Health Risk Assessment Essay

The mutations during homeostasis causes uncontrolled proliferation f stem cells resulting in overcrowding of bone marrow and decreased production and function of normal homeopathic cells (Whether, 2012). The leukemia stem cells will then enter the blood stream affecting other organs such as the liver, spleen, lampshades, and under certain circumstances the central nervous system. The mutant clone may demonstrate unique morphologic, cytokine, and omnipotence’s features that can be used to classify the particular type of leukemia (Caldwell, 2007).

Leukemia can be fatal if left untreated because of the inhibited ability to produce and provide aroma red blood cells, white blood cells, and plates to maintain homeostasis mechanisms. There are several modifying risk factors for leukemia including: exposure to high energy radiation, exposure to benzene and certain other chemicals, exposure to herbicides and/or pesticides, drugs that cause bone marrow depression such as Cottony, and adults over 60 who smoke have an increased risk.

The underlining factor to all of the environmental or modifiable risk factors are the genetic mutations caused when exposed to the chemical for long periods Of time. Radiation is the most commonly linked environmental factor in the development of cancers. The most convincing evidence linking radiation and the development of leukemia is research conducted after the Hiroshima nuclear bombings. The survivors of the Hiroshima attacks were monitored for several years and leukemia and tumor development were found to be the most common diseases caused by immense radiation exposure.

Scientists also evaluated the outcomes of exposure to various levels of radiation and found that the higher the radiation dose, the greater the incidence of leukemia (Booze, 2009). Also, there has been a linkage between the development of leukemia and those individuals receiving radiation treatment or other forms of cancer. Therefore, the relationship between radiation and leukemia is a linear one. In order to reduce the risk of leukemia or cancer in general an individual must know how to limit their exposure and radiation exposure frequently occurs.

Individuals who work with or in radiology departments are an increased risk of exposure to radiation. In the hospital setting, there are several measures that can be initiated to limit the exposure to radiations such as: using imaging systems that use the lowest possible radiation dose, beam filters, limiting the region of the body being scanned to the smallest possible area, and eliminating unnecessary exams.

General rules in limiting the exposure are: time, limit the amount of time; distance, the greater the distance the less exposure; shielding, barriers such as lead, concrete, and water give effective protection; containment, keeping the radioactive particles confined to small spaces and protected. Benzene is another environmental risk that has been linked to the increased risk of leukemia. Benzene starts off as a liquid but evaporates quickly and is produced from natural occurrences such as forest fires or volcano’s.

Individuals are most often exposed to benzene through breathing in contaminated air. Those at risk for inhaling benzene are those individuals who work in tire factories, oil refineries, chemical plants, steel workers, lab technicians, and firefighters. In addition, cigarette smoke is a large contributor to the consumption of benzene among populations. Benzene has shown to be harmful in tests conducted both in laboratory setting and on humans.

Benzene alters the chemical make up in cells increasing the incidence of mutations during DNA replication. In order to limit the exposure to benzene, especially those in industries that SE it for manufacturing, it is important individuals use personal protective equipment containing filtered mask and ensure the room is well ventilated. In addition, talking with employers or research facilities to determine if there is a substitute that can be used in product development.

Considering smoking is a large contributing factor to benzene exposure; stay away from cigarette smoke or if the individual is a smoker they need to quit. The other categories Of chemicals associated with the development Of leukemia are herbicides and pesticides. The majority of more than 30 studies n the medical literature show an association between adult leukemia and farming and/or herbicide/pesticide exposure (Booze, 2009). Just as in benzene and radiation exposure to these chemicals can alter DNA leading to mutations that have been linked to cancer.

Certain politicians or political organizations Essay

Everyone in the United States of America has an opinion on gun control regardless of their age, race, or religion. From within those opinions arguments are formed. People are arguing about gun control at their jobs, at their schools, and sometimes at their places of worship. On one side of things there are the people that support gun control like certain politicians or political organizations, teachers, police officers, and so on.

On the other side of things there are the people that are against gun control, people such as hunters and various types of criminals. When it comes down to sensitive topics like gun control, there are very few people that do not choose a side. The Second Amendment, like all Amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights, is not absolute. There are vague legal boundaries that have been set down thus far which answers some questions, but leave many more open (Sanders).

Over the past few years there have been many incidents when children bring guns to school and shoot their fellow classmate(s) and/or teacher(s). The most recent and probably most tragic happened in 1998 at Colombine High School in Colorado when a group of students entered the school and murdered several students and a teacher. The first thing that everyone wondered once they finally heard the news is how the children got the guns?

Supporters of gun control believe that if there were harsher gun laws, a lot of the school shootings would have never taken place and a lot of lives could have been saved. In a Brooklyn, New York federal court case brought against gun makers by individual people, a jury found that 15 of the gun making companies had negligently flooded southern states with guns, where control laws that are lax, and fed a black market of guns to states with more stringent controls, like New York (Nesbitt).

This proves that if gun control advocates can win in a place like New York with tougher gun control laws, they can win in almost any major city, which could also lead to the federal government passing more gun control laws. In Georgia, pro-gun forces scored a victory when Governor Roy Barnes, a Democrat endorsed by the National Rifle Association while campaigning, signed legislation that keeps all the cities in that state from suing gun manufacturers (Nesbitt). Though it is not right, it is obvious that street gangs and drug dealers have a say in this argument.

Starting from the bottom of the cycle to the top: if street thugs didn’t have guns, how would they be able to protect themselves and the drugs they sell in order to make a living, who would they intimidate, what authority would the police and drug enforcement officers have over criminals, and how would they protect themselves? Without guns the crime rate would decrease rapidly, crime fighters would be out of business, and many people would be unemployed. In rural areas and in farming communities there are also some people that like to hunt.

Without a gun they would not be able to hunt, which could have a positive or negative affect on their community. The positive affect would be that some endangered species would be given the change to multiply and survive. The negative affect would be that the hunters would not be able to provide food for his family and a lot of over-populated and dangerous species would continue to grow. According to one Web site, every hour in the United States someone under the age of 25 dies from a gunshot wound. There are also nearly 200 million firearms in this country and a new one is produced every eight seconds (”Gun Violence”).

Monkey Island And Missing May Essay

Monkey Island and Missing May were both very well written fictional books. I did not think Missing May was believable though. I don t expect a child will relate to a young orphan girl whose uncle is trying to contact the spiritual realm in search of his wife, May. Monkey Island on the other hand was quite believable. It sounds like the thoughts of an 11-year-old boy whose parents deserted him.

I feel he should have been angrier with his mother for acting like a child herself but then again he s a lonely child who will do anything to be with his family again. In Monkey Island, Buddy collected things from everywhere and in Missing May, Cletus also collected things. Both collected things for different reasons. Buddy collected things for survival and because you never know when you might need it. Cletus collected things because he felt everything had a story in it. He mostly collected pictures and pamphlets.

Cletus and Calvin (from Monkey Island) are both a little “strange” but they both mean well. Cletus collects stories and Calvin writes them. Ob from Missing May and Clay s mother from Monkey Island both seemed lost. They were both caught in a world of disillusion and denial. Ob couldn t believe that May was gone and Clay s mother had a baby coming and was terribly confused. In the end, they both seemed to find peace. I preferred Monkey Island because it seemed the most real to me.

I couldn t “exactly” relate but I know what it feels like to be alone and scared. A friend and I were once homeless for a day. We went to New York with two dollars and a blanket. It was the most horrible experience of my life. I was cold and hungry and then it had to start raining. More than ever, I just wanted to be in my nice warm bed with my mother in the next room. I was about 16 at the time. I can imagine how devastating it must be for a helpless 11-year-old alone on the city streets for weeks.

Nurturing a Natural Brand Community Essay

Smack took a long look at some of the world’s top brands and found the most successful businesses all have one thing in common: a loyal following of everyday consumers. Consumers that form vibrant and loyal communities around a brand, what Smack calls Brand Communities. This white paper will give you a quick look at how a major corporation corralled a number of its naturally occurring communities into a single, corporate led Brand Community. Harley-Davidson Case Study: Nurturing a Natural Brand Community When you think of Harley-Davidson, what comes to mind?

Well, motorcycles for sure. But if that wasn’t your first thought, we’d argue that it was probably an open desert highway, leather boots and gear, and a rumbling exhaust that could make a jet engine seem all too meek. We’d also argue that Harley-Davidson symbolizes rebellion, youth, freedom, and open possibilities. Kind of like the first time you let go of the handle bars while riding your bike. It’s an image created by the people. The riders. The enthusiasts that made Harley-Davidson one of the most recognizable and mythological brands in the world.

It’s an image the company itself may have tried to dump, but lucky for them, they did something far smarter. Harley-Davidson nurtured the community surrounding the brand creating a corporate sanctioned Harley-Davidson Brand Community. HOG Nurturing the Harley-Davidson Community Seeing how deeply the Harley-Davidson culture was ingrained in the members of its fledgling Brand Community, the company initiated HOG, the Harley-Davidson Owners Group in 1983. HOG began as a program to help organize chapters and allow for greater interaction between members of the Harley-Davidson Brand Community.

In the first two years alone, HOG grew to 49 chapters and over 60,000 members. Today there are over 1,100 chapters and over 1 Million chapter members. But it wasn’t simply the initiation of HOG that allowed for HarleyDavidson to nurture and feed its existing Brand Community. It was the authenticity that Harley-Davidson provided that helped the Harley-Davidson Brand Community thrive. In fact, HOG was created in such a way that didn’t infringe on what made the natural Harley-Davidson Community so successful: The Beginnings of the Harley-Davidson Brand Community

The seeds of the Harley-Davidson Brand Community were sown by living the experience of the brand the way it was meant to be experienced; by riding. Soon after the inception of the company, motorcycle clubs began emerging across much of North America. These chapters quickly initiated rules to govern membership eligibility, codes of conduct and social hierarchies. Rallies were common and helpful to the seeding of the Brand Community because they allowed people with a common love of HarleyDavidson Motorcycles to meet and share their experiences, as well as learn more about the brand.

Consciousness of a Kind By restricting membership to owners of Harley-Davidson motorcycles, HOG ensured that only brand loyalists existed within the community. Shared Rituals and Traditions By maintaining the Chapter structure, holding and sponsoring Harley-Davidson rallies, and allowing members to openly share their brand experiences, HOG ensured that the mythology surrounding the brand would thrive through future generations. Moral Responsibility

Again, strict rules governing membership, along with the hierarchal structure of the chapters, allows for the community to police itself and ensure that only the purest of loyalists have the most say in the community. Nurturing a Natural Brand Community HOG Goes Online In 2001, Harley-Davidson launched their H. O. G. program over the Internet making it easier for enthusiasts to join the HarleyDavidson Community, for members to gain a greater brand experience even when away from their motorcycles, and to connect with other members they may never have had a chance to meet before.

A quick hop through harley-davidson. com’s US Riders section will demonstrate numerous features that help encourage member interaction including event sign ups, event details, subscription to Enthusiast and Hog Tales magazines and so much more. Today Harley-Davidson is in full alignment with the dreams and expectations of the Harley-Davidson owner because it was the Harley owner that dictated what the brand stood for. HarleyDavidson simply adapted to direction set by them. As a result, Harley-Davidson has seen unprecedented success in consumer loyalty, brand equity, and the bottom line.

Building Your Brand Community Building a Brand Community around your brand can be both prosperous, and beneficial to the growth and maturity of your company. But you don’t have to tackle building your own Brand Community alone. Smack can help. Smack Inc is a brand management agency that specializes in executing fully integrated marketing strategies that help develop your Brand Community. To learn more about Smack services or Brand Communities, please feel free to contact us at [email protected] com or browse to www. smackinc. com.

Gated communities in England as a response to crime and disorder Essay

Gated communities, meaning residential developments which restrict access by non-residents and have a specifically collective legal framework, are a recent global phenomenon. The paper discusses aspects of neo-liberalism which may explain their growth: increasing fear of crime alongside commodification, the movement from community to individualism, and from informal to formal systems of social control. Research into gated communities in England has shown that residents’ motives are varied and complex. However, although security and fear of crime was an important issue, the major motivation for purchasers was maintenance of property values.

The paper concludes that gated communities are not an effective response to current issues of crime and disorder in terms of physical security and collective efficacy; nor do they assist in regenerating deprived areas, or tackling problems of disorder on large social rented estates. Indeed, any further growth in the collective fortification of affluent homes and retro-gating of social rented estates is likely to contribute to increased social divisiveness. Keywords: Gated communities; fear of crime; residents’ motivations; social divisiveness; collective efficacy Introduction

This paper is based on a national study of gated communities carried out for the ODPM New Horizons programme (Atkinson et al. , 2004) and on a small-scale project funded by the British Academy, researching new purchasers in a suburban gated community (Blandy and Lister, 2005). It addresses the issues of why gated communities have emerged as a global phenomenon, and focuses on gated communities as a housing response to current issues of crime and disorder, questioning their effectiveness and bringing out the implications of the growth of this type of fortified housing development.

In this paper I will adopt the definition used for the ODPM New Horizons research, which encompasses the two essential aspects of gated communities. First, in physical terms, a gated community is a fenced or walled residential area, to which access by non-residents is either restricted or controlled by CCTV and/or security staff. A gated community is served by private internal roads, and may include facilities such as a gym for the use of residents only.

This definition makes it clear that apartment or tower blocks are not included – developments only meet the gated community definition if space which would normally be accessible to the public is restricted to residents only. The other essential part of the definition is legal: residents of a gated community are tied into a common code of conduct, and there is generally a degree of self-management of the development by the residents. Context for the growth of gated communities

Initial theories about the global growth of gated communities included assumptions that this was in response to increasing crime and disorder caused by socio-economic restructuring; a reflection of a growing disillusionment with the ability of government to provide services and security; and/or a result of the globalisation of American taste and aspirations. However, based on more recent research undertaken into gated communities in different countries, the current view is that gated communities are extremely diverse, and this diversity reflects the historical and other contexts of each country in which they appear (Blandy, 2006).

This paper now looks at some of the underlying context and potential reasons for the growth of gated communities in England, before setting out our research findings. Neo-liberal governments in the last quarter of the twentieth century have brought a move away from previous ideals of social justice and equality, from community to individualism, and a trend from informal to formal systems of social control. Values of consumerism and the market-place have replaced ideals of public spending and local services, and we have a more divided society with an increasing gap between rich and poor.

Huge social and economic changes have led to a loss of kinship networks and local communities, and in turn to increased fear of others and a perceived need for segregation and withdrawal. It is harder to feel confidence and trust in the rootless, urban world in which a “void yawns at the spot once occupied by ‘society’” (Bauman, 2001, p. 112). Accompanying the decrease in feelings of security which can be derived from community and neighborhood, Garland (2000) has identified what he terms the crime complex.

This is characterized by a fascination with crime, institutionalised in the media and dominating public policy, and a lack of confidence in the criminal justice system which has resulted in a growth in private defensive routines and privatised security. The crime complex goes some way to explaining why the fear of crime and anti-social behavior grows, despite successive British Crime Surveys showing a fall in the crime rate and also that perception and experience of anti-social behavior have now stabilised. We are increasingly less likely to trust others, and increasingly more likely to want to live with other people ‘just like us’.

England is witnessing a movement from an inclusive to an exclusive society (Young, 1999), illustrated by current trends in choice about residential location which confirm what Reich (2000) has termed the ‘sorting mechanism’. In North America, at least, people who have that choice are moving to “more and more finely distinguished “lifestyle enclaves”, segregated by race, class, education, life stage, and so on” (Putnam, 2000, p 209). There are obvious links between individualism, the exercise of choice, and the crime complex.

The academic literature on governance and responsibilisation completes this overview of the context which goes some way to explaining the appeal of gated communities. The concept of governance refers to the controls exercised by an increasingly diverse set of agencies more or less loosely associated with the state, developed as government at a national and local level is forced to acknowledge that it can no longer maintain direct control. One aspect of governance is to encourage individuals and communities to become actively self-governing, through a process of responsibilisation.

Thus, as regards household security, ‘protection against risk of crime through an investment in measures of security becomes part of the responsibilities of each active individual’ (Rose, 2000, p 327). This leads to the fortification of homes, either individually or in groups as gated communities, and to the establishment of parallel police forces including private security guards, wardens, and neighbourhood watch schemes. Where a gated community provides collective security, legal agreements become necessary to ensure that each household contributes to the upkeep of gates and walls and to the wages of security guards.

The legal documents for a typical gated community also include covenants prescribing how the residents must conduct themselves both in their private dwellings and in the shared space, an example of contractual governance designed to control behaviour and set common standards (Crawford, 2003). Research findings for gated communities in England In 2003/04 a survey of English planning authorities was carried out, to collect factual details about gated communities in each district (Atkinson et al. , 2004). The survey achieved a 93 per cent response rate; those who had not returned the postal questionnaire were followed up by telephone.

Some methodological problems must be acknowledged: as gated communities are not classified as such in the planning system, no systematic records are kept, so many of the respondents relied on local and anecdotal knowledge; planners do not have responsibility for the private internal roads which are a defining aspect of gated communities and which are dealt with by highways departments; and finally, despite sending out photos and the above definition with the survey questionnaire, it became obvious in the follow-up telephone calls that many planners found it difficult to identify gated communities, particularly developments in the social rented sector. Bearing these caveats in mind, the survey found upwards of 1,000 gated communities in England, predominantly in London and the south-east, although all regions had some gated communities.

Therefore gated communities are not a large housing sector in England, and certainly not in comparison with North America, even allowing for undercounting. Only one third of district authorities reported having gated communities, and only 29 of those had more than five. English gated communities are small developments (only four authorities had one or more gated communities with over 300 dwellings) and they are mainly located in suburbia or in the centre of towns and cities. Planners estimated that the vast majority of gated communities were built by private developers; a very small proportion by social landlords; and the remainder (around 10 per cent) developed through a public/private partnership.

The majority of gated community residents were reported by the survey respondents to be ‘affluent’ or ‘middle market’, rather than the ‘very rich’. In a study of purchasers of dwellings in a suburban gated community, the residents’ reasons for moving there were found to be varied and complex. However, the major motivation for purchasers was that they believed property in a gated community would maintain its value, rather than a need for security, although this was an important issue for many (Blandy and Lister, 2005). Gated communities as a housing response to crime and disorder In a risky world, purchasing a property in a gated community represents a good consumer choice.

Such developments comply with many principles of Secured by Design, the government-approved police architectural liaison scheme for ‘designing out crime’, and they provide defensible space (Newman, 1972). Newman advocated the reduction and surveillance of public space, which he saw as a potentially dangerous no mans’ land. In gated communities this is provided by CCTV, allowing residents to feel protected without having to perform the surveillance themselves. The physical exclusion of potentially dangerous ‘outsiders’ has great appeal, and here the gates substitute for more informal systems of social control, enabling non-residents to be identified and excluded. High property values in gated communities serve as a proxy for homogeneity, guaranteeing a community of ‘people like us’.

In terms of the government agenda, it is now recognised that crime and anti-social behaviour is concentrated in deprived urban neighbourhoods, that stigma attaches to marginalised and residualised social housing estates, and that these areas often suffer from a breakdown of informal social control. Analysis of the British Crime Survey 2003/04 indicates that lack of ‘collective efficacy’ in an area is a strong predictor of anti-social behaviour (Wood, 2004). It is therefore not surprising that David Blunkett, among others, has included gated communities as one of the ‘appeals to community’ so characteristic of government strategies for dealing with anti-social behaviour and urban disorder (Crawford, 1998, p 262).

When serving as Home Secretary, Blunkett suggested that establishing gated communities in deprived areas would ‘make available to the many what is currently available to the few’. He emphasised the collective nature of resident self-management, which he considered would lead to a sense of identification with the neighbourhood and of belonging to a community. In his view, the legal framework establishing management by residents would further help to engage ‘people in making decisions, and to reinforce the message that they are part of the solution’ (Blunkett, 2004). Assessment of the effectiveness of gated communities Is the physical security of gated communities effective in tackling crime and anti-social behaviour?

The best-known study which has compared both perceived safety and actual crime rates between gated and non-gated areas, in both high income neighbourhoods and public housing projects in California, found no significant differences between these neighbourhoods (Wilson-Doenges, 2000). These findings echoed those of Blakely and Snyder (1998) which found no difference in crime rates between gated and non-gated neighbourhoods in the same area of North America. This study made the point that gating could hamper police response rates and could also give residents a false sense of security, so that opportunistic crimes were facilitated by doors and windows left open.

In the English national study, most police officers interviewed stated that crime is rare within gated communities, but the point was made that when the police were called out, the response rate is slower because ‘the gates are locked and we need to get the security codes to gain access’ (interview with Police liaison officer, Atkinson et al. , 2004). The retro-gating of social rented estates is an under-researched aspect of gated communities. As stated above, very few of these developments were picked up in the national survey although, for example, the London Borough of Camden is gating many of its estates at the request of tenants. According to an urban designer recently interviewed, if the estate is small (about the same number of dwellings as in a tower block), and particularly if one tenant is prepared to act as concierge, retro-gating and restricting access to residents does work to reduce fear of crime.

However, on larger estates which are fitted with gates, there tends to be no sense of ownership: the gates are propped open and the key panels get broken. Further, as it is now established that neighbourhood dissatisfaction and fear of crime disproportionately affect people on low incomes and living in rented housing, who exactly is being kept out – or locked in? Further research is needed on gating in the social rented sector before important questions about the effectiveness of gates can be answered. Finally on this point, it has not yet been established definitively whether or not gated communities cause the displacement of crime to neighbouring areas. Do gated communities enhance collective efficacy amongst residents?

It might be posited, as David Blunkett has done, that gated communities would improve both informal and formal social control, for the benefit of their residents. In the national study, however, a very varied picture emerged. The residents of some gated community residents spoke appreciatively of social events and neighbourliness, while in others there were complaints about ‘a number of cliques’ or ‘there is no community spirit here’ (interviews quoted in Atkinson et al. , 2004). One purchaser in a suburban gated community described classic weak ties between residents: ‘almost every day people pass and say hello, and so on’ (interview quoted in Blandy and Lister, 2005).

The lease of the gated community replaces shared, negotiated, social norms and sanctions with their legal equivalents, but these are of course not negotiated by the gated community residents themselves, being drafted by lawyers acting for the developer. Research found a high degree of ignorance about both the covenants in the lease, and about the resident management arrangements; most residents were not motivated to participate in the committee structure (Blandy and Lister, 2005). The residents’ management company is responsible for enforcing the covenants, ultimately through the sanction of forfeiting the perpetrator’s lease. Interviews with gated community residents for the national study found many who were dissatisfied.

These residents either felt frustrated that firmer action was not taken on breaches of covenant, or alternatively that a ‘power-hungry’ group of residents had taken control and was running the development with ‘a rod of iron’ (Atkinson et al. , 2004). Does the security provided by gated communities encourage middle class residents to ‘colonise’ more deprived areas and thus enhance their regeneration? Advocates of this position argue that gating a middle-class enclave surrounded by a deprived area reduces social segregation ‘in areas that otherwise would have accommodated […] multi-deprived households exclusively’ (Manzi and Smith-Bowers, 2005, p. 357). This may be true, but Manzi and Smith-Bowers’ own research case study could not be described as a successful, socially mixed neighbourhood.

The owner-occupiers remained fearful of their tenant neighbours, installing further security measures in their properties, and tended not to walk around the estate. Local shops did not benefit from the presence of more affluent residents, who were too scared to visit them. Recent national planning guidance acknowledges that: Gated communities may increase the sustainability and social mix of an area where problems of crime and image could otherwise lead to the development’s failure. The Government believes, however, that it is normally preferable for new developments to be integrated into the wider community and that the gating of developments should only be considered as a last resort (ODPM and the Home Office, 2004, p. 30).

Implications of gated communities The above analysis indicates that gated communities do not provide an adequate response to crime, in terms of physical security and collective efficacy; nor do they assist in regenerating deprived areas, or in tackling problems of disorder on large social rented estates. This section examines some of the implications of the growth of gated communities for the different housing sectors, and across sectors. Secession of the wealthy? It is unlikely that the UK will see, as the USA has done, gated communities incorporating as municipalities; the two countries have completely different legal foundations for local government.

However, the growth of gated communities represents a choice by those who can afford to buy into such developments, to withdraw into a protected homogeneity which limits contact between different socio-economic groupings. This must raise concerns about the loss of urban variety and the ideal of a society to which all contribute. More retro-gating of social rented estates? Various tools in the fight against crime and anti-social behaviour, such as target-hardening initiatives, neighbourhood wardens, concierge schemes, and CCTV, have become standard on many social rented housing estates. Perhaps gating and restricted access are just another logical step. Analysis of the 2001 American Housing Survey found a prevalence of low-income, racial minority, renters in gated communities; tenants are nearly 2. times more likely than owners to live in these developments (Sanchez et al. , 2005). In the UK, a telephone survey carried out for the RICS in 2002 found that younger people were more attracted to gated communities than older respondents; tenants more than owners; and those on lower incomes more than the better paid. Contributing to social divisiveness? In interview, a planner suggested that the physical architecture of gated communities must inevitably create resentment amongst those denied entry, while a local resident who lived just outside the walls suggested that the gated community was ‘rubbing our noses in it’ (interview quoted in Atkinson et al. , 2004).

Certainly, letters to the local newsletter indicated that residents of the suburb surrounding a gated community felt very critical of the new development’s purchasers; for example: By shutting themselves in, and thereby excluding us local ‘undesirables’, they have failed to realize that life in [name of suburb] is also about people; about sharing and caring; about the rich variety of culture in our local community, the inclusion of those who have different values and beliefs. Inclusion will not make life more insecure, exactly the reverse. ’ (quoted in Blandy and Lister, 2005) Conclusions Gated communities are an understandable, complex, but regrettable housing response to the fear of crime.

These developments reduce public space and the permeability of the town or cityscape. Their physical security measures alone may lead to social divisiveness. There is little evidence that gated communities enhance collective efficacy, while they may engender only a ‘destructive, negative cohesion [… based on] a nervous determination to exclude people seen as outsiders’ (Urban Design Alliance, 2003).

Gated communities conflict with the national planning framework, which encourages freedom of movement and inclusive, mixed communities. It is not surprising that the majority of planners surveyed were opposed to gated communities (Atkinson et al. 2004), but in practice local planning authorities are often out-manoeuvred by determined developers (Blandy and Parsons, 2003). The purchasing choices of the more affluent, and the retreat by hard-pressed social tenants into fortified defensiveness, seem to be leading towards ‘[p]lace making based on exclusion, sameness or nostalgia [which] is socially poisonous and psychologically useless’ (Sennett, 1997). Sennett’s may be an extreme view, but it is certain that gated communities are part of the trend towards a “clear spatialisation of danger into safe zones and risk zones”, referred to by Osborne and Rose (1999, p. 754). It is time to consider whether that is too high a price to pay for what is a largely ineffective response to the fear of crime.

NOTES: This paper is based on Sarah Blandy’s presentation entitled ‘Housing Responses to a Less than Perfect World: where do gated communities fit in? ’ at a CRESR research seminar, 12. 10. 05. An earlier version of the paper appeared in the Annual Report 2004-05 of the Centre for Criminal Justice Studies, University of Leeds. * Correspondence Address: Sarah Blandy, School of Law, University of Leeds, 20 Lyddon Terrace, Leeds LS2 9JT. Email: S. [email protected] ac. uk. References Atkinson, R. , Blandy, S. , Flint, J. and Lister, D. (2004) Gated Communities in England. London: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. Blakely, E. J. and Snyder, M. G. (1998) Separate places: Crime and security in gated communities, in: Felson, M. and Peiser, R. B. (eds. , Reducing crime through real estate development and management, pp. 53-70. Washington, D. C: Urban Land Institute. Blandy, S. (2006) Gated communities in England: historical perspectives and current developments. GeoJournal, 66, 1-2, 15-26. Blandy, S. and Lister, D. (2005) Gated Communities: (Ne) gating community development? Housing Studies, 20, 2, 287-301.

Blandy, S. and Parsons, D. (2003) Gated communities in England: rules and rhetoric of urban planning. Geographica Helvetica, 58, 4, 314-324. Blunkett, D. (2004) Decentralising Government: choice, communities and the role of local authorities. Speech to New Local Network annual conference, January 22, 2004. Crawford, A. 2003) Contractual Governance of Deviant Behaviour. Journal of Law and Society, 30, 4, 479-505. Crawford, A. (1998) Crime Prevention and Community Safety. London: Longman. Garland, D. (2001) The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Manzi, T. and Smith-Bowers, B. (2005) Gated Communities as Club Goods: Segregation or Social Cohesion? Housing Studies, 20, 2, 345-59. Newman, O. (1972) Defensible Space. New York: Macmillan. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Office (2004) Safer Places: The Planning System and Crime Prevention. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. Osborne, T. nd Rose, N. (1999) Governing cities: notes on the spatialisation of virtue. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 17, 6, 737 – 760. Putnam, R. D. (2000) Bowling Alone: the collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster. Reich, R. B. (2000) The Future of Success: Working and Living in the New Economy. New York: Vintage. Rose, N. (2000) Government and Control. British Journal of Criminology, 40, 321-39. Rose, N. and Valverde, M. (1998) Governed by Law? Social and Legal Studies, 7, 4, 541-51. Sanchez, T. W. , Lang, R. E. and Dhavale, D. (2005) Security versus Status? A First Look at the Census’s Gated Community Data.

Journal of Planning Education and Research, 24, 3, 281-291. Sennett, R. (1992) The uses of disorder: personal identity ; city life. New York: W. W. Norton Urban Design Alliance (2003) Design for Cohesive Communities. Memorandum in Evidence to the Select Committee on ODPM, SOC 09 Session 2002/03. London: The Stationery Office. Wilson Doenges, G. (2000) An Explanation of Sense of Community and Fear of Crime in Gated Communities. Environment and Behaviour, 32, 5, 597-611. Wood, M. (2004) Perceptions and experiences of antisocial behaviour. Home Office Findings 252. London: Home Office. Young, J. (1999) The Exclusive Society: social exclusion, crime and difference in late modernity. London: Sage.

The Case of the Ford Pinto Essay

The Ford Pinto first rolled off the Ford Motor Co. production lines in 1971 and stayed in production in its original state until 1978. The vehicle engineers were tasked to develop the vehicle and put it into production within 25 months, which was nearly half the time in which the average new vehicle is put into production. The Ford engineers were aware that rear-end impact safety tests were pretty standard at the time, but they were not required by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration at that time.

The vehicle was rushed into production anyway to compete with foreign compact cars being developed by the Japanese during that time period. Only after the vehicle was made available to the public was the vehicle tested. The Ford Pinto ended up failing the rear safety test, due to the fact that it was susceptible to fire from rear end collisions. Ford engineers determined that the problem could be resolved by installing a baffle, which protected the gas tank from being punctured during rear-end collisions. The part would have only cost between $6. 65 and $11 to be install, but the Ford Motor Co. etermined through cost-benefit analysis that the cost of lawsuits would be less than the cost of installing the baffle and decided not to install the baffle.

Ford Motor Co. also failed to notify customers of the problem and offer them the option to have the baffle installed. Between 1971 and 1978 the Ford Pinto would be involved in thirteen rear-end collisions that caused the vehicle to start on fire. The actions of the Ford Motor Co. were scrutinized for the production of the vehicle. (DeGorge)While the vehicle did meet the safety standards of the time, Ford Motor Co. new of the problem and did nothing to resolve it. This leads us to the question the ethical actions of the Ford Motor Co. production of the Ford Pinto. After realizing there was a safety issue with the Ford Pinto, was it morally right for the Ford Motor Co. to blatantly disregard the issue for profit? Through utilitarian analysis we can determine the answer to this question. “Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that holds that an action is right if it produces, or if it tends to produce, the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people being affected by the action, otherwise it is wrong”. DeGorge) So we must determine the people affected by the action in order to determine if the greatest good was produced by Ford’s decision.

The Ford Motor Co. are certainly affected, the stockholders of Ford Motor Co. , and the buyer of the Ford Pinto are all certainly affected. But there are people outside of these groups which are affected as well. Other passengers of the Ford Pinto, other drivers on the road, as well as friends and family of the people who could be harmed should be taken into account as well. Obviously the Ford Motor Co. nd the stockholders are affected monetarily by the businesses decision. According to the safety study the vehicle could easily catch on fire if involved in an accident. So the buyer, passengers, and other motorists are affected by the company’s decision health wise. Friends and Family can be affected indirectly either emotionally or monetarily, if they are dependent on someone whose life is lost due to Ford’s decision. The possible hazard should have clearly been considered the dominant consideration when Ford was making the decision whether or not to fix the problem with the Ford Pinto.

A rational person objectively making the decision would always value life over money. It’s important to take all possible consequences both good and bad when making a determination whether an action is moral or immoral though. There are several pertinent consequences that occurred from Ford’s decision to not install buffers in the Ford Pinto. One good consequence was that Ford Motor Co. was able to save money on the production of the Pinto. Another good consequence was that Ford was able to continue to offer the Pinto at an affordable price to their customers.

A bad consequence is the fact that many drivers and passengers (as well as other drivers on the road) lives were put at risk and several of them were seriously injured by the defect. The weighing of these various consequences is crucial to determining whether the actions of Ford Motor Co. were moral or immoral from a utilitarian view. “Every aspect must be examined to evaluate potential good and bad outcomes; if the goods outweigh the bads, then morally the action can be deemed right”. Lundy) Weighing the monetary costs of all the consequences of Ford’s decision can be done for many of the consequences, but can we really put a dollar value on a life? A simple cost-benefit analysis is an incorrect approach to looking at the consequences. Instead we can take a hedonistic approach and break these consequences down into simple units of pain and pleasure. Since each person affected is weighed equally among the calculation it should be the same for everyone. “We should consider the intensity, duration, certainty or uncertainty, propinquity or remoteness, fecundity, and purity of the value in question”. DeGorge)

Let’s consider the first consequence using the hedonistic approach; Ford Motor Co. was able to save money on the production of the Ford Pinto. This is a good consequence and therefore creates pleasure, but it only affects the Ford Motor Co. This means this pleasure does not apply to everyone and is therefore a minimal pleasure if existent at all when spread out over all people affected by the decision. The Ford Pinto being made affordable is also a pleasure. This only applies to the customer and the Ford Motor Co. the customer was able to save $11 on the purchase of the Ford Pinto and Ford was able to keep the price of the car lower by $11. The pleasure produced by this is relatively small, when spread out over everyone affected by the decision. The intensity and duration of the pleasure is minimal. The injury to motorists, who purchase the vehicle as well as others on the road, is certainly considered pain. This affects everyone and therefore is weighted more heavily than those consequences that do not. The duration of this pain also lasts a lifetime.

The intensity is extreme compared to that of the other consequences. This outcome is not certain for everyone, but it certainly going to happen to at least some people. When combining all these outcomes it becomes clear that the overall pain derived from the decision outweighs the pleasure. We must also consider indirect consequences as well though. The bad press that Ford Motor Co. received from the decision is obviously a pain. The resulting lawsuits from the injured people are also a pain. The pain and suffering of friends and family is also considered a bad consequence and therefore a pain.

These indirect consequences only add to the pain derived from the decision Ford made not to install the buffer. Some could argue that Ford Motor Co. cost-benefit analysis proved that they were acting in a way that created the greatest good. One problem with Ford’s analysis is that it does not take all the consequences that their action would cause. They did not account for the bad press they would receive for such an action. The Ford Motor Co. would become “the first American corporation ever indicted or prosecuted on criminal homicide charges” (Engineering. com).

Although they were acquitted of the charges the bad press that came as a result of Ford’s decision cause Ford’s reputation to become tarnished. Another problem is that the cost benefit analysis only focuses on the Ford Motor Co. , rather than everyone affected both directly and indirectly. The third problem with the analysis is that it breaks every aspect of the decision down to dollars and cents. Can we really put a dollar amount on the cost of a life? Ford evidently thought they could, but a cost-benefit tool “cannot predict the consequences accurately or quantify benefits and harms”. Lundy) Cost-benefit analysis is certainly useful tool for a business, but companies use this tool to weigh good and bad consequences in monetary terms as it relates purely to the company itself. This is different from a utilitarian analysis which accounts for good and bad consequences that affect everyone. (DeGorge) When combining all these factors it becomes clear that the decision made by Ford Motor Co. to not install the buffer was immoral. The pain far exceeds the pleasure derived from the action and therefore did not create the greatest good.

While Ford’s cost-benefit analysis showed that it was of the greatest good to them to not install the buffer, it was not the greatest good to everyone. There was an alternative that would have created the greatest good, which was to simply install a low cost buffer. Therefore from a utilitarian perspective the actions of the Ford Motor Co. would be considered immoral.

Works Cited

DeGorge, Richard T. Business Ethics. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2010. Engineering. com. Ford Pinto. 24 October 2006. 28 August 2012 . Lundy, Annie. Applying Utilitarianism to Business Ethics: The Ford Pinto Case. 6 February 2009. 28 August 2012 .

Originality in Movies Essay

I’ve always thought that originality was something to strive for. It seemed that doing something nobody had done before would yield the best results, but it now seems that may not be the case. After looking through AFI’s list of the top 100 films of all time, it is clear that the death of originality in Hollywood isn’t something that is keeping a film from being considered great and is in fact helping make more profit for the movie industry. Sticking to familiar ideas can ensure Hollywood they will get the one thing they want: money.

So why run the risk of losing money when they can remake a movie knowing they will profit from it? Whether it be a sequel, an adaptation of a book or television show, or the same exact movie shown in 3D, movie-goers seem to flock to plots and names they are familiar with. Recently, Finding Nemo was re-released in 3D and has already racked up over 30 million dollars in just two weeks. Nothing about the movie changed other than it is being shown in 3D. Fans across the country already own the movie on DVD, yet they still spend their money to go see it in theaters again.

The same goes for Lion King 3D released last year. A movie that many people already owned grossed nearly 94 million dollars during its stay in theaters. Though these movies may not be defined as “great”, there are plenty of examples of great movies that are not original ideas. In AFI’s (American Film Institute) latest list of the top 100 films of all time, only one film is a sequel. However, many are based on existing material. Just in the top 10, seven are not completely original ideas. Gone with the Wind, The Wizard of Oz, The Graduate, and Schindler’s List are all based off book adaptations.

Casablanca is based off of the play, Everybody Comes to Rick’s; The Godfather is an adaptation of a novel by Mario Puzo; and Lawrence of Arabia is based off the writings of T. E. Lawrence during his time in an Arabian desert. This list makes it obvious that a film doesn’t have to be a completely original idea to be great and many of these films are still popular to this day. Just because the more popular movies aren’t original ideas doesn’t mean that there aren’t any original movies being made. Independent films are almost always original ideas. But because they are independent films, they do not et the publicity that the films made by major companies get. This could be due to multiple reasons. One reason being independent films are not advertised much. They do not get much recognition due to a low budget. They have a low budget because they do not receive enough publicity for more people to pay to see an independent film. It seems as though its one giant cycle that leads to more money for big corporate companies and less money for small independent companies. Occasionally, an independent film company will make a breakout hit that will end up being very successful.

One of the best examples of this is Little Miss Sunshine, released in 2006. The film was released through an independent company. It ended up having 55 award nominations and winning 52 awards, two of which were Oscars. Though it’s not something that is commonly seen, original films are still being made, and occasionally they will become great. It is also true that unoriginal movies may just be noticed more in this day and age due to the type of movie. Many people do not know that seven of the top ten all time films were not original ideas, yet they know that another Spiderman movie is clearly unoriginal.

Many of the movies released recently have been based on comic books and superheroes. Not many new superheroes are made up anymore, so nearly all superhero movies are completely unoriginal ideas. Unoriginal films are also easily noticed when they are sequels to another film. Often these sequels are necessary to finish the story, but sometimes unnecessary sequels are made. One major example of this is Scream 4. Scream 4 was released 11 years after Scream 3. It was an unnecessary sequel because Scream 3 supposedly ended the trilogy, however Hollywood made another one for more money.

Although films that were not original ideas have been made since the beginning of film, they were not noticed like they are in this day and age. It seems that the main thing Hollywood cares about is money, and they will make any type of movie that gives them what they want. They don’t strive for originality because unoriginal movies are what makes the profit. Whether it be through a sequel, a remake, or a book adaptation, Hollywood will continue to make movies based off other peoples’ and films’ ideas.

Lee Rudd Encounters of a third kind Essay

I, myself and a few unfortunate others decided to camp out in the middle of winter in the “Wild Woods”.

The day before it all began we were packing our bag packs. I put in some clothes as we where going to stay for a weekend, a torch, a compass and a lighter to make fires. I only put a few things in as we were going to be hiking most of the time.

The night before we set off I had a nightmare that we got lost, no one was alive and there was no food. I woke up in a sweat, my heart was pounding and for some strange reason I thought it had something to do with the trip.

The next morning I met up with Phil, Ross and Scott, the people that I went camping with. We set off to the woods hiking. When we eventually got there we pitched up the tent and I had a look on the map where we were going next.

When we were asleep at night we all woke up hearing strange noises out side the tent. “bang, thud, BANG, THUD the noises got louder. All of a sudden it stopped so we went out side and had a look. There was a pile of stones in a circle. We all went back to sleep apart from 1 person keeping guard, every hour that person swapped around. Nothing else happened after that.

The next morning we were meant to go south to find a cottage for some shelter as it was getting cold and was going to start raining. I got the compass out and looked at it, it was spinning round none stop. I thought it was broken so I was going to throw it away but Scott, the smartest one at fixing things said ” don’t thorough it away ill see if I can fix it”. He is good at fixing things as he used to be a mechanic.

We spent another night in the woods, as Scott couldn’t fix it. The weather was terrible, raining very heavy and it was that cold that it was even sleeting a couple of times. This was the night the killing began.

Philip was the person who had the best survival skills, as he used to be in the army for 5 years, he could catch rabbits and survive on bugs and worms if he wanted.

He was the first one of us to die. In the middle of the night it happened, he went out side to go the toilet. We woke up hearing screams, we rushed out with his army knife that he was showing us earlier. When we got out there all we seen where his shoes and his clothes all torn up in the trees. They was a big puddle of blood near the shoes and a line wear who ever or what every dragged him off.

We all decided that we weren’t safe so we all stayed awake till the morning and packed up the tent. In the morning we went looking for the cottage with out using a compass. We were looking around the woods for about 8 hours but then we finally found it. There was a note on the door, it read “thee who finds the circle stones finds the beasts of the night”. The letter was old and tattered with torn corners but the most frightening thing about it was that it was written in blood.

There were only three of us left now so we decided that we will stay in the cottage for the last night, as we had to be at the other side of the woods at 6:pm to meet the police to say that we where alright. This is because they has been so many murders unsolved their that the police just wanted to make sure that we where alright. If we didn’t then they had to send a search party out. It started getting dark so we, which is I, Ross and Scott started boding the windows up. We got a fire going so no beasts could come through the chimney.

When it was pitch black, the only time the beasts would come out. We heard noises and scratching at the wood from the door outside. If they did break in all we had to protect us was the knife. Scratch, scratch, scratch, the door split open and there was a shiny metallic black head. Shaped like an axe with pointy sharp daggers ripping Ross to shreds, as he was the closest person to the door. Scott and me both ran. I found a door leading into the basement so I hid in there and Scott ran some where else. I closed the doors and wedged a plank of wood in it.

It was pitch black I couldn’t see my hand in front of my face. All of a sudden I heard dripping and scratching, I had the torch in my backpack so I got it out and had a look as to what the dripping was. It was blood probably from Scott. I panicked and jumped back, I fell over on a barrel. When I looked closer it was dynamite. The scratching was getting louder and I remembered I also had the lighter in my backpack as well so I got that out.

Now all I am waiting for is the sun to rise or one of the beasts to break through the door then it will good-bye to every thing.

You arrived very late for an important event: describe what happened and how you felt about it Essay

Finally the time had come for her to leave. My sister, my very own sister, with whom I has laughed, cried, played, fought and shared a room with whole my life, was getting married. I had never shown her how much she meant to me. I loved her more than any one else but pretended that I did not even care for her. She had cared for me ever since I was born and I had repaid her by being rude to her at the slightest opportunity. Of course, there were times when she was unfair too, like not letting me use her jewelry or not letting me in her room when her friends came over.

It would then be my job to play tricks on them and make their lives miserable until they left! My sister would then get back at me by one way or the other and she was always better at it. After all that is what sisterhood is all about. I always knew that I loved her more than I pretended I did, but I never knew what meaning she had for me until the day I realized she would go away from me. I decided to make her wedding day very special by letting her know that she was actually a part of me. I collected my pocket money for months to buy her a special present.

As her wedding day came close, my exams also approached so I had to take tuitions after school so the only time we met was at night. We would talk late till night daily, remembering things we had done in the past, laughing our heads off! She did not seem to me at all like a woman who was about to get married. In those few days, I became even closer to my sister and every night I would cry myself to sleep thinking about how much I would miss her but never said a word to her about it. Why? I fail to figure out even today.

I woke up early morning on the day of her wedding when she was sleeping and before leaving for school-it was my last exam so I could not miss it-I looked at her and for the first time I noticed how beautiful she was. When I came back from school I found that she had already gone to the parlor with my mother. I saw my father sitting in the dining room, staring into space. I went up to him and when I looked at his wet eyes, I could no longer succumb to my feelings and started crying. We both cried quietly for the few minutes. Then I realized I had to buy a present for my sister, so I left with the driver.

I bought a beautiful bouquet of yellow flowers as it was her favourite colour, wth a card on top saying, “I love you sis” I went to different jewelry shops after that. Nothing seemed to be good enough for some one so special to me. I finally bout a beautiful gold brecelot . by the time I got back to the car, it was already dark. I took me an hour to get back home as there was a lot of thraffic that day. When I reached home, my maid told me that my family members ha left an hour ago as they had given time to the bridegroom’s family. I had to go with the driver.

I quickly slipped on my dress, wore my sandals, clutched my hair brush and make-up bag and rushed to the car to go to the wedding hall. Again, I was struck in the traffic. I brushed my hair and put on my mascara and lipstick. Tears flooded my eyes as I thought how awefull it would be if I would not be able to make it on time and my sister would leave. As soon as the car stopped I jumped out of the car, and ran inside the hall, with my hair brush in one hand and the bracelet in the other. My hair was all over my face and their were dark circles around my eyes as my mascara was not water proof.

People turned to look at me, but I did not care about anything but my sister. As soon as she saw me she got up. I went upto her sofa, and we hugged each other. We let go and I gave her the flowers and took her hand to tie the bracelet around her wrist.. I was avoiding looking at her eyes because I knew I wound not be able to control my tears. She raised my chin with her hands, and when our eyes met, we hugged each other again, this time crying . I knew there were no words in which I could put my love for her, and I felt that their was no need of them.

Food Chemistry Essay

From raw food to brand label grocery Why Food Chemistry? I am passionate about food, I love discovering new food, experimenting with taste, play with colors and learn the benefits and why our body needs certain nutrients. Before coming to college I did 2 years of full healthy dishes and read all over Internet and books new ways to introduce new nutrients to my diet. During this 2 years I lost weight but except for that I felt clean from the inside, more energetic and happier moods. Coming to college was a huge gap leaving everything healthy which was a bit expensive too budget college life eating In the food court.

This new change to me was a big change to my body too, harder to maintain my ideal weight and off-course the worst and important part lack of nutrient. This made me more interested in making my goal to major in Nutritionist and Food Chemistry. Because I think even how expensive eating healthier to get the most of nutritious can be, there Is a way colleges can start working towards It to present a healthier nutrient food court for student at a reasonable price. With all this planned in my mind I need to major first any learn many ways how it will be able to introduce such meal plan to Colleges.

A Nutritionist Is a person who advice people how to build a good diet plan and what are the nutrition impacts on ones health. I think to be a good nutritionist is good to know the basic of nutrients. Where food come from? How they are processed? What nutrients are lost during the process of packaging? Why is it Important to add perseverance to food? And like these. There are so many more questions Because of this interesting I have in majoring in these area, I choose to do my Biology Journal about Food Chemistry. Maybe soon this can also be the start of my goal plan in the future. Food Chemistry

Food Chemistry “Food Science” Is the study of chemical processes and Interactions of all components of biological and non-organic foods. In short Food Chemistry deals with the production, processing, distribution, preparation, evaluating, and utilization of food. Biological substance are elements such as harvested plants and slaughtered animals for food products. The history of food chemistry The history of Food Chemistry started In the late 18th century when chemicals Important In foods started to be discovered by mane chemists. Sir Humphrey Davys published the first book on agricultural and food chemistry in 1813 title Elements of

Agricultural Chemistry, in a Course of Lectures for the Board of Agriculture in the united Kingdom which would serve as a foundation for the profession worldwide, going Into a fifth etalon. Food Chemistry By International From raw food to brand label grocery. Before coming to college I did 2 years of full healthy dishes and read all over internet expensive to a budget college life eating in the food court. Because I think even how expensive eating healthier to get the most of nutritionist can be, there is a way Colleges can start working towards it to present a healthier

A Nutritionist is a person who advice people how to build a good diet plan and What nutrients are lost during the process of packaging? Why is it important to add perseverance to food? And like these, there are so many more questions. Food Chemistry “Food Science” is the study of chemical processes and interactions The history of Food Chemistry started in the late 18th century when chemicals important in foods started to be discovered by mane chemists. Sir Humphrey Dad United Kingdom which would serve as a foundation for the profession worldwide, going into a fifth edition.


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