Description abuse and gambling. Unemployed youths migrate

Description of the organization and its institutional
environment (max 1500 words)

Describe your
organisation and institutional environment by making use of appropriate
frameworks or tools

Executive Summary

AIMYI is a legally registered and established non governmental
organisation operating in Uganda and seeks to engage youth at all level towards
championing social change and participating in social and economic development.
coordinates collective action amonng youth through networking, capacity building,
resource mobilisation and advocacy for inclusivenes in development programs This proposal seeks to evaluate the
organisation and it’s policies and programs to facilitate the mainstreaming of
gender and social justice within the organisation. The
challenges encountered, possible strategies to adopt, and conclusion in
addressing these challenges in order to bring a change in the Organization



Youth unemployment stands at between 64% and 70%, and about 400,000
youths are released annually into the job market to compete for approximately
9,000 available jobs. About 30% of the youths who are institutionally qualified
in Uganda are unable to find jobs, and the situation is even worse for

and unskilled youths. Youths who remain unemployed or underemployed and
do not exploit their full potential, are often associated with high incidences
of drug abuse and gambling. Unemployed youths migrate from rural to urban areas
for work, which negatively impacts on the social services sector in urban
centres. Ugandan youths shun the agricultural sector, one of the biggest
employers in rural areas, preferring to work in service sector jobs like riding
motorcycle taxis (boda-bodas), or as low-wage laborers in industries. The
government response has been to issue soft loans and youth grants to
agricultural programmes such as NAADS (National Agricultural Advisory Service),
the Youth Livelihood Fund, and youth SACCOs (Saving and Credit Cooperatives).
Additional services include vocational training education programmes as well as
Universal Primary and Secondary Education. Despite these interventions, the
problem of youth unemployment remains high. In response to this statof affairs,




The objective is to asses the institutional and organisational
environment of the organisation and identify the hindrances failing the
mainstreaming of gender and then strategise  with an appropriate intervention 



A desk review of already existing information
was conducted to determine the external andinternal enviroment of AIMYI and
different tools were adopted for this purpose and included the PESTEC, IOM
model,5C’s, 7’s and SWOT to analyse and source for an approriate intervention




Justification of the tools Uses

The IOM tool was used to describe and
analyses the various elements of the organization. The Model consists of 5
external components: mission, outputs, inputs factors and actors which describe
the environment of the organization. The internal components describe the
internal organizational choices. SWOT analysis was used to identify factors
such the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats


Organisational Model for AMYI






Basic Question


How can AIMYI effectively
strengthen its capacity to mainstream gender in responding to youth unemployment in mukono district-uganda?

components of AIMYI

Vision: A strong
representation and participation of youth in championing change through social
and economic development at all levels in Africa


To coordinate
collective action among youth and other stakeholders through networking,
capacity building, resource mobilization, research and advocacy for the
attainment of prosperity.

Output of the organization

AIMYI’s focus is hinged upon building
youth capacities to harness leadership and reproduce it through collective
action and networks promoting sustainable economic development. AIMYI uses the
principles of environmental and social responsibility to sustainably improve
incomes, combat food insecurity, stimulate enterprise development as a gateway
to contributing towards achieving the global sustainable development goals
especially ending hunger, poverty and unemployment.


resources using diversified sources

youth agricultural initiatives into sustainable agricultural enterprises

capacity, inducts and incubates youth into competitive entrepreneurship

the formation of farmer groups, networks and micro credit village sacco’s

partnerships and networks for partnership, mentorships and engagement

development for entrepreneurial training and gender mainstreaming

and Innovation- AIMYI’s quest to
meet the scale of current global challenges, increase impact and stay relevant
in a changing context, staff are offered access to capacity building and
training initiatives, supporting their participation in learning platforms, and
encouraging diversity of talent in recruitment practices

AIMYI supports young
people on the path to employment and economic independence ensuring positive
change occurs in a sustainable way with a maximised brokerage through
partnerships, networks and engagements with all stakeholders involved in the
youth development agenda

Inputs of the organization


AIMYI’s activities
are run by a secretariet which is overseen by an executive board and the
secretariet is governed by the Director, an administration and Finace officer,
sectretary, programs manager, communications specialist and two project
officers. AIMYI also works closely with the private sector foundation, Makerere
University bussiness school and the Uganda Industrial research institute, all
which provide AIMYI with support volunteer consultants, facilitatiors and
entrprenuerial incubating opportunities for ths benefitiaries of AIMYI at this
organisations. AIMYI also has support short term contract staff who are hired as
need arises and they include drivers, research assistants, survey coordinators
and faciltators. All staff undergoe a competent and rigourous screening and
have the relevant academic qualification and qualities with a composition 8
staff where two  are female and 5 are
male. Neverthheless AIMYI is an equal oppotunity and non-discriministratory


b)      Information.

AIMYI’s has a
fulltime information and communication specialist whose role is to process,
mine, compile and disseminate updated information which is intergrated in the
organisational processes and used in all forms including field trainings,
curriculum development and resource mobilisation

Equipment, tools and

AIMYI efforts to efficiently and effectively harness it’s
objectives, learning aids, tools and hardware devices are used to reflectively guide the parcipants in the learning

Contractor services  

AIMYI’s operations are facilitated by teams of
dedicated and competent contractors who support the organisations processes and
systems including the IT services, software systems, logistics and supplys and
catering services.  






Diversified funding and

AIMYI is one of
the organisations that have been affected by the trend in declining global
funding for civil society organisation. In order to sustain the mandate of
AIMYI, the organisation introduced social innovation in it’s programs as a gateway
to a sustainable finacial resource base. The organisation is constructing water
cisterns to havest rain water for farmers and farmer groups who share the cisterns
to irrigate thier crops.


External Factors

Political: Uganda is a politicaly
fragile state for civil society organisation, with the  signing of the anti-gay lay law which
discriminated against the LGBT community, donor funding was cut due to the intolerence
of the law seen as undermining fundermental rights and freedom. This has been aggravated
by rampant corruption and ambigous laws like the public order amanagement bill
that prevents the convening of public meetings and gatherings without notice of
police. Nevertheless Uganda has a fairly stable political environment which
gives AIMYI an opportunity to access and work with communities, partners and stakeholders.


Economic: Uganda is economically
 liberalised  and is currently harmonising intergration and
trade agreements within the East African community countries and opening
freedoms to trade and investment. Despite this, aggregate demand remains low,
inflation continues to soar, banks exercise high lending rates, poulation
pressure, unemployment, trade and export barriers continue to hamper AIMYI’s  agender in promoting growth and development.


Social: In Uganda women experience
gender inqualties in different ways and this is reflected in thw differences in
wages, access to assets with the extremes being in sexual violence,
marginalisation and discrimination of women. AIMYI is pressed by resources in
ensuring that this mandate is fulfiled


Technical: Although both women and men have a wealth of traditional knowledge tackling
development challenges, however thy are hampered by indegenous technologies


Cultural: Uganda is a
multicultural society where most people, except those in urban centres, are
involved AIMYI’s target areas  however
the norms, beliefs and tribal devides vary which calls for AIMYI’s flexibility in
delivering it’s mandate.




Formal/vertical linkages

There are formal vertical linkages between AIMYI
and the Uganda Industrial research Institute , Makerere University Bussines
School, the private sector foundation, Young African Leaders Initiative and
USAID. Hierarchical linkages exist between adjunct facilitators, program
managers, the Director, Secretariat staff and Board of Governors.

ii.      Customers
or target groups

AIMYI is a legally registered NGO provideing
transformative knowledge, mentorship and skills to youth, graduates, farmers,
women, communities and the general public,

iii.    Input

AIMY’s rellies on partners and stakeholders for feeback and professional input
and expertise as and when required by the program being implemented.


iv.     Policy
makers and regulators

programs are monitored by the ministry of internal affairs in Ugnada and is
foreseen the the Ministry of youth and gender. It is also monitored by the
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF). AIMYI was
established under the NGO act, and has worked with partners to harness resources
and competences to drive societal transformation, solve societal problems and
improve livelihoods of the people.


internal components of AIMYI
using the 7s Model


AIMYI has a vision and mission as the guiding
principle it’s mandate and this is embedded in a three year Strategic Plan
which further spells out the main objectives and actions to be undertaken in
order to achieve the AIMYI’s  mandate. Some of the strategies employed by AIMYI
include; embracing the culture of continuous service improvement through
feedback and measurement, building networks through partnerships and
collaborations; establishing guiding principles and transparency. AIMYI has workplace
gender senstive regulations and Policy guidelines as well as a Monitoring and
Evaluation plan to ease management and to regularly track performance against
the set objectives in order to inform decision making.


is governed by an independent Board of Directors appointed by the national
deligates and regional representatives. The Board of Directors membership is
specially constituted to reflect gender within the AIMYI relations with the
different partners and stakeholder, civil society  organisations, Government Ministries, and
distinguished individuals. AIMYI is headed by the Director
of Programs. Under the Director is and a finance and administration officer,
communication specialist, a Program Manager and two project Officers who are
responsible for implementing and coordinating specific programs within the


Shared Values





Some of the
systems include a curriculum weighting system, financial and
accounting systems which capture revenues and expenditures, Monitoring and
Evaluation systems to ensure quality, and Internal Audit system which examines
activities and operations of AMYI.

2.3.4 Staff

AFRISA is an equal
opportunity employer and hires staff on to merit. Staff selection at the
institute entails advertisement, reviewing, interviewing and selecting the best
candidate. COVAB staff monitors and evaluates the various aspects of a project
and services to ensure that quality standards are met. This is done by ensuring
that competent staff as well as business professionals, adjunct tutors and
Field Resident Industrial Instructors are used and also ensuring that the right
information is passed on to the trainees throughout the training sessions.
AFRISA encourages staff development by providing opportunities for continuous
learning and personal development.

2.3.5 Style of

In any
organization, people and situations change which calls for a change in
management styles to accommodate or foster a positive working environment for
all employees.  A number of management
styles are exhibited at AFRISA and these include; transformational and
result-oriented styles where management leads through vision and inspires
employees to work towards a common goal while ensuring continuous improvement.
Another management style employed is permissive democratic
where management makes decisions in a participative way by soliciting for
employee input especially during general staff meeting, which gives all
employees latitude in carrying out their work.

2.3.6 Culture

AFRISA exhibits
different organizational cultures such as inclusiveness. The purpose of this
culture characteristic is to minimize barriers to employee performance and
foster personal development. AFRISA supports this approach through team-based
approach to management. Other cultures exhibited include attention to detail as
well as people and outcome orientation since the organization works toward
transforming communities through acquisition of
knowledge in Science, Technology, Innovation (STI) as well as mindset change.




Analysis of the organization
and its institutional environment (max 1500 words)

Analyse the constraints in
the organisation including gender and justice constraints, and use appropriate
frameworks or tools




This led to a powerful urge for

This essay is an in-depth study about the European Union and its ‘near abroad’. In this essay I will outline the EU’s policies towards the adjoining states of former Communist Bloc which refers to eastern bloc countries of the Warsaw pact such as   Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and how successful they have been. The Soviet’s optically discerned NATO as a threat and composed their own coalition in 1955. It was called the Warsaw Pact which included the Soviet Union, Albania and Yugoslavia. The term ‘near abroad’ which is utilized by the Russian Federation to allude to the fourteen Soviet successor states other than Russia. Amid the Yeltsin time Russia needed to adapt to the crumple of Communism in 1991 and the joining of the former communist bloc and the EU, new challenges have resulted to both the EU and Eastern European nations. The collapse of the previous communism bloc and the consequent change of their political, financial and social frameworks, required a significant change in their worldwide connections. Subsequently relations with the European Union, and its broadening, were inseparably connected to the interior arrangements of progress from socialism to free enterprise. The challenges have led to a powerful urge for some of the former communist bloc countries to be distinguished by the European Union in social and political terms and to join the Western European states which was due to the unexpected disintegration of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia and the related savage inter­ethnic clashes. and the change to a market economy, and the end of the Cold War and the loss of their superpower status. This caused a national personality emergency that induced key moves in Russian remote arrangement toward what it assigns the close abroad. It was first used by Russia which referred to its relations with the other previous republics of the Soviet Union and it inferred the presence of an uncommon and unequal relationship for example Ukraine is one of Russia’s ‘new abroad’ countries.  Russia is known as the second most powerful country in the World after the United States because of their military power, they have the most power compared to the ‘new abroad’ countries. According to the Realism scholars such as Hans Morgenthau stresses that the concept of power is a fundamental principle and the core of international politics. Morgenthau has quoted ‘struggle for power’,  he argues that ‘power’ is a desire for human nature. It plays a vital role in International relations and world politics. Russia is one prime example of the concept of ‘struggle for power’, since decades they are struggling to be the world’s most powerful country but however, the United States have always taken the number one rank. Power is what every country desires and has many benefits but also it comes with a lot of implications which can lead to things such as war.    During the year of 2003 the European Union which is the most influential and important actors of regional integration, extended their borders for their neighboring countries such as the six Eastern European partner countries which are Georgia, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus. The ENP additionally incorporates the nations of the southern Mediterranean, however the partitioning line between the EU and these nations was not moved with the 2004 growth, and the issues postured by those fringes have for some time been a worry.  Southern Mediterranean nations were incorporated into the ENP to adjust the EU’s southern and eastern ”measurements”, reacting to worries of southern part and non-part states. Through the ENP, the EU works with its southern and eastern neighbors to accomplish the nearest conceivable political affiliation and the best conceivable level of economic integration. The EU and their neighboring countries have come up with endeavors to encourage the battle against the corruption and advance great administration through the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP). This allows the EU and the former communist bloc to work together for economic and political purposes which will help them improve. The EU serves as a free trade area and allows part states access to a bigger internal market. The policy allows both the EU and the accomplices to be more grounded and ready to manage inward and outside difficulties. This policy has been successful in improving the former communist countries such as allowing them to have access to a wider internal market which will benefit the countries to grow. However, this policy has some implications which prevents it from being fully successful as the European Neighborhood Policy have not succeeded in accomplishing their objectives as one of their main objectives was ‘peace’, However, there is still war between Armenia and Azerbaijan which clearly shows there is still no peace as they clash to have control Nagorno-Karabakh which is in Azerbaijan but is controlled by the Armenian majority.  This clearly shows how this policy has not been fully successful and it needs improvements such as bringing in policies which can benefit the EU and also the neighboring countries. For example, taking the war between Armenia and Azerbaijan into consideration the EU can bring a policy which will allow both of the countries to come together in peace and solidarity by allowing them to make a fair decision and both the countries being able to have equal control on Nagorno-Karabakh.  The large development gap between the EU and the ENP states can prevents the EU to meet their objectives to help the ENP states to improve more difficult. The EU hasn’t been fully successful with adjoining some of the former communist bloc countries to the EU. One of the countries were Yugoslavia which went through major crisis during the 1990, this was the disintegration of the state. It consisted of six states which were Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. Serbia had two self-governing territories which were Kosovo and Vojvodina. By the year of 1922 Yugoslavia was collapsing as the rise of nationalism led to the fall of communism in the Balkans. During June 1991 Slovenia and Croatia decided to break away from Yugoslavia which led to conflict with Serbia. Many people were killed in Croatia and a similar situation occurred during the period of 1992 when Bosnia broke free from Yugoslavia which angered the Serbians as they wanted to remain a part of Yugoslavia. During this process many people were killed in this brutality.  During the referendum in Slovenia the approach of the EU was normal in a way that disregarded the likelihood for potential issues, in spite of the presence of numerous signs for a conceivable calamity. It underlined that this applies just to the strategy of the EU on the grounds that on the off chance that we could guarantee the same for the singular European forces it would be naive. As per a few meanings of remote approach, indeed, even the choice not to anything is as yet an outside policy. Overlooking the Yugoslav issue was a choice and a typical position in the remote arrangement of the EU. After the referendum of Slovenia, the EU altered the course of the issue to remote arrangement from inactive to active.  The EU policies were not successful during the Yugoslavia crisis as many people died in the process and the EU took the matter lightly which led to conflict still continuing and many people being killed during the crisis. EU claims to be ‘helpful’, however, during this crisis they were unsuccessful dealing with the crisis. During the period of the crisis the EU could have took a better approach to dealing with the situation and could have created a peaceful environment as the EU is powerful and has powerful allies such as the United States.   Karl Marx also known as ‘the father of Communism’ wrote the Communism Manifesto during the year of 1848, this became an inspiration for the Communist Party. Marxism is a belief system of monetary uniformity through the disposal of private property. The convictions of Marxism focus on the possibility that imbalance and experiencing result free enterprise. Under free enterprise, private businessmen and companies claim every one of the processing plants, gear and different assets called “the methods for creation.” These proprietors, as indicated by comrade convention, would then be able to misuse specialists, who are constrained offer their work for compensation. Marxists such as Ernest Mendel (late capitalism) view the processes after the Second World War as leading to an inevitable crisis in the orthodoxy of capitalist markets. Thus, further he predicted that inequality particularly economic inequality would lead to greater instability.  In 2006 the European Commission set out an extensive new approach to European Union trade policy urgencies allowed Global Europe. In a globalized economy, in which Europe sells their goods and gets goods in return from their suppliers. The European Union trade policy allows the EU and their Neighboring countries to trade and export their goods through Europe and the other continents. This policy has been successful towards adjoining former Communist bloc countries. As it allows them to improve the stability of their economies. Trade allows those countries to have a lot of money coming in which allows them to improve the growth of their countries. This helps to create opportunities and jobs which benefits not only the citizens but the governments. The trade policy allows fairness while the different states trade their goods and will prevent any corruption or illegal factors. Trade is a major development tool which is used by the EU and the partner states which allows different countries to connect and also promote their values to another state. However, the EU trade policy has some implications, which is exporting drugs and illegal weapons through Europe and their adjoining states. Which can lead to many negative factors from occurring such as terrorism.  The former communist bloc countries can be impacted by this implication as many people misuse trading to undertake illegal activities.  The policy is successful as it allows former communist bloc countries to also trade their goods with other countries around the world to improve their economic growth. Which will not only benefit them but the EU will also be benefited. Migration policies are highly multifaceted; it can also change in different countries throughout the globe. European states have all decided for the development of the lawful migration, which is to well manage and also the improvement of integration actions for migrants and their relatives. They also have to cooperate with the countries that the migrants have come from.  Since the 1999 the European Union have been progressing on their common immigration policy. All the EU states have approved that the EU should have rules and regulations on immigration and visa for the 27 states.  They have common rules, EU-wide rules, immigration and visa rules that are valid across the EU. These rules are set in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union 2009. One of the rules is Entry and residence condition for migrants, so that all migrants that enter the EU countries will have to enter with certain conditions, which is set by the EU.  These rules are effective for the EU, as they will allow the flow of migration within the EU to be more stable and also allow the security to the migrants who are entering the EU. The National Immigration rule allows all the EU countries to decide on how many migrants they will take for the purpose of work.  The EU Migration policies have been successful in adjoining the EU and the former communist bloc countries by allowing many refugees to enter EU countries for the purpose of a better life.  According to the Migration Policy Centre the former communist bloc state Armenia have took 200,000 refugees from Azerbaijan due to the Nagorno-Karabakh war during 1988 and 1992. Many refugees fled their countries mainly because of war and conflicts. For example, the conflict in Syria the civil war has caused millions of deaths.  The government and a rebel group are fighting against each other. Countries such as the USA and the UK are getting involved by sending air strikes, which is causing more destruction. Many people have fled to the EU countries and their Neighboring states. This shows that the EU Migration policies have been highly successful towards the adjoining of the former Communist states. The Migration policies allows both the EU and their Neighboring countries to improve their border control which will also help these countries to prevent terrorism and other factors. According to Scholars such as James Frank Hollifield, he wrote a book which is called ‘Immigrants, Markets and States:  The Political Economy of Post-War Europe’, in this book he has wrote about Switzerland and many other countries and the benefit of immigration but also the negativity of it. He has written ” Foreign workers contributed significantly to Swiss economic growth by helping employers avoid labor shortages while keeping wages in check.” He clearly expresses that migrants allow the economic growth in countries such as Switzerland as they prevent labor shortages while also being paid fairly, usually employers want labor migrants as they pay them low compared to the citizens of the country. It is a benefit for the business but also a benefit for the country as it allows economic growth. This clearly shows how Migration Policies can benefit the EU and also for their Neighboring countries as it leads to stability of their economy.  However, the Migration policy is more beneficial for the EU compared to their Neighboring countries which include some of the communist bloc countries as they are creating diversity throughout Europe but not in the Neighboring countries as many refugees are fleeing to the EU.  In order for the EU to manage their migration policy efficiently and allow the growth in the EU and their Neighboring countries, they need to work together with the Neighboring countries that the migrants have come from and also the countries that the migrants pass through to get into the EU. This approach allows them to balance the three important Migration policy goals effectively.  Which are encouraging movement and permitted migration to the EU; this goal also allows development in the migrant’s home countries by improving the living standards. The Second goal is safeguarding intelligible policy making within the EU so that the global method to migration is fully integrated into all EU creativities outside the Union, which includes the growth of aid work and also foreign relations.  The third goal is to promote legal migration whilst avoiding irregular migration.  These Migration Policy goals are highly effective, as they will help to improve the flow of migration within the EU and also the Neighboring countries which will lead to economic growth. Russia also known as the Soviet Union is the largest Neighboring country of the European Union. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the relationship between Russian and the EU has been improving drastically.  Russia wanted to improve their relationship with the EU for economic growth. They believe that the EU will help them improve economically. However, the crisis between Ukraine and Russian have changed the security condition in Europe. Not exclusively did these occasions demonstrate that the European Union’s strategy towards Eastern Europe must be updated, yet they likewise demonstrated that numerous times of common endeavors to assemble trust, straightforwardness and serene space amongst Russia and the EU had fizzled. In spite of the fact that it is troublesome for a few government officials to concede, the European security framework, which was viewed as a standout amongst the most stable ones, has slammed.  The occasions, which occurred just past the Eastern outskirt of the EU, were unforeseen. In any case, there ought to have been no stun. The European Union had disregarded some essential activities made by the Russian government before the Russian-Ukrainian emergency rose. The war has been a major threat for the European Union.   The Ukrainian emergency has not just allowed Central and Eastern European worries but however, has brought additionally new difficulties and predicaments. A standout amongst the most imperative of these was the fate of the EU’s banner task:  Eastern Partnership. The way that Ukraine was relying on the EU was self-evident. In any case, not just this nation was precisely watching the European Union’s activities. The EU reaction to the emergency, and its conduct towards Russia, were critical for different nations occupied with the Eastern Partnership venture. The basic outside arrangement of the EU stays being developed. The specific interests of its individuals assume a pivotal part in outer undertakings, and the assessments about the means which ought to be taken as a reaction to Russian mediation vary starting with one nation then onto the next. This crisis can affect the EU and its Neighboring countries such as they rely on Russia for supplies.  An implication of this is that Russia will stop the provisions coming through Ukraine in view of the issues between them makes dangers for European buyers. Hence, In the coming years, the EU and their neighboring countries will most likely be compelled to find different providers or manufacturers.  The EU will have to work together with the former communist countries and come up with some solutions to stop the war and create peace between the countries or the situation can become worse. Which will not only affect the economic growth of the EU but also their Neighboring countries will be affected. The main reason of the Eastern Partnership and also the Neighboring policy was for EU to improve economically, environmentally and politically.  In my conclusion, there were many factors relating to the success of how the different European Union Policies has been a useful tool in adjoining the former Communist bloc countries such as Ukraine, Yugoslavia, Russia (Soviet Union) and other. Many EU policies have not only been beneficial for the former Communist bloc states but also the EU states as they allowed these countries to improve their growth and improve their financial stability. Moreover, these policies are not always successful. For example, the Immigration policy can lead to overpopulation, job shortages, terrorism and other. Many people disguise themselves as refugees to enter different countries to undertake terrorist activities which will affect the economy of the state negatively. For example, in Germany a Syrian refugee undertook a terrorist activity in 2016 which killed 12 innocent civilians. There are many more cases which is similar to this. This is a major threat of the Immigration policy as many people take advantage of this policy for their own benefits.  The security policy is important as it is used by the EU and the ENP states to improve the security of their countries in order to prevent any security threats from occurring and allowing the citizens of the states to feel secure. This policy helps the ENP and the EU to make decisions regarding their security and also is in place if any of the states have any security threats the other states will come to help them. This policy allows former communist bloc countries which allows them to seek help from the EU if they are under any security threats. Overall, this essay was based on the past and present effects of the EU policies in the former Communist bloc and how successful it was. From my perspective the EU policies were highly successful towards the adjoining of the former Communist bloc states as it allowed not only them to improve but also helped the EU to improve. It has brought more peace and stability in the EU and the Neighboring countries compared to before. However, it has some implications which can help to improve the policies and make it even-more successful.  

Manuel use today. In Zaragoza in the

Manuel Jalón Corominas was a Spanish inventor, engineer, and officer of the Air Force at the Zaragoza base. Born in Logroño(La Rioja), Spain on January 31st 1925. Corominas spent the majority of his life in Zaragoza. He studied aeronautical engineering in Madrid at an unknown university. Corominas wrote a doctoral thesis on aeronautical mishaps and incidents. Following his graduation, he worked in Finland and the U.S. For sometime afterwards he was in the Air Force. Manuel Jalón Corominas invented the mop we all use today. While staying in the United States, Corominas discerned how hangars. Hangars are large building with extensive floor area. Before Corominas’ mop, they were cleansed with a flat mop and a bucket with rollers. When he returned to Spain, he decided to commence the manufacture in Spain of the first “floor cleaners” or buckets with mops. Corominas’ first release of the mop was in 1856. He used a broomstick, a set of strips of cotton and a bucket with small rolling wheels to drain. Shortly after, the latter would be replaced with a funnel full of holes, which resulted in the mop we use today. In Zaragoza in the year 1958, he founded the company Manufacturas Rodex. Rodex being a generic term for mop. The company made mops for domestic and industrial use for large areas. This would lift up the Spanish women and eliminate diseases that affected the hands, spines and knees of cleaning professionals. Corominas retired from the Air Force in 1976 where he changed his career path so she could dedicate himself to the industry fully. Jalón exported his products, especially the mop, to more than 40 countries. In 1989 ore than 60 million mops were old around the world. Company stocks were were sold to the Dutch multinational Curver BV. Jalón worked on another invention of his afterwards, the disposable syringe. They were both very notable and successful inventions. The mop left a lasting impression and also aided in improving how we cleaned and quality of life in not only Spanish homes, but around the world as well. In 1991, Corominas was awarded the most prestigious prize given to companies by the local government of Zaragoza, the prize Inmortal Ciudad de Zaragoza Salduba(Immortal City of Zaragoza Salduba). In the following year, he was named the favorite son of the City of Zaragoza and ‘Riojano of the year’. Manuel Jalón Corominas died in 2011 on December 16th in Zaragoza, Spain at the age of 86.

There the US $ 100,000 in the

There are many ways to capitalize a business using debt or equity. After personal capital contributions, many small business owners may prefer to use some debt to finance the market instead of attracting additional investors. When chosen wisely, funding a long-term debt provides a series of advantages for the company and its owner.Conserve the operational cash flowMost banks offer long-term loans, a significant source of long-term debt for small businesses, for periods of three to seven years. Loans guaranteed by the Small Business Administration (SBA) can offer terms of up to 10 years. When a company uses these funds to make capital improvements, to purchase equipment or to purchase supplies, it does not use the operating cash flow. When a company uses long-term debt to finance assets not included in the balance sheet including the staff, it is primarily leveraging its profits to make the business grow.Provides leverage for owner equityA business generates income and net worth for its owners. Through the use of long-term debt, the owner takes advantage of his investment to increase his returns. If an owner contributes the US $ 100,000 in the capital and obtains a term loan of US $ 200,000, the company has the US $ 300,000 to invest. If the company generates a net profit of US $ 150,000 for the year, the monetary return of the owners would be the US $ 50,000, and its performance on capital would be 50 percent. If, on the other hand, the owner had contributed the US $ 300,000, the return on equity would only be 16.7 percent.No interference or with minimal interference from investorsWhen a company operates long-term debt, the need to continue the capital investment of potential business partners or investors decreases. As long as your loans are in excellent condition, the lenders have nothing to do with your business. Investors have rights and opinions for decision making and sometimes have a lot to say about how to run the business. Without external investors, you avoid this potential interference.Build a business creditIf you get a long-term debt financing, you increase the probability of benefiting from the additional debt contribution. Even loans guaranteed by the SBA or personally secured loans can help your business with the construction of credit in their name. If you can build your business credit, you can reduce dependence on your credit. This is not only helps you personally, but it also increases the value of your business as a sellable asset separate from you.Additional advantagesLong-term debt, in general, has fixed interest rates that translate into consistent monthly payments and high predictability. This predictability makes it easy to budget the operational revenues that are needed to make the payments. Also, the company can deduct all the interest paid on the debt.Main ways to finance yourself with private investorsVenture Capital Funds. They involve the taking of temporary holdings in the capital of the company so that it can start its journey and increase its value until a contractually fixed time arrives when the venture capital company sells its participation to achieve a benefit.Crowdfunding. An option increasingly used, thanks to different Internet platforms, which seek that through collective cooperation can develop specific projects.Participative loans. It consists of the transfer of part of the shares of the company to a capitalist partner. The main characteristic of the participative loans is that a variable interest rate is fixed, which is calculated based on a percentage agreed on the benefits that the company obtains.Business Angels They are private investors that offer capital so that entrepreneurs can start up their business projects, usually in exchange for a shareholding.Alternative Stock Market. It is a market similar to the stock market that is exclusively aimed at SMEs.Alternative Fixed Income Market (MARF). Its purpose is that SMEs can issue fixed income products (such as promissory notes and bonds, mainly in the short term).Venture Capital or Corporate Risk Capital. It supposes giving entrance in the capital of startups to big industrial groups and corporations.Advantages and disadvantages of private financingThe main advantage is that we have to fund for our project since many entrepreneurs resort to this type of funding due to the lack of access to bank financing.As for the conditions, they can be of all kinds, better or worse, from obtaining money without any consideration using crowdfunding, until having to pay a high price to repurchase shares of the company if the business has gone well.Another disadvantage is the disclosure of the project before its implementation. If we publish our project on the Internet to look for funding, let’s make sure it is not readily imitated.But the main drawback is the loss of independence, since, in many cases, private investors will take shares in society, to control the proper use of the financing granted, hoping to obtain significant capital gains on their investment.Tools and resources for managing financesIn addition to the physical and emotional impact, a cancer diagnosis can have a devastating financial impact on the lives of people who have had cancer and their families by reducing the amount of money available for general living expenses, such as rent, food, and public services. In this article, we offer some tools to plan, manage and understand one’s finances, to contribute to face these difficulties.How to manage financesPlanning a budgetA budget shows the forecast of incoming and outgoing monies. Drawing up a monthly budget is an essential step in maintaining day-to-day finances. Even if the total expenses differ from the initial forecast, the fact of making an estimate allows to detect possible problems and from there to plan strategies to follow.Preparation o.f a monthly budget in 3 steps :1.    Enter the usual income from all sources (monthly). These are your total income.2.    Write down everything you spend (regularly); you can estimate the expenses of the previous months, and classify them into different categories (rent, food, utility bills, leisure, etc.). This is your total expense.3.    Subtract the total cost from the total revenue. This will give you the balance. This is the amount you have saved each month.The elaboration of a budget can be useful to determine if at the end of the month the expenses are adjusted to the forecast, and thus help maintain control of finances. If the expenditure is higher than the income, it may be necessary to make some changes so that the situation is sustainable in the long term (either increasing revenues or reducing expenses).Key pointsPlanning, managing and understanding finances are vital to improving the personal economy. Next, we offer you a summary list of the basic tips to follow:Classification of your issues: cancer has many financial effects. You may have several problems in your mind that must be solved first.Income: checking your savings, investments, and salary will help you plan your budget.Expenses: if you try to reduce non-essential costs as much as possible, you will notice an improvement in the economy.Budget: Having a monthly budget can help you manage your daily finances.Payment management: it is essential to track your invoices and bank accounts. If you can not manage your financial affairs, ask someone you trust for help so you can lead them.Loan: ensure you have thought about different alternatives previously procuring cash. Continuously pick the most sparing kind of advance. Also, you can counsel a few assets and money related guide for individuals who have had a malignancy in this article.

Both at Denishawn was where she learnt

Both Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham were dancers and
choreographers of the early 1900s up until the late 1900s. They made a great
difference in the evolution of dance from the classic technique of ballet,
bringing techniques to light that were deemed as ugly due to their unusual nature,
but now are widely used. Martha Graham was born in Pennsylvania in 1894, the
start of her Dance career sparked with influence from her father. Graham
trained for 8 years at Denishawn School of dance and related arts after seeing
St. Dennis perform in LA in the 1900s which inspired her to dance. After these
8 years – in 1923- she left Denishawn and a further 3 years later created her
own company names ‘Martha Graham Dance Company’ during this period of her life
she discovered her own way of moving –which at the time was labelled as ugly by
critics as it was unfamiliar. The 1930s saw her work focus on emotional themes,
her best emotional dance was ‘lamentation’ a dance about mourning. While being
at Denishawn was where she learnt various styles of dance training learning how
to incorporate dance, drama and themes into dances as a form of expression.
After training and creating her own company she established her own way of
movements. This training brought new abstract movements, technique expression
and an ability to tell a story in her works. Some dominant principles of this
technique are the “spiralling” of the torso around the axis of the
spine and contractions shown in dances standing and seated. Graham technique is
known for its unique dramatic and expressive qualities and distinctive floor
work; dance critic Anna Kisselgoff described it as “powerful, dynamic,
jagged and filled with tension.”

On the other hand Merce Cunningham was born later on in 1914
in Centralia. During Cunningham’s second summer in America he met some of the
most important dancers and choreographers of the time- one of which being
Martha Graham. The 1950s saw the pair (Cunningham and John Cage) play with the
idea of ‘chance’ a choreographic technique. From this he created his company in
1953 and by 1964 was touring in Europe and Asia. He developed his own technique
within his company and broadened to teach his technique in institutes all
around the world. Before creating his company Cunningham was a soloist for
Martha Graham from 1939-1945 where he broadened his dance technique and Graham
technique. In 1950 he created the technique of chance where his career as a
choreographer blossomed. Cunningham’s dance style looks on the surface quite
balletic but his motives and methods are completely different. He widely based
his choreography on moves such as tilts, lines, twists, shapes and turns these
were used as he wanted to create different abstract movements and focused on
the idea of dancing beyond our kinesphere.

Graham shows her movement style in her choreographed piece
‘Adorations’ in 1975. This piece shows the glory, love excitement of movement
and the appetite for life that every dancer must have. Due to the dance being
an appreciation of the body Graham used many of her techniques which shows what
the body is capable of achieving in movement; contractions, breath, head tilts,
torso rotations, floor work etc. Graham expanded on the classic balletic
technique, while still using balletic moves evident in this dance where from
the start balletic arm lines are used, développé’s etc but from this classic
technique she expanded into her own technique of contracts to show to feeling
to her dance as well as showing how the body can be used in peculiar ways to
create a beautiful movement all together. Graham also used the torso, in the
floor section of Adorations the torso was used in a rotation in an attitude
position appearing the stretch the side of the body and latissimus dorsi to
create an odd movement –which was what she liked to do. In the early 1900s
contact work was not as prominent but Graham continued to use contact work in
her pieces and coming to later in her career this dance incorporated a lot of
jumps and lifts in the partner section where the male dancer created a illusion
of brushing the female across to floor to effortlessly sweep her back up.
Graham was also known for her curved lines of the arms, evidently in Adorations
on some of the turns – when balletic arms were not being used- the dancers
showed a high release curved V shape arm line.

In contrast I looked at Cunningham’s ‘Pond Way’ choreography
in 1998. As one of Cunningham’s nature studies, Pond Way evokes the trickling
effect of water, as the dancers move in wave like motions across the stage;
timing the movements so that one begins just after another. The movement was
inspired by Cunningham’s childhood game of skimming stones over a pond. This
peace illustrated many of Cunningham’s classic technical moves such as transfer
of eight, lines, turns etc. Like Graham Cunningham also used balletic movements
in his dances but only in small sections of the dance unlike Graham. He shows
balletic movement in the collaborate group section where the dancers perform
movements such as exaggerate assemblée’s which brought height and preciseness to
the dance. Cunningham showed very strong arm lines in his dancers from
beginning to end of Pond Way for example when the dancers illustrated a
crucifix position where there arms are elongated out of the side of the body
with a high release to project the body, every dancers arms looked 90 degrees
from the body, with extension and hands face down with fingers together this
shows the finer details were focused on and this therefore made the piece look
neat an well choreographed. Cunningham is also known for his use of stag leaps
in his dances – which he also did in this dance- the stag leap shown was
performed to the side of the stage in a split leap position only with the legs
bent at the knees to create the unusual shape of a stag leap.

In conclusion, both Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham
contributed greatly to the evolving of dance technique globally by bringing
tings to the table such as stag leaps, use of the torso, contraction, and
straight lines in contrast to the classic curved balletic arm lines. Where
Graham developed a whole new technique which was taught around the world,
Cunningham devised choreographic techniques which choreographers and dancers
make use of often in the modern dance world.

The state of disorder due to absence

The aim of this paper is to examine how sexuality and anarchy are interrelated in Shakespeare’s play Measure for Measure and how they jointly function in the whole course of the play. Sexuality is a word which originates from the word ‘sex’ which indicates the basic denominator of difference between the two main divisions of human as well as other living beings(namely, male and female). However, sexuality has multiple interpretations as a word. Sexuality is defined in various dictionaries as ‘capacity for sexual feeling’ or ‘a person’s sexual orientation or preference’. Sexuality is much more than mere body parts and sex, though it includes these elements also. Sexuality includes our gender identity as well the roles we have as the representatives of our respective gender. It includes our sexual orientation as well as our sexual experiences and how we shape our sexual selves. Thus we see that sexuality is a much broader term and covers wider aspects of human sexual feelings. Anarchy, on the other hand, refers to a state of disorder due to absence or non-recognition of authority or other controlling system.                        Both elements of sexuality and anarchy are dominant in this Shakespearean play and both, to a certain extent, are interrelated in the course of action in this play. We can bring a number of examples from the text to justify this point. The play is centered on the very theme of sexuality and anarchy and Shakespeare has wonderfully portrayed the nature of humans regarding sex and how a person, irrespective of the social class he/she belongs to, is vulnerable to this basic human denominator. And this vulnerability leads to a state of disorder in governance and creates a scope for abuse of power by a person of authority in order to keep him/her away from all the allegations and offenses that he/she is charged with.               Shakespeare’s play Measure for Measure is set in Vienna and the play begins with the Duke Vincentio giving away his powers and position to the inexperienced Angelo against a more experienced and ideal person Lord Escalus, with the hope that Angelo would be able to reform the city by enforcing the laws which were for long remained unused. Angelo, a man of strong morals, in accordance with the belief of the Duke, applies the laws more strictly, especially in case of sexual malpractices that were increasing in the Vienna. However, how this strict moral disciplinarian suffers from the same carnal desires for which he has severely punished his fellow city-people, and how it leads to a situation of anarchy and social and political disorder, that is expressed exceptionally by Shakespeare and it dominates the central plot of the play. There are a number of instances where we find the clash between sexuality and power which further establishes the connection between sexuality and anarchy. Some of these instances are discussed below:-            As soon as Lord Angelo gets the power and position of the Duke, he takes it upon himself to make the city clean by employing the laws more strictly, especially in sexual matters. That is evident in his statement in the Act 1, Scene 2 where he commands “All houses in the suburbs of Vienna must be plucked down” Here we learn that all the brothels in Vienna’s suburbs are scheduled to be torn down because prostitution is illegal and the spread of venereal disease is out of control. It shows that Angelo is a morally sound fellow who wants to strictly curve the sexual acts, which led to a state of chaos in the city.              However, in this process of curving the sexual malpractices in the city, Angelo orders to arrest and give capital punishment to anyone who is charged with such a crime. Claudio, Isabella’s brother is charged with fornication and is given death penalty. But when Isabella comes to plead for her brother’s life to Angelo, the newly appointed Duke gets attracted to Isabella and tries his best to use the power of his position to win Isabella. Angelo, at first tries to suppress his feelings for Isabella, but ultimately fails to control his emotions and ends up forcing the latter to sleep with him. In fact, the conversation between Angelo and Isabella in Act 2, Scene 2 and Act 2, Scene 4 is mostly relevant to the issue of anarchy in the drama. Isabella understands the intentions of Angelo and is greatly disturbed at his tyrannical behavior. That is evident from her remark in the Second Scene of Act 2 in the play.”…….O, it is excellent / To have a giant’s strength, but it is tyrannous / To use it like a giant”                                                               -Isabella (Act 2, Sc 2)               Again, in this scene at one point Isabella makes a remark about Angelo and his ill-use of power.  Isabella says,”……..But man, proud man,Dress’d in a little brief authority,Most ignorant of what he’s most assur’d—His glassy essence—like an angry apePlays such fantastic tricks before high heavenAs makes the angels weep; who, with our spleens,Would all themselves laugh mortal.”           These lines makes it evident that Angelo, according to Isabella, has become so proud of his position and power as the Duke that he considers himself superior and acts ignorantly. Isabella even compares him to an ‘angry ape’. As the conversations carry on, we find Angelo weaker and more corrupt both mentally and sexually. He tries his best to take advantage of her situation which is quite unlike his nature with which we are familiar at the beginning of the play. This man of strong moral values has become a victim of his sexual attraction and his acts reveal his abuse of power for fulfilling his own sexual urge. Angelo though is aware of his fault, is unable to stop himself from indulging in such morally corrupt acts. In Act 2, Scene 2 of the play, Angelo’s soliloquy at the end of the scene reveals his sense of guilt. This is a very important soliloquy in the play.”…….What’s this? What’s this? Is this her fault, or mine?The tempter or the tempted, who sins most, ha?Not she: nor does she tempt: but it is IThat, lying by the violet in the sun,Do as the carrion does, not as the flower,Corrupt with virtuous season. Can it beThat modesty may more betray our senseThan woman’s lightness? Having waste ground enoughShall we desire to raze the sanctuaryAnd pitch our evils there?  Oh fie, fie, fie,What dost thou or what art thou, Angelo?Dost thou desire her foully for those thingsThat make her good? Oh, let her brother live:Thieves for their robbery have authorityWhen judges steal themselves. What, do I love herThat I desire to hear her speak againAnd feast upon her eyes?  What is’t I dream on?Oh cunning enemy that, to catch a saint,With saints dost bait thy hook! Most dangerousIs that temptation that doth goad us onTo sin in loving virtue.  Never could the strumpetWith all her double vigour, art and nature,Once stir my temper; but this virtuous maidSubdues me quite.  Ever till now.”            However, the conversation between Angelo and Isabella is not the only instance which shows the strong connection between sexuality and anarchy. There are other instances as well as other characters who reveal the same in the course of this play. In this regard, we can mention the characters such as Lucio, Mistress Overdone and even the Duke Vincentio and Claudio. Mistress Overdone though appears a character from a dark background as she is a brothel-keeper, her remark of Angelo is quite apt and it reflects his anarchic attitude. In Act 1, Scene 2 she says, “O, why, here’s a change indeed in the commonwealth! What shall become of me?”  The same can be said of the remarks made by Claudio. In the same Act and same Scene at one point when Claudio is arrested, we find him saying, “Thus can the demi-god, Authority/ Make us pay down for our offence by weight./ The words of heaven; on whom it will, it will;/ On whom it will not, so; yet still ’tis just”.                 Claudio calls the new Duke’s rule as ‘tyrannical’. It reflects the fact that Angelo was indeed immature in his acts and thus appeared more tyrannical to his fellow people as he lacked sympathy and compassion. If we look at lines 145-157 of Act 1, Scene 2, we see Angelo being compared to a new rider riding a horse. This image further implies the fact that Angelo lacked the mature outlook that is expected of a person of that high a rank and thus it leads to a state of disorder and social unrest in the city of Vienna.”Unhappily, even so.And the new deputy now for the Duke-Whether it be the fault and glimpse of newness,Of whether that the body public beA horse whereon the governor doth ride,Who, newly in the seat, that it may knowHe can command, lets it straight feel the spur;Whether the tyranny be in his place,Or in his eminence that fills it up”                                                                                          – Claudio (Act 1, Sc 2)                      Lucio, who is more of a comic character in the play, also appears concerned and rather unhappy with the happenings in the city regarding law and order. Shakespeare has wonderfully used these ordinary everyday life characters in his play to bring into the notice of the readers some of the serious matters and primary concerns of the society. The same can be seen in this play. In Act 1, Scene 4 of the play, in the lines 55-64, we find Lucio commenting about Angelo, which further establishes the fact that Angelo’s ways of handling power and authority was not welcomed by even the commonplace or the socially lower cast characters. Upon his place,And with full line of his authority,Governs Lord Angelo; a man whose bloodIs very snow-broth; one who never feelsThe wanton stings and motions of the senseBut doth rebate and blunt his natural edgeWith profits of the mind, study and fast.He, to give fear to use and libertyWhich have for long run by the hideous lawAs mice by lions, hath pick’d out an act….                                                                                -Lucio (Act 1, Sc 4)                        These lines indicate the fact that Angelo appeared ruthless as a ruler without any sense of sympathy for anyone. His too much insistence on applying the laws in a harsh manner without taking into consideration any reasons or circumstances for the occurrence of the same makes him an object of dislike by almost all in Vienna. In fact, the Duke Vincentio and Lord Escalus are also aware of the fact that Angelo’s too much strict an approach in the case of applying laws without considering any moral grounds is a disturbing matter which would lead to a state of chaos. In fact, Escalus at times even argues with Angelo regarding the latter’s actions. In Act 2, Scene 1, we find Escalus telling Angelo that though Angelo is appearing to be morally sound, had situation was favorable, he would have also been tempted and even indulged in the act of bodily pleasure or sexual activity. Had time coher’d with place, or place with wishing,Or that the resolute acting of your bloodCould have attain’d th’ effect of your own purpose,Whether you had not sometime in your lifeErr’d in this point, which now you censure him, And pull’d the law upon you.                                                                                                   –Escalus (Act 2, Sc 1)                      As the play progresses, we as readers get a clear idea that sexual corruption of the people of authority can lead to a state of great social chaos and disorder and the law as a tool of judgement can be misused for individual or personal benefits. Angelo, being sexually attracted towards Isabella, lefts no stone unturned to force her to sleep with him. Isabella appears helpless at the hands of authority, personified by Angelo, until she is saved by Duke Vincentio through a well-constructed plan. Though at the end, things get sorted, the lesson is clear. The sexual urges or desires of man of high rank can lead to a situation of absolute breakdown of law and order. That is evident from the aside uttered by the old Duke in the Scene 2 of the Fourth Act.”When vice makes mercy, mercy’s so extendedThat for the fault’s love is th’ offender friended.”                                                                                                 -Duke Vincentio (Act 4, Sc 2)                   In the course of the play, the Duke Vincentio though tries to play the role of a god, at the hands of fate he appears more human and at times even helpless. This, no doubt creates a kind of suspense in the drama. However, at the end of the play everything is finally sorted out and order and peace is restored. Thus the state of anarchy motivated by the sexual desires of Lord Angelo was finally resolved.               In fine, Shakespeare’s Measure for Measure is an exceptional play where the writer deals with various themes such as morality and judgement, law and justice, statecraft, interrogation of authority etc. However, one of the most dominant themes in the play is, of course, sexuality and anarchy. Apart from the actions, the characters also are created mostly around this theme. There are certain characters, who indulge in sexual activities like Mistress Overdone, Lucio, Kate Keepdown etc. In fact, Claudio and Juliet, though with mutual consent, were indulged in sexual intercourse. These immoral persons and their unchecked or uncontrolled sexual activities led to further disorder in the state affairs in Vienna. But ultimately things are sorted out by the old Duke by employing Plato’s principle of ensuring social stability through marriage. At the end of the play, we find most of the characters are married off in order to ensure the fact that social order in restored in Vienna. Thus, marriage appears to be a solution to sexual malpractices and social disorder or anarchy.

MTT cell line, compounds 6 and 9

MTT cytotoxicity assay

vitro cytotoxicity test is mainly performed to screen
potentially toxic compounds that affect basic cellular functions 26. The
molecular cancer cell lines profiling is also essential for the development of
new anticancer drugs and for understanding the mechanism of action and the
patterns involved in cell resistance to chemotherapeutics already used in the
treatment of cancer. Moreover, cancer cell lines can be a powerful tool for the
identification of genes alterations or pathways related to cancer and for the
discovery of putative drug targets 27.

In MCF-7 breast cancer cell line study,
compounds 6 (3,6,7- trihydroxy-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one) and 9
(isopropyl linoleate) exhibited good cytotoxic activity with the IC50
value of 83.80 and 75.16 µg/ml,
1(3-hexen-1-yl benzoate) and 4 (1-(2,4,5 trihydroxyphenyl)-1-butanone)
exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity with the IC50 value of 120.08
and 152.30 µg/ml, compounds
2 (2,3-dihydroxypropanal) and 11 (oleic acid eicosylester) exhibited less
cytotoxic activity with the IC50 value of 187.50 and 208.22 µg/ml (Table-1).  In A549 lung cancer cell line, compounds 6 and
9 exhibited good cytotoxic activity with the IC50 value of 84.46 and
78.60 µg/ml, compounds
1 and 4 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity with the IC50 value of
107.30µg/ml and 139.01 µg/ml , compounds
2 and 11 exhibited less cytotoxic activity with the IC50 value of
168.48 and 190.50 µg/ml
against  A549 lung cancer cell lines
(Table-2). The effect of isolated compounds on percentage
growth of MCF-7 and A-549 cell line illustrated in Fig. 2 and Fig, 4 depicts
the cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds at different concentrations of 10,
50, 100, 150 and 200 µg/ml against breast and lung cancer cells. The
results clearly indicate that the compounds 6 and 9 decreases cell viability
and induces the cytotoxic effect in breast cancer MCF-7 cells and lung cancer
A-549 cells more efficiently compared to the other isolated compounds.

Abstract- lighting system turns the light ON

Abstract- The paper
is designed for street light with auto intensity control with the help of PWM
technique using solar power controlled by Raspberry Pi board. As sun is
renewable source of solar energy, awareness for solar energy is increasing, and
everyone is trying to use solar energy for their work. Solar panels are used
for charging solar cells by converting the sunlight into electricity. The
intensity of street lights is required to be kept high during traffic. As the
traffic on the roads decreases in late nights, the intensity of street light
can be reduced. In High Intensity Discharge lamps (HID) the intensity is not
controllable because when reduction of voltage is done then discharge path
breaks. But in LED lights because of PWM technique the intensity is controllable.
A Raspberry Pi board is used to provide different intensities at the different
situations of traffic at night time using PWM techniques, for energy saving. Intelligent
street lighting system turns the light ON and OFF depending on the vehicle or
pedestrian movement.


Key words- LED Lamps, Raspberry
pi, Sensors, LDR, RFID card and Reader. 




The Street lights are the major requirements in
today’s life for safety purposes, to reduce crime rate and avoiding accidents
during night. Providing street lighting is one of the most important and
expensive responsibilities of a city. It also encourages social inclusion by
providing an environment in which people feel they can walk in hours of
darkness. Despite that in today’s busy lifestyle no one bothers to switch
lights OFF/ON when not required. Inefficient lighting wastes significant
financial resources each year, and poor lighting creates unsafe conditions.
Energy efficient technologies and design can cut street lighting costs

     At present,
street lamps are controlled manually in most of the cities. Generally street
lights are switched ON for whole night and, during the day, they are switched
OFF. But at night time there is no necessity of street lights when there is no traffic.
The proposed system in this paper implements smart street lighting system in
which block of street lights turns ON after detection of vehicle and as soon as
the vehicle moves ahead the trailing lights automatically switches OFF. Now-a-days,
the street lights are working on electricity. The electricity is generated by
renewable and nonrenewable sources. Nonrenewable sources are getting reduced
day by day. In proposed system instead of using nonrenewable sources, renewable
source such as sun is used to generate the energy to switch ON the street

    The paper presents an automatic street light
controller using Light Dependent Resistor (LDR). By using this system manual
works are removed. The street lights are automatically switched ON when the
sunlight goes below the visible region of our eyes and switches OFF the
streetlight when ample amount of sunlight is available, it means LDR resistance
is inversely proportional to light falling on it. Whenever there is sufficient
light falling on the LDR, it exhibits high resistance and acts as an insulator
and in darkness the LDR behaves as low resistance path and allows the flow of

When the light falls on the LDR it sends the commands
to the control circuit that it should be in the OFF state and the streetlight
turns OFF.

This proposed system provides a solution for energy
saving. This is achieved by sensing an approaching vehicle and then switches ON
a street light ahead of the vehicle. As the vehicle passes by, the trailing lights
gets dimmed automatically.




    Lighting can account for 10-38% of the total energy bill in typical
cities worldwide. Street lighting is a particularly critical concern for public
authorities in developing countries because of its strategic importance for
economic and social stability. The main consideration in the present field
technologies are Automation, Power consumption and cost effectiveness.
Automation is intended to reduce man power with the help of intelligent
systems. The busy lifestyle of humans has led to untimely switching of street
lights. As a result lot of power is being wasted. The advanced development in
embedded system has set a platform for designing energy efficient systems.
Electrical Power wastage can be reduced by using two light dependent resistors
as light sensing devices or light sensors to indicate day or night time. A
photoelectric sensor has been used to detect the movement of humans and
vehicles on the streets. The supply to the control unit and to light the street
light is being achieved by the implementation of solar panels.

    Overview of
the previous work done related to the vehicle movement using street light
detection by different authors is explained in the literature survey. The
strategic implementation of the different communication technologies and the
methodology used in system is discussed briefly.

    “The Smart Street Light System based on
Image Processing” 1 implemented by
Veena P C, Paulsy Tharakan, Hima Haridas, Ramya K, Riya Joju, Ms. Jyothis T S
in 2016 consists of LED Lamps, Raspberry Pi, Sensors, LDR, OLFC. The Smart
Street Light System based on Image Processing, is a hardware application
which  takes video as input and   detect movement of vehicles and human beings
to switch ON only a chunk of street lights ahead of it (vehicle & human),
and to switch OFF the trailing lights to save energy . The Object Level Frame
comparison methodology is used to detect the vehicles and humans. Sensors are
also included in this system to detect whether the temperature and gas are
exceeding in the particular area and send a SMS immediately to the
corresponding department via a GSM module. Raspberry Pi is used as the platform
as it enables the number of modules to be connected to it through the various
ports. A camera connected to the Raspberry Pi is the element through which
input image is taken. The LDR is used to measure the intensity of light. The
merits of this system are power reduction and this system is used to save
energy and demerits are high initial cost and no backup plan. Because of these
two demerits this system is not much efficient 1.

Intelligent System for Monitoring and Controlling of Street Light using GSM
Technology” 2 implemented by Ms.
Swati Rajesh Parekar, Prof. Manoj M. Dongre in 2015, consists of Atmega
microcontroller, GSM, LED, Raspberry Pi, 
Sensors, Street Light. The system is designed such a way that lights
sensors (LDR), RTC and Presence sensor placed in all street lights circuit will
turn ON and OFF lamps automatically. When the lights are turn ON every light
pole having current sensor informs about fault to the centralized system by
using GSM module attached to circuit via Short Message Service (SMS). The
information through SMS is received at Base station with Raspberry Pi (a compute
module), analyzes the data and the status of street lamp is visualized with
help of Graphical User Interface (GUI). This makes the fault detection and
maintenance of system easy than the conventional system. System makes the most
efficient use of the energy received from the sun to power street lights. The
merits of this system are use of solar panels and this system is flexible
according to need of user and demerit of this system is that this system is
very expensive. Because of this the system is not useful in the rural areas
where there is low budget. The rural area lighting is the main application of
our project and this system does not applicable there 2.

    “Design and implementation of Traffic Flow
based Street Light Control System with effective utilization of solar energy” 3
implemented by M.Abhishek , Syed ajram shah, K.Chetan, K.Arun kumar used, 8052
series microcontroller, LDR, Photoelectric Sensor, Street Lights in Design and
implementation of Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with effective
utilization of solar energy. In this system renewable source of energy i.e.,
solar power is used for street lighting. Apart from this, normal bulbs are
replaced in street lighting with LEDs due to which the power consumption in
reduced by 3 times. And also, IR sensors are used to detect the movement of
object to activate the lighting a few meters before the object is about to
reach the lighting area. Here, the IR sensors are deactivated after a timing
delay of 30seconds and similarly remaining sensors are activated and
deactivated after 30seconds. The process is controlled by 8052 series
microcontroller. The merits of this system are power reduction and this system
is used to save energy and demerits are high initial cost and no backup plan.
Because of these two demerits this system is not much efficient. Because of no
backup plan we cannot relia on the system totally. Because of this we have to
search for other options 3. 

    “Internet of Things Based Intelligent
Street Lighting System for Smart City” 4 implemented by  Parkash, Prabu V, Dandu Rajendra in 2016.
This system is implemented with smart embedded system which controls the street
lights based on detection of vehicles or any other obstacles on the street
.Whenever the vehicle is detected light will get automatically ON/OFF and the
same information can be accessed through internet. The system architecture of
the intelligent street light system consists of IR sensors, LDR, PIC16F877A
microcontroller, Relay, UART and Wi-Fi Module. When a light dependent resistor
is kept in dark, its resistance is very high. The vehicle which passes by the
street light is detected by IR sensor (IR transmitter and IR receiver couple).
Relays are used as a switch to switch on/off the street light bulb. The real
time information of the street light (ON/OFF Status) can be accessed from
anytime, anywhere through internet.  The
merit of this system is reduction of manpower, automatic switching of street
lights, reduction in CO?
emission, Reduction of light pollution, wireless communication, energy saving
and demerits are initial cost and maintenance is high. Because of these
two demerits this system is not much efficient. And it is not used in such
areas where there is less budget to implement smart street lighting project

   “Smart street lighting system based on
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)” 5 
implemented by Dr. D. V. Pushpa Latha, Dr. K.R.Sudha, Swati Devabhaktuni
in 2014 describe about and input sensing devices. The proposed controller gives
fast, reliable, and power efficient street lamp switching based on seasonal
variations. The simulated results are also verified experimentally by using a
Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) which senses the light. LDR is used as the
replacement for the seasonal variation. This paper confirms that the proposed
PLC based street lighting control system has great potential to revolutionize
street lighting which in turn saves large amount of power. But PLC’s are used
for automation of industrial electro-mechanical processes which does not help
in our proposed system 5.




    The proposed
system provides a solution for energy saving. This is achieved by sensing an
approaching vehicle and then switches ON a block of street lights ahead of the
vehicle. As the vehicle passes by, the trailing light gets dimmed
automatically. Thus, we save a lot of energy. So when there are no vehicles on
the highway, then intensity of light becomes low.

    This system is
developed using Raspberry Pi along with various sensors sensing the vehicle.
LDR is used to automatically switch ON the street lights when the sunlight goes
below the visible region of our eyes and switches OFF the streetlight when some
amount of sunlight is available. LDR is used to identify the difference between
day and night. This system should have to turn ON at night time and remains OFF
at day time and this is achieved with the help of LDR. To sense the vehicle IR
sensors are used. Pair of IR transmitter and receiver situated on both sides of
the road detects vehicles and give command to control unit to turn ON/OFF block
of street light.  When vehicle or any
other object is sensed by IR sensor, then the street lights will glow. And if
vehicle or any other object is not detected by IR sensor, then the street
lights will remain in OFF state. The control unit used here is Raspberry Pi.

    The energy
supply required for control unit and street lights is given from the renewable
source, Sun. The solar energy is taken with help of solar panel and stored in a
battery. The energy stored in battery is in the form of AC but Raspberry Pi
work on DC. So ADC operation is required in proposed system. Raspberry Pi
cannot drive LEDs directly, so MOSFET drive is required to drive LED.

    The main
power supply is used as a backup plan when solar panels are not working
properly or when there is insufficient solar energy. To drive Raspberry Pi +5V
DC supply is required.  The supply from
mains is 230V, 50Hz. To convert this into +5V DC supply transformer, rectifier,
filter are used.

    RFID card on
the car and RFID reader on the pole is placed. With help of RFID reader whole
information of car can ban be displayed on LCD. The information of car is its
unique plate no. and information of car owner. To avoid collision ultrasonic
sensor is used.  In rainy season
sometimes there may be condition that the driver may not see beyond some limit.
So in such situation the ultrasonic sensor may help the driver to get the
information about the vehicles or obstacles ahead of him. There may be some
another situations too, so to drive safely in such tricky condition is very
difficult job. In such cases ultrasonic sensor may help the driver to drive
safely. Sometimes when driver feels sleepy there is a chance of accident. In
system when driver lose his grip from steering, then vibrations are given to
driver’s chair. Because of this  chances
of accident reduces to some extent.






Fig 1: Block Diagram of Vehicle Movement
using Street Light Detection





Flow of the implemented system is explained with
the help of following flowcharts. Fig. 2 shows the flowchart for checking day
and night condition using LDR. Flowchart for vehicle detection is shown in Fig

initialize all the devices. After the initialization is done, check day and
night condition using LDR. As we know the LDR is Light Dependent Resistor, it
works on the internal resistance. At day time internal resistance is high and
at night time internal resistance is low. When resistance is low, make street
lighting system ON. When resistance is high make street lighting system OFF. 

detection of vehicle by IR sensor, IR sensor will send signal to Raspberry pi
to turn ON street light. When the vehicle is not detected by IR sensor, the
street light will remains OFF.



Fig 2: Flowchart for checking day and night
condition using LDR




Fig 3: Flowchart for vehicle detection





In table 1, it shows an analysis and comparison about
current systems.


Table 1: Analysis of recently proposed


Title of Paper

 Components Used



 Smart Street
Light System based on Image Processing

  LED Lamps, Raspberry pi, sensors, LDR,

 Power reduction , Used to save energy

 High initial cost ,No backup plan.

 An Intelligent
System for Monitoring and Controlling of Street Light using GSM Technology

 At mega , GSM, LED,  Raspberry Pi,  Sensors, Street Light.

 Use of solar panels, Flexible according to
need of user.


 Design and
implementation of Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with
effective utilization of solar energy

 Microcontroller ,LDR, Photoelectric sensor.

 Automatic ON/OFF mechanism of street

Because of one microcontroller the
controllability and operation of street lighting is difficult.

of Things Based Intelligent Street Lighting System for Smart City

 PIC Microcontroller, IR Sensor, Current
Sensor, LDR, Intel Galileo Gen2.

 Reduction of manpower.

 Initial cost and maintenance is high .





In proposed system IR sensor will detect the movement
of vehicle. When vehicle is detected by IR sensor, it will inform to control
unit i.e. Raspberry Pi about the presence of vehicle. Then Raspberry Pi will
control the switching operation of street light. To turn ON the system we have
to use LDR. LDR will check intensity of light. According to light intensity (if
it is low, then system will turn ON and if intensity is high system remains
OFF). The energy provided to whole system is solar energy with the help of
solar panels and this energy is stored in batteries. Whenever there is absence
of solar energy or failure of solar supply to the system, the main switch will give energy to whole system. To know
about the information of car, RFID card and RFID reader is used and the
information is displayed on LCD. To avoid collision ultrasonic sensor is used.  When driver feels sleepy , to alert him and to
avoid accident vibrations are provided to driver’s chair.



Fig 4: Expected result


    As shown in
above Fig 4, the street lights should glow after detecting vehicle or other



The project has been studied and designed using
raspberry pi. The main benefit of the present system is power saving. This
initiative will help the government to save this energy and meet the domestic
and industrial needs. In addition to energy consumption, another advantage it
provides less maintenance cost. This project is cost effective, practical, and
the safe to travel at night time. According to statistical data we can save
more electrical energy that is now consumed by the highways. We have
implemented a prototype of this system. The proposed system is especially
appropriate for street lighting in city and rural areas where the traffic is
low at night times. Independence of the power network permits to implement it
in remote areas where the classical systems are prohibitively expensive. The
system is versatile, extendable and totally adjustable to user need.




P C, Paulsy Tharakan , Hima Haridas, Ramya K , Riya Joju, Ms. Jyothis T S,”Smart
Street Light System based on Image Processing,” 2016 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing
Technologies ICCPCT


Swati Rajesh Parekar , Prof. Manoj M. Dongre, “An Intelligent System for Monitoring and Controlling of
Street Light using GSM Technology,” 2015 International Conference on Information Processing (ICIP)
Vishwakarma Institute of Technology.
Dec 16-19,2015


3     M.Abhishek ,
Syed ajram shah, K.Chetan, K.Arun kumar,”Design and implementation of
Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with effective utilization of
solar energy,” International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance
Technology, IJSEAT, Vol 3, Issue 9 ISSN 2321-6905 September-2015


4     Parkash, Prabu
V, Dandu Rajendra ,”Internet of Things Based Intelligent Street Lighting
System for Smart City,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,
Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Vol.
5, Issue 5, May 2016


5     Dr. D.V.Pushpa
Latha, Dr. K.R.Sudha, Swati Devabhaktuni, “PLC
based Smart S Street Lighting
Control”, I.J.Intelligent System and Applications, 2014, 01, 64-72.


6     Raspberry Pi
Foundation, UK registered charity 1129409


Jones, Rory (5thMay 2011), Peter (3rdJune 2011), Bush, Steve (25thMay 2011), “Dongle computer solve the programming on a


Rahul, K.Haripriya, E.Sneha, “Smart
Energy Management System Based on Zigbee
Technology”, 11thMarch 2015.
































Depression, number of creative people. The purpose

Depression, Anxiety
and other common mental health illnesses are becoming a more recurring issue
within each year. In 2014, The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (AMPS), which
has been carried out every seven years since 1993, took place in England and revealed
that one in six (17%) people, over the age of 16, have a common mental
disorder. The percentage has increased from the survey taken in 2007 of which
results were 16.2%. These do not include children under the age of 16.


It is proven that art
and music can be therapeutic for people who are suffering with mental
illnesses. Creative arts allow students with mental disorders to express their
thoughts and feelings in a way which makes them feel most comfortable. Unfortunately,
many art and music courses are being closed down in schools and tuition fees
are often too high. This can be more stressful than therapeutic for a large
number of creative people.


The purpose of this
report is to evaluate the difference between creative and non-creative minds.

The aim is to find an answer to the question on what kind of impact does mental
illness have on, to help influence a design of a space which will support
creative minds who suffer from mental health disorders and educate others on
how they can help.

In play a role in accomplishing them

In today’s dynamic world things change every moment. The expectation varies every minute and the target is no more static. It keeps evolving and is a moving target. In spite of all these the CEO of any organisation must hold the fort and keep marching towards his goals. They must play several roles within the same suit without harming he execution and the business results. Their priorities include being futuristic, commitment to business profits, fostering technology usage and Business growth.In a recent PwC’s 21st CEO survey, “Whats on the mind of 1293 CEOs around the world?”, few things came up very heavy as the top threats globally. Among the top 10 threats across the globe spanning from Northern America, Western Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, CEE, Middle East and Africa were the below;Now if we look at the priorities outlined the most important factors which would play a role in accomplishing them with ease and a proper balance would be People, People and People.We cannot expect technologies to turn around things unless it is effectively understood and implement. Baring to the idea that eventually technology would shape things better than humans, it is very obvious to utilise and people at the right situation than in all situations.Traditionally People functions have always been considered as the support arm and is marginally involved in decision making process. However, we tend to ignore the fact that these functions are responsible for the upbringing of the most important asset of any organisation which is PEOPLE. The guide below is an attempt to conceptualises the mindset that top executives should consider making the most of the People Analytics functions. This reliability would foster top executives to make rational decisions than more on their gut. We frame this as TABOO ™ since it’s a myth restricting the involvement of a certain community in the fair decision-making model.T – Trust is HR processesA – acknowledging the need for People AnalyticsB – Bureaucracy getting eliminatedO – often but not alwaysO – Of course People Analytics makes a difference / Opportunities created


I'm James!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out