilities will be required to install air filter systems. Studies have shown that the addition of air filters are often great solutions as they lead to reducing the amount of contaminants present, which in turn results in important health benefits like disease prevention and symptom reduction. Even though the air filters may add a cost for the schools, the addition of the air filters leads to a healthier-operating HVAC system that requires less maintenance, which can save upwards of $1000 (Kandi Vijayan, 2016).  In order to carry out the plan, we need to contact the Minnesota Department of Health, the Minneapolis Public Schools Board of Education, and the Minneapolis City Council. By speaking with the aforementioned entities, we can get the word out about the proposal and acquire the help and funding needed to make the project happen. The required yearly inspections of Minneapolis schools may be time consuming and require funds, which may be unfavorable for groups like the school board or city council. That being said, the issue of indoor air quality in these facilities is not a mere nuisance. It is a dire situation in which we must take action.                         

In have brought about the progression of

In the first place, over the years technology has advanced into something nobody could have ever anticipated. All through history, advancements in innovation and interchanges have gone as one. Innovative improvements have brought about the progression of the study of correspondence to another level. As this changed, numerous creations, revelations and developments extended by starting with one level then onto the next. NYU’s CS division makes this mechanically propelled condition that connects the best and brightest staff and understudies to direct profound and impactful research. Its central subjects enables present designers and researchers such as myself, to settle on mindful choices about the qualities that are verifiable in mechanical choices, to see how people see themselves in characteristic and social universes, to think basically, and to impart successfully. When I was researching about NYU, I was profoundly pulled in by MAGNET (the Media and Games Network). It houses a few projects that offer various degree-holding students the opportunity to seek after programs and research in amusement outline, sociology, computerized media plans, software engineering and diversion designing. The space was co-planned by the partaking divisions inside NYU schools and pulls together staff and understudies from an extensive variety of orders every day by utilizing deliberately outlined shared spaces and exciting educational programs. For me, this space concedes every one of the assets I have to seek after my future degrees in tech and media.NYU’s development is enormously advancing and is situated in a standout amongst the most innovative capitals of the world: New York City. A noteworthy preferred standpoint of New York City’s tech scene is the more prominent assorted diversity of NYU. While a long way from immaculate, New York University organizations are significantly more disparate than their university partners; minorities and global understudies make up 56% of the aggregate undergrad understudy body. This isn’t just the doing of the big apple’s assorted populace; NYU produces purposeful and managed instructive activities and wide projects in the region of assorted variety and social equity to support this student diversity. Miscellaneous programs like: Center for Multicultural Education and Programs, Center for Student Life, Global Spiritual Life, LGBTQ Student Center, Office of Equal Opportunity, and endless other projects that sustain educational environments for the transformative area of social justice at NYU and beyond.

Risk dynamics. Last 3 decades has witnessed

Risk is almost synonyms for business enterprise and capital market. Variation in prices ofsecurities, commodities, business operations is induced by ever changing and evolving economicenvironment dynamics. Last 3 decades has witnessed the robust growth of innovative financialinstruments to mitigate or hedge the risk to certain extent. Financial Derivatives are one suchwonderful product of financial engineering that has transformed & re-energized the financialmarkets by offering innovative and inventing ways of trading & risk management in moderntime. In India the exchange traded derivative market started in June 2000, since then thelandscape of derivative trading has altered exponentially with the introduction of new products,higher volumes, newer contracts and advanced framework.The paper is an attempt to study genesis of plain vanilla and exotic derivative instruments’development ; growth in India. Paper discusses the relevant factors for the growth of exchangetraded ; exotic derivative in the country. The report also highlights the trends and currentposition of derivative asset class in terms of turnover and notional value in India and othereconomies of the world. It is interesting here to know the paradigm shift over time in the role ofderivative participants as end user or cross assets speculator.Keyword: OTC Derivative market, Exchange traded derivatives, Exotic derivatives, Financialinnovation,Introduction:Derivatives are the financial instruments to mitigate risks associated with fluctuation in theprices of the underlying. In other words, users of derivatives can hedge against fluctuations inexchange and interest rates, equity and commodity prices, as well as credit worthiness.Derivatives transactions are now familiar among a broad range of entities, including bankingfirms, financial institutions, central banks, mutual fund and pension fund managers, insurer,other NBFI and non-financial corporations. Participants in derivatives markets are oftenclassified as either “hedgers” or “speculators”. A number of financial reforms and fundamentalchanges in global financial markets have contributed to the strong growth in derivative markets.But derivatives like any other financial instruments are inherently risky. They are double edgedsword as they are highly leveraged transactions. Regulators have a role in the market to ensurethat besides economic benefits of financial derivatives trading activities remain on the efficientrisk return frontier. In this context the study of current scenario and trend of derivativeinstruments and market participation is important and contextual.Objective of the study:? To study the growth and development of plain vanilla and exotic derivative productsacross different asset class.? To discuss the relevant factors which lead to the growth of exotic derivatives in thecountry.? To study present position of Indian derivative market with respect to other economies ofthe world.? To observe the shift in recent years in the role of derivative participants as end user orcross asset speculator.Literature ReviewData for this study was generated by referring text books, trade journals, articles fromnewspapers and internet websites.A historical roots of derivatives trading was analysed byAshutosh Vashistha ; Satish Kumar in his paper 'development of financial derivatives market inIndian. In NSE research paper Gopala C Nath has studied the behaviour of market volatility afterderivatives. In 2013 Dr Kamlesh Gokhar ;Ms Mattu analysed the trading issue and bottlenecksfor derivatives in India2010.MethodologyThe research is a descriptive explanatory type as it attempts to explore and explain currentscenario in derivative market in more detail, filling in missing part and expanding understanding.The paper is designed in four sections. Section I deals with the concept, definitions and relevantfactors for the growth of derivative products. Section II discusses trend and growth of theseinstruments in Indian market in terms of turnover ; also role of participants. Section IIIdiscusses the data and positional information of Indian derivative market in respect of globalderivative exchanges. Lastly, section IV specifies the summary and conclusion.SECTION IDerivatives indicate financial contracts that have no independent value but derive its value fromunderlying assets. Any underlying asset that is subject to market volatility and price fluctuationis a good candidate for being the basis for a financial derivative. Be it indices, equity, interestrate, currency, commodity, weather or inflation. In financial world plain vanilla derivatives is todescribe such instruments that has no additional embedded features or any hidden condition.Vanilla is jargon for things that are simple. The standardized form of financial derivatives isgenerally referred as plain vanilla derivatives. This form constitutes the basic form of derivativewithout any complex specification relating to underlying, type of calculation or payoff like Indexfuture and options, equity future ; option, forward contracts, interest rate derivatives contacts,currency futures and options etc.Exotic derivatives instruments refer to the products which can be characterized by not commonlyused underlying, a complex payoff determination or low trade volume. Currently exotic couldinclude weather derivative- where underlying is heating degree days (HDD) or cooling degreedays (CDD), freight derivative- where underlying is future freight rates or may be inflationderivative- where underlying is inflation rate. Most exotic derivatives are traded in over thecounter (OTC) market as they are customized to individual customer specific requirements.Common exotic instruments are digital options, barrier options, basket options, options on theaverage and many other innovative instruments depending upon the requirements of market.With time when there is an increase in market demand of a particular exotic derivative or if theunderlying becomes more common and at the same time there is a simplification of relatedworking model of an exotic instrument then these instruments qualifies to become mainstreamplain vanilla derivative instruments.Derivative can broadly be classified into two categories on the basis of market where they aretraded- exchange traded derivatives (ETD) ; over the counter (OTC). OTC derivativesconstitutes the greater proportion of derivatives in existence, they are less regulated andcustomized contracts whereas ETD are standardized. OTC derivative generally have greater riskfor counterparty then do standardized derivatives. Most common derivative contracts areFutures ; Forwards, Options and Swaps. Generally product innovation ; exotic products in thismarket are initially introduced in OTC market as it offers better condition due to more liberalregulatory framework and lower initial investment.Players in derivative market are risk hedgers, speculators or arbitragers. Hedgers are those whoprotect themselves from the risk associated with the price volatility of an assets throughderivative instruments. They are the end users as corporate/individuals/institutions who areexposed to financial risk. Speculators or traders bet on the future movement in the price of anasset and not interested in actual owning. Arbitragers are the persons who attempt to profit fromthe price inefficiencies in different market.The relevant factors which lead to the development of derivative markets in the India can beenumerated as follows:? Globalisation and financial sector reforms? Participants’ requirement –both end user and cross asset trader.? Risk taking capabilities and analytical skills? Physical infrastructure- India equity market moves towards satellite connectivityfacilitating trading and liquidity facilities now from anywhere. There is robustadvancement in the technology which is evidenced from the fact that in spite ofsignificant increase in volume and quotes the execution time of transaction in BSE hasgone down to 6 micro seconds.? Liquidity in underlying? Clearing house for most trades.SECTION IIThe volume of both exchange-traded and OTC derivative markets have grown sharply in recentyears. Options of various kinds (called Teji, Mandi & Fatak) in unorganized market were tradedas early as in 1900 in Mumbai. However they were banned since independence but with openingup of the economy this ban was removed in 1995 by RBI when it permitted currency derivativesto hedge exchange rate risk. RBI has permitted options, interest rate swaps, currency swaps andother risk reduction OTC derivatives products. Advancement in trading electronic platform haschange the trading process in Indian OTC market. This only replicates the multilateral tradingthat is hallmark of an exchange but only for direct participants.The Bank for International Settlements statistics on OTC derivatives markets showed thatnotional amounts outstanding totaled $693 trillion at the end of June 2013.There is nocomprehensive source for assessing the total volume of transactions carried out on the IndianOTC derivatives market. Therefore, the information presented for interest rate derivatives andforeign currency derivatives on RBI portal is the basis to show the growth of these OTCinstruments in Indian context. Total derivative contracts as per RBI source shows a growth of17% from 2007 to 2009 and this growth rate is expected to sustain & increase in the future. Theactivity in the forex derivative markets can also be assessed from the positions outstanding in thebooks of the banking system. As of December 2009, total forex contracts outstanding in thebanks’ balance sheet amounted to INR 36,142 billion (USD 774.25 billion), of which over 86%were forwards and rest options.Exchange traded derivative in India made debut with the introduction of stock index future in2000. In that year the number of contracts were 90580 with turnover of Rs 2356 Cr. In 2016-17total contract traded in this stock rose many fold to 66535070 with turnover of Rs 4335940 Cr.Table 2.1 shows the participants for derivatives. It is evidenced from the table that currentlylarge number of participants is natural hedgers. Participants in IRS, CDS, FX are investmentbanks and NBFI. BIS triennial central bank survey 2013 concluded that NBFI accounted formore than half of foreign exchange and interest rate trading in the global market.

Future Globally, technologies of Industrial Revolution and

Future of business in 10
years with rapidly evolving technologies, climate change and depleting natural



Globally, technologies of
Industrial Revolution and climate change
are changing the way human live and work. It is impacting all disciplines,
economies and industries, including how, what, why and where individuals
produce and deliver products and services. These technologies are obliging
companies to rethink and retool everything they do internally, and governments
to reassess their regulatory advantages and development strategies.


Within the broader technology
landscape, various technologies are transforming businesses and unleashing a
new wave of competition amongst businesses and countries. Exciting advances in
the internet of things are artificial intelligence, robotics, and 3D printing. Technology
is expected to disrupt most traditional industries in the next 5-10 years. Some
recent examples which shows how technology has impacted businesses are:

Ø  Uber brand is just a software tool. They don’t own any cars and
are now one of the biggest taxi company in the world

Ø  Airbnb is now the biggest hotel company in the world, although
they don’t own any properties.  


Impact on business with evolving Technology in next 10 years


The future impact on certain business sectors
may be seen below:


Intelligence: Currently in USA, young lawyers are losing
jobs. Because of IBM Watson Company, one can get a legal advice within seconds,
with 90% accuracy compared with 70% accuracy when done by humans. There will be
lesser human lawyers in the future, only domain experts will remain.  Watson already helps nurses diagnosing
cancer, four times more accurate than human nurses. The social media company Facebook
has introduced pattern recognition software that can recognize faces better
than humans. Therefore, computers are likely to become more intelligent than
humans in future.

Industry: In 2018, the first self-driving cars will appear for the
public. Around 2020, the complete industry will start to be disrupted. By next
10 years, one may not want to purchase a car anymore. Individuals shall call a
car with phone which will show up at the pick-up location and drive to the ultimate
destination. There will be no need of parking spots and money shall only be
paid for the driven distance. This way, individuals can be productive while
driving. Therefore, the concept of driving license and owing a car is going to
be eradicated within the next few years. This is likely to change the way
cities function in terms of mobility. The former parking spaces can be
converted into parks. Nearly 1.3 million people die in
road crashes each year, on average 3,287 deaths a day1. Autonomous
driving shall reduce the road accidents and has the potential to save a million
lives each year. Most car companies will probably become bankrupt. Traditional
car companies try the evolutionary approach and just build a better car, while
tech companies (Tesla, Apple, Google) will do the revolutionary approach and
build a computer on wheels.

Insurance: Insurance
companies will have massive trouble because without accidents, the insurance
will become 100x cheaper. Their car insurance business model may disappear.

Estate: Real estate will change. The reason is simple enough.
If an individual can work while commuting, the demand for location specific accommodation
can vary as people may prefer to live in outskirts.

Health:  These days, the smart phones can monitor your
walking steps, the sleep levels. The day is not far where the internal medical
tests like blood pressure, blood test will be done by a smart phone to recognize
a potential disease. This will lead to world class medical services at no cost.
The business of medical establishment is going to crash.


There is a clear signal to the world that climate change risk will lead
to a scary future. In some parts of the world, the climate change has already
begun in daily life for e.g. the recent snow storm in North America in January
2018 has caused widespread unrest and destroyed infrastructure of various
cities. While in other parts, there is a future warning for tougher times, for
instance, the severe melting of Antarctic ice under future global warming
is likely to adversely impact the world in terms of population, business and
weather. Certain developed economies have already started amending their
business models in terms of climate change.


70-80% of jobs are likely to disappear in the
next 10 years. There will be a lot of new jobs, but it is not clear if there
will be enough new jobs in such a small time. From
farmers to fisherman, supply chain management to builders, all sectors are
likely to result in layoffs or redundancy in the next ten years with the climate change. The indigenous peoples living in rural
areas are going to bear the brunt of climate change


In terms of
agricultural demand, the income growth in emerging market economies has
impacted the food consumption habits i.e., there is a transition towards higher
consumption of processed meat and fruits in comparison to cereals, thereby
adding further burden on natural resources. Though technological advances have resulted
in efficient resource use and improved food safety. But the fears of global
food security cannot be ignored. There are mounting pressures on natural
resources which can jeopardize the sustainability of food systems. The competition
and dependence on natural resources shall increase with the increased demand
for agriculture which shall lead to increased greenhouse gas emissions, and
further deforestation and land degradation. In next 10-15 years there is
a possibility of an agricultural robot. Farmers can then become managers of
their field instead of working all day on their fields. There is a dire need for innovative solutions for energizing
a sustainable tomorrow.


The climatic
variation can also include
decrease in rainfall, disasters, crop failures, natural hazards and forest
fires. Each sector of the economy shall be severely impacted as the food and
water supplies get destructed. Business such as builders, engineers are going to become redundant in the next few years with the climate
change. The number of jobs which shall be created will of those individuals who
can get involved in disaster related building. Smart technology needs to be introduced for smart cities and smart
farming in rural areas which will cut our dependence on fossil fuels.  


Lately, the global focus is diverted to solar
energy worldwide in comparison to fossil. If the emerging market economies are
able to set and achieve solar installation target, cheaper electricity shall be
available. The world has abundant water but there is scarcity of drinking
water. Desalination of salt water requires cost effective electricity, which in
turn, is achievable with solar energy. If the cheaper electricity is available,
individuals may have as clean water as he wants, for nearly no cost.  


There is a challenging task ahead
for Chief Executives and Chief Operating Officers who embrace these
technologies and address climate change to rapidly transform their enterprises
which will set their companies on course for success. Capacity building and
skill development initiatives are needed for both public sector and private
sector employees to deal with the changing technologies, climate change with an
innovative approach to save natural resources.

Source: Road Crash Statistics, 2017

Generally, product or services. In market, customer

Generally, customer awareness is when an individual know their
rights regarding to the product or services. In market, customer are the person
that have the position in knowing about the product, basic features, offer
provided and many more. When customer has some knowledge regarding to the
product or services, they are more interested to purchase and be regular
customer. Awareness understands about place, product, promotion and price about
product or services. After customer knows about the product, they will believe
and spread the information to their close friends or relatives.

Next, customer awareness also have the significant with Islamic
banking, this study show the awareness in Pakistans that has been shows the
variety of suggestion of customer awareness that utilize for personal, social
& economic features decision of what customer thinks (Siguaw and Simpson
1997). Also, in other study shows the significant between customer awareness
and knowledge of customer buying behaviors because customer will buy or
purchase the product if they have knowledge and awareness. The importance of
ethical labeling can make customer aware about one product. For example,
customer understand all about the information that is stated in the packaging, pamphlet
or other medium that can transfer all information to the customer and make they
aware. (McEachern & Warnaby 2008; Hartlieb & Jones 2009; Liang &
Xianyu 2008; Donoghue & Klerk, 2009; Thomas & Mills 2006; Chartrand
2005; Coulter et al.2005; and Dommeyer & Gross 2003). 

When we study about Dommeyer and Gross (2003), it has been told us
about customer awareness when we enter to the direct-marketing. Normally, young
people and male are more aware on product, practices and privacy laws related towards
one company. In this situation, these groups are more understand on what it offers
and they are adopting each specific strategy. 

Design McDonnell Douglas should take responsibilities for

Design and Professional Skills 1

Ethics Report

McDonnell Douglas should take responsibilities for the crash of the Turkish
Airlines Flight 981

8 January 2018


In 1974, one of the  deadliest plane
crash in the history  happened when
Turkish Airlines Flight 981, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10 aircraft, crashed into
Ermenonville Forest in the commune of Fontaine-Chaalis ,outside Paris killing
all 346 people onboard.The wide-bodied commercial aircraft experienced
explosive decompression just a few minutes after take-off when the rear cargo
door had blown off. The explosive force caused two rows of seats to get sucked
out.The cargo area evacuated, and the floor of the passenger area, which
separated the cabin from the lower cargo hold, buckled under the enormous
pressure differential. As a result, the hydraulic control lines that ran under
this floor to the tail of the craft were severed which resulted in the total
loss of flight control and witnesses watched as the nonresponsive plane
plummeted at nearly 500 mph into the forest , killing all 346 people onboard.


First of all, the safety aspects of the airplane when designing and
manufacturing it were not priotise.The origin of this incident lay in a poor
handling of design and manufacturing. The decisions made on the manufacture were
driven by savings at the expense of safety. Besides, cargo door’s design used
faulty philosophies. Though the door’s faults were later exposed, a more
serious problem involving the tail control lines in the passenger floor was
continually overlooked until the crash. This was due primarily to a policy of
using old design strategies which met minimum federal requirements. The company
oversimplified the control lines’ failure mode when confronted with it in
ground testing and, being committed to their own design, were unable to
recognize the root problem. In addition, miscommunication of the gravity of the
flaws led the company management to accept the risk in safety.This is to preserve
the reputation of the new aircrafts so that people will not doubt the safety of
it.The opinions given by the contractor’s engineer who knew the problem best were
forcefully silenced due to the closed lines of communication between Douglas
and their contractor.The intense competition within the industry even forces
the managers to employ more ethically questionable tactics in order the lessen
the effectiveness of the FAA’s procedures to make the design flaws look less
serious than it is to save themselves financially


Honesty in testing      

Secondly , the company was not being honest when testing the airplane.Airplane
malfunctions are normally discovered after a major incident occurs .In May
1970,the airplane underwent ground tests to prepare for it’s first flight.During
the testing, the rear cargo flew open due to the fuselage being pressurized
causing a fast depressurization of the cargo compartment.It was neglected and
the failure was blamed on the mechanic who did not lock the door properly.This
serious problem should be able to find out by the Federal Aviations
Administration(FAA),but due to lacks of menpower,to inspect the airplane,the
certification process was done by designated engineering representatives who
were actually paid by Mcdonnell Douglas .Before the deadly crash of the Turkish
flight happens, there was the exact same failure mode occurred to the
airplane.Federal government agencies concluded the changes and modifications
need to be done on it so that it would be safer.To avoid the damages that can
be done by the federal mandates upon McDonnell Douglas’s global sales effort,
the company made an agreement so called ‘Gentlemen’s Agreement ‘with the FAA
which they ‘promised’ that they will fix the problem themselves.But still 2
years later, the crash of flight 981 happened.So it is obvious that the modifications
were not properly handled making  this
unfortunate incident inevitable.



One of the relevant
ethical area for the company is rationality.The company did not make rational
decision throughout the process from designing the airplane until the crash.Mcdonnell
Douglas began sending out detailed design and manufacturing of the fuselage  to subcontractors when they were still working
on the design of DC-10.A contract called the division of General Dynamics was
awarded to Convair to build the fuselage including the cargo doors.Convair was
asked by the Douglas to prepare a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis(FMEA)for the
cargo door locking system .The report of the analysis shows numerous situations
that have the possibilities to be life-threatening .But this report is not
presented to the FAA because  Convair is
not allowed to report any issues regarding the DC-10 to FAA as this is forbade
by the contract made with Douglas.Convair has no choice to keep their contract
due to the competitiveness of business of aircraft subcontracting.


There are many
things that should be done to improve 
air travel’s safety so that disaster  such as Mcdonnell Douglas’s Turkish  Airline Crash will not happen again.A company
has to put more efforts making it more ethical in every single aspects  .After the crash,changes have been made on Mcdonnell
Douglas DC-10 to avoid the same failures to occur again.The  planes were effectively ground by the Federal Aviation Administration until the cargo door’s problems are
fixed .The FAA also worked on its own problems as soon as possible by becoming
more specific, stricter ,banned the ‘gentlemen’s agreement’,forced all the
jumbo jets industry to strengthen the floors and so on.


Besides, government regulations have to be
in placed to preserve safety and fair practices.Safety should be the top
priority instead of blindly striving for economic gain .The same incident will
happen over and over again if strict regulations are not implemented. The
incident that happened has led to hundreds of lives lost. Mcdonnell Douglas took the responsibility
for the incident resulting many people lost their jobs,damaged its own
reputation therefore affected their revenue . The Mcdonnell Douglas Corporation
was forced to pay 18 million in damages .


is very important that McDonnell Douglas should be conscientious when making
decision for not just  the engineering
process ,but for the entire life of the product.Decisions should not be driven
by savings at the expense of safety and faulty design philosophies.





The main reason why such unethical
decisions are made is because the  problems
that may cause the crash were continually overlooked.The company oversimplified
the failure mode when dealing with the jet in ground testing ,being committed
to the their own design therefore unable to recognize the root problem.



crash of the Turkish Airlines Flight 981 is a classic examples of the complex
nature of most applications of ethics in engineering. Although every
organizations that involved have done mistakes that led to this crash ,McDonnel
Douglas should take on the most blames and responsibilities for this failure to
happen. McDonnell Douglas was given plenty information and opportunities to
find out,solve and improve the fundamentals flaws of their product. If the
company has the following ethics such as honesty,rationality and priotises
safety,such horrible incident could be prevented and hundreds of people onboard
the flight will still be alive right now.The company faced several law suits
after it was discovered that they already knew about the cargo door issue
during the DC-10’s development.In the end, the McDonnell Douglas Corporation
has since been taken over by their former lead competitor Boeing, and is now
contributing to a company which is ethically reputable and has set the standard
for aircraft production throughout the entire commercial era.






1)Peter French, “What is Hamlet to McDonnell-Douglas or McDonnell-Douglas to
Hamlet?” Business & Professional Ethics Journal vol. 1, no. 2
(1982), pp. 1-13.

2)Birsch, D. (1992). Whistleblowing, Ethical Obligation, and the DC-10. In
Fielder, J. H., & Birsch, D. (Ed.), The DC-10 case: a study in applied
ethics, technology, and society (SUNY series, case studies in applied ethics,
technology, and society, pp. 161-176). Albany: State University of New York

3)Fielder, J. H. (1992). Floors, doors, latches, and locks. In Fielder, J.
H., & Birsch, D. (Ed.), The DC-10 case: a study in applied ethics,
technology, and society (SUNY series, case studies in applied ethics,
technology, and society, pp. 69-81). Albany: State University of New York

4)Livingston, Richard E. (1989). International Airline Passengers
Association Critique of the DC-10. In Fielder, J. H., & Birsch, D. (Ed.), The
DC-10 case: a study in applied ethics, technology, and society (SUNY series,
case studies in applied ethics, technology, and society, pp. 307-313). Albany: State
University of New York Press.

5)Newhouse, J. (1982). High risks, sinking fortunes. In Fielder, J. H.,
& Birsch, D. (Ed.), The DC-10 case: a study in applied ethics, technology,
and society (SUNY series, case studies in applied ethics, technology, and society,
pp. 55-67). Albany: State University of New York Press.

6) Destination Disaster, by
Paul Eddy et al., Quadrangle, The New York Times Book Company, 1976.


7)Air Disaster, Vol. 1, by Macarthur Job, Aerospace Publications Pty. Ltd.
(Australia), 2001


8)Charles B. Fleddermann. Engineering Ethics. (Upper Saddle River, NJ
Prentice Hall, 1999).

9)Fielder, J. H., & Birsch, D. (Ed.). (1992). The DC-10 case: a study in
applied ethics, technology, and society (SUNY series, case studies in applied
ethics, technology, and society). Albany: State University of New York Press.

10)Daniel A. Vallero, and P. Aarne Vesilind. Socially Responsible
Engineering Justice in Risk Management. (Hoboken, NJ John Wiley & Sons,
2007), pp. 66-71.

11)Johnston, M. (1976). The last nine minutes: The story of flight 981. New
York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.










It is well known that GDP in

It is well known that GDP in Malaysia has been risen substantially over a
thirty years. One of the reason that make GDP increase over a year and a year
is the government expenditure. Government
Expenditure defines the purchase or payment of goods and services that are
not provided by the private sector but it is important for national welfare.
Those expenditure including emoluments, subsidiaries, general administration,
public investment, and other expenses.


Economic analysis

In the
article, we know that Malaysia has set Budget 2018 with the amount of
RM280.25billion which is 7.5% higher than the previous year RM260.8billion. Government
get the money through borrowing and revenue for Budget 2018. 14.4% of the
Budget 2018 is come from borrowing by using of government assets as advance and
the rest of 85.6% will be come from revenue that government earn, examples,
indirect tax which is the tax that government charge from us when we make a
single payment, direct tax, which is calculated in percentage that charge from
our salary, and the last one would be non-tax revenue which includes petroleum
royalties, investment income from Bank Negara Malaysia, Khazanah Nasional Bhd
and motor licences and foreign worker permits.

According to previous year’s GDP, expenditure from private sector always
be the primary driver of growth with private investment and consumption growing
8.9% and 6.8% respectively. However, expenditure from public corporation tends
to decline in 2018 due to lower capital outlays. Government allocate the budget
into two ways, a total of RM234.25billion for operating expenditures and
RM46billion for development expenditures. Compare to last year, operating
expenditures is 6.5% higher in 2018, while the development expenditures
increase slowly by 0.1%. Under operating expenditures, government use
RM79.15billion (28.2%) of the RM234.25billion for emoluments which have the
biggest portion among the expenditures. Second large expenditures come with the
supplies and services expenditures 12% (RM33.62billion) which showing an
increase of 3% compare to last year while refunds and write-offs will increase
10.7% to RM888million in 2018. Malaysia’s debt service charges is going to be
increase 7% from RM28.87billion for 2017 to RM30.88billion due to the huge
amount of interest on borrowings. Other large expenditure, including retirement
charges, has been allocated with RM24.55billion and subsidies expenditures will
be seeing the largest increase in allocation in 2018, up 15% to RM26.54billion
from RM23.09billion in 2017. Grants and transfers to state governments and
grants to statutory bodies will be increased by 0.8% to RM8.02billion and 2.6%
to RM13.1billion respectively. Finally, for the operating expenditure, 11.2%
(RM31.48) will put under other expenditure including grants to statutory bodies
such as public universities, trade and investment promotion agencies.

            Of the amount allocated for
development expenditure, RM26.34billion will go to the economic sector,
RM11.72billion to the social sector, RM5.21billion to security and
RM2.72billion to general administration. The social sector showing a decrease
of 3.3% in 2018 to RM11.72bilion. The biggest cut is from education and
training, which will be 11% lower at RM5.26billion compared to 2017’s
RM5.9billion. However, housing will see a 34.1% increased to RM1.17billion and
health, 24.7% to RM1.91billion. As for the economic sector, only the energy and
public utilities, and agricultural and rural development will get a larger
pieces of the pie with a 9.2% increase to RM2.75billion and 4.4% increase to
RM2.52billion respectively.

This method was built depended on multiplying the expected
population number for the specific year by the average of municipality solid
waste generation rate for the last eight years (GRWA) from 2009 to 2016 as a
fixed value. The average municipality solid waste generated was determined
through dividing the average quantity of municipality solid waste (Qs) for years
2009-2016 by the average population (P) for years (2009-2016) of Sulaymaniyah
city using Eq. (3.8):





Average generation rate of municipality solid waste kg / (capita. day).

Average quantity of municipality solid waste for years (2009-2016) (kg).

Average Population of Sulaymaniyah city for years (2009-2016).

Eq. (3.9) (Jarabi, 2015; United Nations, 1952) was used to determine
the population for each year from 2016 until 2032.




Future population at the end of period.

Present population for year 2016.

The annual population growth rate (2.99 %)

Number of years

Eq. (3.10) was used to find the produced solid waste quantity
for year 2032. Using an average waste generation rate for the years 2009-2016



Quantity of municipality solid waste produced each year (ton).

The cumulative of municipality solid waste quantity generated in 2032 can be determined,
as shown in Eq. (3.11):




Qs (c):
Cumulative quantity of municipality solid waste for the specific year (tonne).

Qs (ct): Quantity
of municipality solid waste for the specific year (tonne).

(ct-1): Cumulative quantity of municipality solid waste for the last year
before specific year (tonne). In order to calculate the cumulative municipality
solid waste generated by year 2032

For illustration the cumulative municipality solid waste quantity
in 2032 Qs(c) is equal to the municipality solid waste quantity of produced in
2032 Qs (ct) using Eq. (3.10) plus the cumulative municipality solid waste quantity
in 2031 Qs(nt-1) form the year 2016.