Most blood pressure, heart problems and much

Most of the
people know that unhealthy food causes different health problems like blood
pressure, heart problems and much more.
Then why we are so attracted to junk food? The smell, color, texture of the
food is so attractive that you can’t resist. Another reason is the actual
composition of food macronutrients – a mixture of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. In the case of
“junk” food, food producers are looking for the perfect combination
of salt, sugar and fat, which excites your brain and makes you eat them again
and again.  Here are the things that happen to your brain when you eat junk food-

1-    It could become addictive

Overconsumption of junk food triggers neuron response which leads to
compulsive eating and you get addictive to the food.

2-    Sensory-specific response

Our brain gets easily bored with
the same food so fast and that why we crave for different food. So, junk food
is made in such a way that every bite has a different taste and we don’t get bored.

3-    Dynamic Contrast

Junk foods are so crispy, tasty with different flavors in the same food. The brain goes crazy and finds it very

4-    Quick meltdown of food

Junk food easily meltdown in your mouth and send signals to your brain that
you are not full and you continue to eat it.

5-    Salivary response

The more you crave for a food, the more you salivate and it covers your
taste buds. Hot chocolate, butter, ice cream, salad dressing cause salvation
and you love eating it whether it is good or not.

6-    Calorie density

Junk food convinces the brain that the body receives food, but does not
overfill. The receptors in the mouth and stomach send information to the
brain about nutrition (this causes a pleasant feeling), but not about
satiety. It’s difficult to stop on time.

7-    Memories of past good food experience

Whenever you eat something tasty your brain saves that feeling. Next time
whenever you see the same food again, you start salvation. You crave and you
can’t stop yourself from buying it.


How to avoid it

Don’t to any of the places which serve junk food when you are stressed, because
in stress condition you crave more and eat lots.

Simple changes in lifestyles can
help you to reduce the consumption of junk food. Eat only healthy foods like vegetables
and fruits; it will decrease your craving for junk food.

Don’t keep yourself so hungry that the first thing you see you eat. And
never visit grocery shopping empty stomach; you will end with lots of junk food
with you.

Eat proper and healthy food at regular interval of time.


In instances where animals rely on another

In the animal kingdom, there are many instances where animals rely on another to survive. These types of interactions are called a symbiotic relationship or symbiosis. There are three major types of symbiotic relationship: commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism. Commensalism refers to one organism benefiting while the other organism gets nothing from the relationship. Mutualism refers to both organisms benefiting from the relationship. Parasitism refers to one organism (typically a parasite) benefiting from the interaction meanwhile, the other organism (referred to as a host) will be greatly harmed or even die. These types of relationships can be found from the vast land to the ocean that is never still, playing an important role in the everyday lives of all animals, including humans. A commonly seen example of a symbiotic relationship between a Manta Ray and a Remora. Typically, found residing around coral reefs or along continental shelves, the Manta Ray takes part in a mutualistic relationship with the Remora, also called the Suckerfish. The Remora clings to the ventral surface of the Manta Ray’s body using its modified dorsal fins that acts as a suction cup allowing it to save energy but creating skin abrasions and sores on the body of the Manta Ray. They will also enter the mouth of their host to find food and to escape from predators which can cause discomfort to the Manta Ray. There are 1-2 Remoras most commonly found clinging to a Manta Ray, but it is not uncommon to find as many as a dozen on an individual Manta Ray, though this may cause a reduction in swimming efficiency for it as well. This relationship is mutualistic so it is inevitable that the Manta Ray gets its share of benefits. In return for the free ride, Remora act as cleaners which takes care of the wellbeing of the Manta Ray. By eating the scraps of food floating in the water around the Manta Ray, they are able to prevent the development of any harmful organisms. They will also clean the body of the Manta Ray, getting rid of any annoying parasites attached to the Manta Ray’s body that could drastically affect the health of the Ray. The role that both organisms play in this symbiotic relationship determines whether the other will be able to survive or not. If one of the organisms from this relationship were to no longer exist then the survival rate of the other would have a drastic drop since they rely on each other so much. Therefore it is very important that both organisms exist together to maintain each others livelihood. As seen above, the Manta Ray and the Remora are a perfect example of a mutualistic relationship where both organisms especially rely on one another. Likewise, there are many more organisms around the world that share the same type of relationship or are even apart of one of the other types of symbiotic relationship. Whether they are on land or in the ocean, these organisms have a very important task in maintaining the lives of other.

Quantum mechanics Definition:- Quantum mechanics is a

                     Quantum mechanics


mechanics is a fundamental theory which tells us about the nature of smallest
scale of energy of atoms and subatomic particles.


branch of physics in which we study about the things under the different
forces. Motion is the primary characteristic of the object and other properties
we can explain with the help of mechanics.


In 1900 quantum theory developed for the study of microscopic particles.
Scientist develops the theory which called classical mechanics. It has two main
branches Newtonian mechanics and Maxwell electromagnetic theory. These theories
completely explain the structure of atom  
but for the study of subatomic particles these theories are limited.
After the failure of classical mechanics a new phenomena put forward by
Heisenberg in 1925 which is called matrix mechanics. In 1926 Schrodinger give
us the Idea of wave mechanics which depend upon the dual nature of matter.  So in 1925, 1926 a new theory was purposed
named as a quantum mechanics.

Plank’s quantum theory:-

Max plank’s was German physicist 
who experiment on the spectral line emitting from the hot bodies at
various  temperature  in 1900 put forward  and gave name this plank’s quantum  theory of radiation. After that Einstein in
1905 extended more.

Postulate of quantum theory:-

1. A hot body emits radiation that is not continuously but
discontinuously. In other words you can say that emission of radiation is not a
continues phenomena but it travel in small packets or bundles unit of wave.
These bundle can exist independently are called photon or quantum of light.

2.  The energy
contain each photon is directly proportional to the frequency of emitted

E = h?

This equation is applied on all type of radiation
and this is called plank’s equation.


 3. The energy
absorbed or emitted by anybody it will be equal to one quantum of energy (=h?)
or the multiple of the whole number. It can never be the fractional value. 

Application of quantum theory:-


1905 Elbert Einstein explains the phenomena of photo electric effect or
radiation. “When the beam of light is falls on the surface of alkali metals
electrons are emitted from the surface of metal this phenomenon is called photo
electric effect.”

Photoelectric emission of electron is only possible
when the frequency of light is ??
. This
is called threshold frequency .All metal has its different value below this
electron will not emit. Kinetic energy is directly proportional to the
frequency of light but does not change on the intensity of light .Increase the
number of electron as the intensity of light increase per unit time. This
phenomenon of photoelectric emission could be understood in terms of plank’s
quantum theory. He said that the electromagnetic radiation (light) has both
wave and particle like properties .each photon of light has energy equal to

E = h?   

When a
photon of frequency  ?
strikes on the surface of metal it gives energy to the electrons which are
present on the surface of metal .A part of energy is utilize to liberate the
electron other stored as a kinetic energy so total energy equal to

h? =  work function + K.E

                     h? = ? + K.E

Importance of quantum mechanics:-

days all the branches of science are correlate with the quantum mechanics.
Quantum mechanics was developed early in the 20th century when
scientist started search about smaller particle like atom or electron etc.
Classical mechanics explains the motion of large bodies. It could not explain
the properties of sub atomic particles. Classical mechanics explain that the
energy emitted or absorbed in the body in continues form. But according to the
quantum mechanics this phenomenon occurs in discontinues form. Classical
mechanics failed to explain the phenomena of heat capacity, BBR and
photoelectric effect etc.

Application of quantum mechanics:-

Ø  It
enables scientist to calculate the energy level and other properties of

Ø  It
tells us about the periodic variation in the properties like ionization energy,
electron affinity and atomic size etc.

Ø  It
enables scientist to understand the nature of bond between the atoms and

Ø  It
helps to measure bond angle, bond length and energy shell.

Ø  It
helps us to know about whether molecule is dipole or not. 

Ø  It
also provides the basis for understanding the result of spectroscopic measurements.

Ø  Quantum
mechanics also helps to determine the thermodynamics properties of bulk matter.



         In classical mechanics
we studied about the motion of large bodies or particles.

In this theory matter made up of
particle having certain mass. This theory is based on the Newton’s law of
motion. According to these law ;

1.      A
body will stay at rest or a body will move with constant velocity until a
unbalanced force act on that body.

2.      If
any force on the body acts in the direction of motion , an acceleration will
produce in the direction of motion  it
will directly proportional to the force acting on the body and inversely
proportional to the mass of the body

                                      F = ma

3.      Action
and reaction are equal in force but their direction is opposite.

in classical mechanics:-

It could not explain the motion of those
bodies whose velocity equal to the velocity of light.

It could not explain the radiation emitted
from black bodies or hot mass.

It could not explains the dual nature of
light e.g. wave and particles.

It could not explain the atomic spectra
observed with different atoms.

 Difference between
classical and quantum mechanics

Classical mechanics:-

It is apply on the macromolecules   like plants, stars etc.

It obeys the Newton’s law of motion.

It is based on the particle nature of
the object.

 It can measure 100% accurate.

Two properties can measure
simultaneously e.g. position and momentum.

It tells us that energy emit or absorb

It has large unit for the measurement
like km, kg etc.

Classical mechanics fails to describe
the relation between matter and energy.

It cannot explain the new scientific

Quantum mechanics:-

It deals with the study of micro
particles like atom, electrons, molecules etc.

It obeys the Schrodinger wave equation.

It is based on the dual nature of light.

It cannot measure 100% accurate.

It cannot measure two properties at the
same time.

It tells us that energy is no longer

It has small units like mm, nm, cm etc.

It explains the relation between matte
and energy.

It is the science of future and explains
both physical and medical science.


The four numbers which completely describe the
characteristics of an atom e. g.  Energy,
shape, orientation of an orbitals and spin of electron are called quantum
numbers. There are:

1. Principal Quantum number (n)                      2. Azimuthal Quantum
number (l)

3. Magnetic Quantum numbers (m)                 4. Spin Quantum number (ms)

1. Principal Quantum number (n):-

This is the quantum number which is denoted by ‘n’. It tells us distance
of the shell from the nucleus and its energy. It has any integral value 1,2,3,4
with respect to K, L, M, N, O etc respectively. The value of n tells the energy
level in which electron circulate around the nucleus. IF the value of n is
greater the energy will be high and vice versa. ‘n’ also gives us the energy of
electron in the shell.

2. Azimuthal Quantum number (l):-

describes the shape of orbital. It has a value 0, 1, 2 ….n-1. The values cannot
exceed from 3 due to the limited of electrons. The sell is called s shell if
the value of l=0 and its shape is spherical. The shell is called p orbital if
the value of l=1 and it has a dumbbell shape. If the value of l=2 this orbital
is called d orbital. The orbital is called f orbital if the value of l=3.It is
used to represent the orbital or sub-shells. The value of l depends upon the

3. Magnetic quantum number (m):-

quantum number usually describes the magnetic characteristics of an electron
and the orientation of the orbital. Its value depend upon the values of l its
range from-l to +l zero is also included. For s sub-shell l=0and m=0 because s
shell has only one orientation in space and can b arranged along any axis. S
shell is not divided in further sub-shell. In case of p shell l=1 and m=0, ±1.
P sub shell has three space orientations along all the three axes X, Y, and Z
axis. They all are perpendicular to each other. For d sub shell l=2 and m=0,
±1, ±2.It has five orientation in the space. All of these are
not same or identical in shape.

4. Spin quantum number (ms):-

This quantum number is denoted by ms . It describes the
direction of the spin. Alkali metals have only single electron in their
outermost shell. Spectrum is emitted when electron jump from ground state to
exited state. This spectrum is consisting of pair of lines that is why it is
called doublet line structure. The electron while moving around the nucleus or
spin around their axis .The direction of spin may be clockwise or
anti-clockwise. It has value of +1/2 or -1/2. The possibility in every case
will be 50% clockwise and 50% anti clockwise.


Chemical bond:-

force of attraction which holds two atom or molecules to form a compound is
called chemical bond. The chemical combination of elements depends upon the electronic
configuration of the elements. The noble gases has very stable electronic
configuration that is why these gases show very less bonding.

bond theory (VBT)


covalent bond is formed by the overlapping of half filled orbitals in the
valence shell of the two atoms formed the pair of electron one from the each
atom. As a result of overlap the electron with opposite become paired to
stabilize them if the overlapping is large bonding will stronger.

theory tells us about the shape of molecules but does not give reasons for the
bond formation. But VBT explain both of these bond formation and shapes of

of VBT:-

Ø The
atom which unites them through the bonding in the molecule should retain their

Ø  The formation of
covalent bond is due to the overlap of atomic orbital of two different atoms,
each having one unpaired electron .These electrons overlap with opposite spin.
This bond is localized between two atoms. If atomic orbitals are in same spin
then no bond formation takes place.

Ø If
the atomic orbitals have more than one unpaired electron the possibility of
formation of more than one bond.

Ø If
the valence electros are already paired then they cannot take part in bonding
un pairing electron required energy which release from the bond formation.

Ø The
strength of covalent bond is depending upon the overlapping of atomic orbitals.
Greater overlap greater will be the b0nd strength.


                      The formation of
different types of overlapping has been discussed in VBT like s and so orbital,
s and p orbital and p and p orbital.

       In the
formation of H2 molecule from H atom 
the two identical s orbital of two different atoms show linear
overlapping  and the density if the
electrons become concentrated due to sigma bond which is formed between two H

bond formed when two half filled atomic overlap in such way that the
possibility of presence of electrons is between the centers of the both atoms
nuclei is called sigma (?) bond. 


A bond which is formed due to the head to head
overlapping of atomic orbitals.

When there is the bond formation both of these atoms
come interact with each other they are not distinguishable. There are two

H2B? case A

.H1B? case B

= ?A (1). ?B (2)

?2 =?A (2). ?B (1)

Here ? is a wave function.

True wave function is ?1+?2

                                           ? =
C1?1 + C2?2

C1 and C2 are the mixing

For H2 molecule C1 = ±C2

It means that if C1 = 1 and C2
= ± 1

Therefore the two possibilities for the wave
function. One corresponding to the C1 = 1 and C2  = 1 and the second is C1 = 1
and C2 = -1.

? = ?A (1).?B (2) + ?A (2).?B (1)

? = ?A (1).?B (2) _ ?A (2).?B (1)

Pauling has shown that the calculation of Es
suggested by Hitter and london can be improved by considering that the
additional ionic character in which both the electrons are attached to the same
atom. So new equation will be;

                       ?3 = ?A (1).
?A (2)

                       ?4 = ?B (1).
?B (2)

By adding these four equations we will get final

? = ?A (1). ?B (2) +?A (2). ?B
(1) + ?A (1). ?A (2)+?B (1).?B (2)

? = ? covalent + ? ionic

When the value of c governs the extent of ionic
character mixed with the covalent valence bond structure. This approvement of
wave function is called ionic covalent resonance and the approvement in energy
can be traced to the extra freedom it gives to the distribution of electrons.
The real values of c is about 0.25 which indicate that ionic structure

the overall structure of

. In hetero-nuclei the molecule ionic
character are more important and in species like NaCl they dominate the
covalent character.

The formation of an electron pair in 

based on the following assumptions,

Each hydrogen atom has half-filled 1s
atomic orbital which contain one electron.

Hitler and London tells us that the
electron are not easily understand and the wave function must explain this

 The molecular wave function

obtained by the linear combination of wave function of atomic orbital with the
concept of the resonance.

The electrons in the molecule which are
pairing should satisfy the Pauli’s Exclusion principal and these electrons have
different values of spin quantum numbers.

Electron pairing results to the formation
of attractive forces.

The overlapping of orbitals have same
shape and energy, the orbital overlap with each other to specific extent. There
will be stronger bond formation with respect to greater overlap.

The overall concept by the description of 

 molecules is that the covalent bond is formed
by the interconvert of forces between a pair of electrons having different

Pi, ? Bond:

The bond which is formed due to the sidewise overlapping of two
half-filled atomic orbitals which are parallel to each other and the density of
electron are above and below the center axis is called pi ? bond.

Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT):

In Molecular orbital theory all the valence electrons in the
molecule are linked with all the nuclei. In other words all the valence
electrons have an effect on the stability of the molecule. MOT considered that
when the molecule is formed the valence shell atomic orbital stops to exist.
They are replaced by a new set of energy levels with the related new density

electronic energy level in a molecule and the corresponding density in the
space is called Molecular orbital”

For example we take hydrogen molecule which has two identical
atoms each having one electron in their s-orbital. They are named as 


 and their wave function will be 


 the effective overlap will occur only when

The orbital have similar energy state

The orbital overlap to specific extent

Orbital have same shape



 are mixing coefficient the can be replaced by
single coefficient ?

Two possible molecular orbital wave functions are obtained from
addition and subtraction

By taking square of both of these equations we have





+           +


























 Molecular orbital is formed when the addition
of two 1s atomic orbital having the same spin overlap with inter nuclear axis
such overlap leads to reinforcement of the wave function between two nuclei the
probability of finding electron between the two nuclei. The bonding molecular

 having lower energy than that the atomic

Both bonding and anti-bonding molecular orbital having
cylindrical symmetry about their inter nuclear axis these orbitals are known as
sigma orbitals and these bonds are called as sigma bonds.

Bond Order:

The bond order is
defined as one half difference between the number of electron in the bonding
and anti-bonding molecular orbital in the molecule.


Bond order =

The bond order in


Effective combination of atomic orbitals
and its conditions:

The atomic orbitals which are combing
together should have same energy and similar magnitude In case of formation of
a homo-nuclear diatomic of 

 types and the

-AO of atom 

 will not be combined with

-AO of another atom 

same element, where  


two atoms of molecule A2 since their energies are differs from each other so
the energy gap between 2s and 2p atomic orbital is too high They will not
combine. In case of formation of hetero nuclear diatomic molecule of 

 type can be formed.

The density of atomic orbital must be
overlapped with each other if they are going to form molecular orbital this
condition is known as Principal of Maximum overlap. The atomic orbitals should
have same symmetry about their axis this condition is called as symmetric
condition for the combining of atomic orbitals.

the basis of symmetric conditions it is stated that the sum of atomic orbitals
which have same energy will overlap but cannot combine to the molecular
orbital. The molecular orbital cannot be formed by the overlapping of s-orbital
of one atom and p-orbital of another atom which is perpendicular to the
molecule axis. It can be 



The non-formation of
Molecular orbital is due to the un-symmetry of s and p orbitals it can be said
that + + is neutralized by the + – overlap


Ibsen was an Norwegian playwright, poet, and theatre director who was born on
March 20, 1828, in Skien, Norway. Ibsen is often referred to as the “father of modern
drama,” for he is responsible for the uprising of modern realistic drama and realism
literary movement. Throughout his childhood, Ibsen displayed gradual interest
in the theatrical industry as he was influenced by his mother, who often loved
going to theaters. One of Ibsen’s most successful work of art is The Doll’s
House, this play is most popular for the way it deals with the fate of a
married woman, who at the time lacked in independence, happiness, and self-worth
in a male dominated world. 

Current obligation to lift any of the

Scenario of LNG market in the U.S.

The United States is expected to
become one of the world’s top gas exporters by 2020, led by shale evolution
which fuels rapid growth in domestic production; leading to a fall in gas
prices and a drop in greenhouse gas emissions as power generation switches
from coal to gas, as well as reducing America’s historical reliance on
fossil fuel imports. According to IEA forecast the US would generate
almost 40% of the rise in global gas output between 2016 and 2022.
Graphical representation below   shows U.S. Lower 48 production of
natural gas by source, with shale gas accounting for a significantly
increasing proportion of total U.S. Lower 48 natural gas production. Shale
gas production is projected to account for over 60% of U.S. Lower 48
natural gas production by 2040.



Source: EIA AEO 2017


U.S. LNG Contract Terms

U.S. LNG and liquefaction capacity in
case of tolling agreements are sold in majority under the long-term
twenty-year contracts (LNG & natural gas exporters around the world
typically require long-term offtake agreements and relatively inflexible
volumetric commitments from buyers to justify their upfront investments in
highly capital-intensive field development and gas infrastructure assets),
but buyers of U.S. LNG are not restricted by destination and offtake
volumes clauses.
The contract terms typically run about
115 percent of the price of U.S. natural gas (currently $2.81 per MMBtu,
Q4 2017) with an additional $3.00 per MMBtu for liquefaction fees. After
other charges for shipping, insurance and regasification are factored in,
the total cost of U.S. natural gas at LNG terminals in Europe is anywhere
from $7 to $8.
Depending on the contract type, off-takers
from U.S. terminals have to pay a fixed capacity charge or a tolling fee
of approximately $2.25 to $3.5 per MMBtu, which they are bound to regardless
of exported volumes, but are under no obligation to lift any of the
contracted LNG (or pay for it in full, including the cost of feed gas and
the natural gas used during the liquefaction process) if the economics of
exporting U.S. shale gas becomes disadvantageous on a variable cost basis.


U.S. LNG export value

Exploration & Production



Regasification & Storage





Total = $2.0-$3.7
Greatest variability is in Upstream feedstock for
liquefaction and shipping distance

Source: Institute of

LNG European Clients




















Source: MAKS research     

Europe looking at U.S. LNG

Companies will likely to make their import decisions solely based on U.S. LNG
variable cost as the fixed fees will be treated as sunk cost. Also, when
an off-taker will have the option to buy LNG from the spot market then in
that case they would elect their contracted U.S. LNG volumes only if they
find the cost of delivering U.S. LNG lower than the prevailing market
The fact that
the variable cost of delivering U.S. LNG to Europe could stay lower than
rapidly falling spot prices in European region is due to a considerable
reduction in vessel charter rates and shipping fuel costs. Most of the
European companies are doing long term contract with U.S. LNG because
there are no destination restrictions for U.S. LNG buyers, have much
greater flexibility in terms of offtake volumes and no resale restriction
To the extent
the off-takers have signed long-term contracts to secure continuous feed
gas supply for their terminal capacity, they can still sell back unwanted
gas volumes to the U.S. market at any time at a relatively small loss.
An immediate
signal that future U.S. LNG exports will give new option and chance to diversify
to Europe will send a message to Russia that within a few years, despite
its current ability to pressure Ukraine and other nations once part of the
USSR, this will no longer be possible.
Two third of the
gas produced by Russian’s state controlled company Gazprom is sold to
Europe. Russia have large market share and dominance in European Market.
But Europe doesn’t want to be reliant on Russia for its energy needs and
is supported by United States to weaken the Russian influence over Europe.
Russia uses its
power over gas as political leverage and has a past records of cutting off
supply to countries during conflicts.
Russia is also
involved in the war of Ukraine and Georgia to distort the plans of
supplying gas through pipelines from Middle East.


U.S. LNG Export Cost Buildup by Region


Cost Range ($/MMBtu)


Capacity/Tolling Fees



Hub + 15% Surcharge






Charter Cost


Sunk for Some

Cost *







<0.1 Variable Regasification Cost 0.3-0.4 Variable Est. Total Cost Range 5.0-10.6   *Fuel cost includes the cost of the boil-off gas (BOG) and the marine fuel that LNG carriers use for propulsion Source: Delivered Cost of U.S. LNG in Europe in 2012 and 2016 ($/MMBtu)   Main Assumption Unit 2012 Sept 2016 Henry Hub Prices $/MMBTU 2.75 2.84 Bunker Fuel Price (IFO 380) $/ton 650 300 Charter Rate(Spot) $/day 120,000 33,000 Voyage time (one-way) Days 11 11         Source: Analysis As of September 30, 2016, Henry Hub prices were only slightly higher than the average price in 2012, so the changing cost of the natural gas feedstock played no major part in the sharp decline of the landed cost of U.S. LNG. Vessel charter rates and shipping fuel costs have dropped substantiallysince2012, lowering the delivered cost by an estimated $1.9 per MMBtu and $1.2 per MMBtu.         Spain Major deals in Spain U.S. LNG Plant Buyer company Contract Duration Capacity Buy Sale Price Cheniere Energy Gas Natural Fenosa 20 years 2 mmtpa Fixed Price ( $2.25-3.5/MMBtu) + liquefaction fee of $2.49/MMBtu + 115% of final Nymex Henry Hub Corpus Christi train 1 & 2 Iberdrola 20 years 0.4 mmtpa from Train 1 and increase upto 0.8 mmtpa from Train 2 $5.6 billion (Est. deal price) Corpus Christi Endesa 20 years 2.25 mmtpa Fixed Price + Tolling Fees $3.5/MMBtu + 115% of the Henry Hub   Why Spain looking at U.S LNG Ukraine crisis - The Ukraine crisis has spurred new interest in Europe finding alternatives to Russian natural gas imports. Spain is not exactly an energy powerhouse, but it could serve as a conduit to the rest of Europe for supplies of non-Russian natural gas. Low production of gas - Its production of natural gas has been essentially nil for quite some time. Desperate to boost Spain's moribund economy, Prime Minster Mariano Rajoy is hoping to change that, and has aggressively supported measures to allow the gas industry to begin exploration of Spain's newfound potential shale gas reserves. Rajoy's government is pushing hard to overturn bans on hydraulic fracking that have been issued by several provinces, including Cantabria, La Rioja, Navarra and Catalonia. Second largest importer of gas in Europe - Spain has six LNG import terminals already in operation. Its strategic geographic position on the Mediterranean allows it to get around half of its natural gas from its close neighbor, Algeria, and the rest from a variety of countries, including Nigeria, and Qatar. Good natural gas infrastructure - Spain's sophisticated natural gas infrastructure – the largest liquefaction capacity in Europe and a good distribution system – could allow Spain to come to Europe's rescue, according to Sedigas, the country's gas association. Weak interconnectivity with member states -          Spain is not well connected to France via natural gas pipelines, which means it can't supply the rest of Europe with re-gasified LNG. Spain a gas import capacity of some 87 Bcm/year despite only having consumption of some 30 Bcm/year. Its import capacity is more than eight times higher than its current export capacity to France and Portugal of just 10.6 Bcm/year. -          Spain imported gas from France almost every day in 2016 - although volumes came down since the start of the year from around 12 million cu m/d to around 2 million cu m/d – so it is clear that there is limited opportunity for Spain to move US LNG further into Europe.   France Major deals in France U.S. LNG plant Buyer company Contract duration Capacity Buy Sale Price Import LNG terminal Cheniere Corpus Christi Engie S.A 5 years 222 mn MMBtu Linked to Northern European indexes Montoir-de-Bretagne terminal Corpus Christi train 2 and 3 EDF 20 years 0.38 & 0.39 mmtpa from train 2 & 3 respectively Linked to Title Transfer Facility (TTF), Netherlands EDF Dunkirk terminal Cheniere's 5th train Total S.A 20 years 2.0 mmtpa $2.3 billion EDF Dunkirk terminal   Why France looking at US LNG Cold Weather Condition - Consumers cranked up their heaters as cold weather hit the region, pushing up demand for gas Reduction in Algerian Gas Supplies - As demand for gas has risen due to cold weather condition, supply from Algeria has been reduced due to problems at Sonatrach's Skikda LNG export terminal Shutdown of French nuclear plants - The shutdown of some French nuclear plants as a consequence of the discovery of forged manufacturing documents for some parts used in those plants has also fired up demand for power from the region's gas-fired plants higher than normal Largest importer of gas - France produces about 1% of the gas it consumes, and almost all gas consumed in France is imported. France's total natural gas imports are relatively well diversified with significant imports from Norway, The Netherlands, Russia and Algeria. About 72% of the entry capacity to the French gas network is for cross-border gas pipelines, and the remaining entry Capacity (about 28%) is for gas from France's four existing LNG import terminals Advantage of gas prices - Gas prices in Europe are at their highest premiums to U.S. gas prices for three years. Several cargoes have already made their way to Europe. Prices at southern France's Trading Region South (TRS) gas hub jumped to (Q4, 2016) 45 euros per megawatt hour, or over $14 per million British thermal units (mmBtu), making TRS one of the world's premium markets and gas prices at the Henry Hub GT-HH-IDX benchmark in Louisiana traded around $3.25 per mmBtu Granted full exemption to Dunkerque LNG terminal for third-party access - The European Commission granted the Dunkerque terminal a full exemption from third-party access for 20 years. The plant's capacity is contracted by EDF (60%) and Total.  EDF has contracted with Cheniere Energy to supply LNG from its Sabine Pass liquefaction complex in the US Supply Security and Diversification Need - U.S. LNG will help diversify the origin of gas consumed in France, according to Engie On the other hand, U.S. LNG not only giving France a new option for gas supplies but also helping in strengthening its independent supply security Reducing the dominance of Russian natural gas supply –France is trying to reduce their reliance on Russian natural gas, which is shipped via pipeline without being liquefied   United Kingdom Major deals in United Kingdom U.S. LNG Plant Buyer company Contract Duration Capacity Buy Sale Price Cheniere Energy BG group 20 years 3.5 MTPA 115% of Henry Hub Price + $2.25 premium Cheniere Energy Centrica 20 years 1.75 MTPA $5.5 billion (Est. deal price)   Why U.K. looking at U.S LNG Biggest consumer of gas - The U.K., the biggest gas consumer in Europe after Germany, relies on imports for about two-thirds of what it needs. Norwegian pipeline gas dominates Britain's gas imports, followed by liquefied natural gas. More than 90 percent of the LNG comes from Qatar, the biggest of the world's 19 exporters of the fuel, with the rest from nations including Norway, Algeria and Trinidad & Tobago. Low domestic production - Imports may become even more important for the U.K., since domestic production in the North Sea is on the decline. Expansion of Panama Canal - The expansion of the Panama Canal allowing it to be used by standard LNG tankers (since June 2016) means Peru's shipping distance to Britain is now comparable to Qatar's. The most convenient destination for Peruvian LNG is nearby Latin America and its biggest market has been Mexico but now Peru LNG stopped shipments to Mexico which makes way for imports to UK. Supply Security – US LNG helps UK in continuous supply of gas and in strengthening its independent supply security. Qatar crises fuels to rising UK imports -          Britain's increasing reliance on energy imports as the North Sea's oil and gas wealth declines has been highlighted by the diplomatic crisis engulfing Qatar. Qatar's transport links were severed by Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Egypt and several other countries over Doha's alleged funding of extremist groups. -          Ports, including refuelling hub Fujairah in the UAE, have been closed to Qatari-flagged ships raising concerns over cost hikes and delays to shipments. All these created a huge problem for UK as its one-third energy needs are fulfilled by Qatar but now they have to look for another options for their energy needs. 

This part-time workers/ home workers/knowledge-workers, the another

This legislation is too
new to allow for assessment of its effects on sub-groups of the economy;
however, it has the potential to be an innovative legislative response to the
demand for work-life balance. In India still there is a need of some strong
regulation for catering the needs of employees in the organization.

Other countries also have
different measures in place to facilitate work-life balance for working
parents: for example Hungary, Italy, Norway, Portugal and Spain enable women to
reduce their working hours in the first 9-12 months after the birth of their
child. The U.K., similar to Italy, has implemented specific legislation on
flexibility and work-life balance through the Employment Act 2002, which came
into force in April 2003.


While, the European Union
has provided the impetus to countries to address the issue of greater harmony
for workers in their home and work obligations by focusing on policies around
forms of parental leave. In the 1990s it set minimum standards for maternity
and parental leave through the Council Directives.

Policies There are no
such defined government laws and policies for work-life balance in India yet
there are various other laws which support employee’s work-life and provide
some relief to the employees. For example According to Maternity Benefits Act
(1961) women workers are allowed for 12 weeks paid leave for child birth. Instead
of it male candidate also allowed for the paid leave of 15 days for the
same.  Provisions regarding maximum
working hours leave and special provisions for employee’s health safety and
welfare are defined in Factories Act (1948), which makes the life of the
employees easy, according to act employer must also provide a crèche where more
than 30 women workers are employed with children below 6 years. Yet till now no
national laws are there which specifically covering rights to shared family
responsibilities/ part-time workers/ home workers/knowledge-workers, the
another biggest fact which seems to be practicising by Indian organizations is
by-passing of legislation to circumvent laws and lack of pressure for formal
policies at the organizational level to support work and family.

Laos Champasak location. The Hindu sanctuary structures

Laos is AN physics and inland nation in South-East Asia that has proceeded been relinquished from the within the outside world. an appointment to Laos is, in flourishing ways in which, a journey aback in time. Voyagers area unitexhausted reality by victimisation AN on top of issues that has abrogated overseas within the space. Indeed, even the very important Laotian capital sounds like a vaporous boundary metropolis. because the kingdom disclose, with a slow addition degree of breakwater and extensions obtaining intrinsic the mind-blowing visitor sights in Laos are excellent enclosed and enclosed to be had. The Vieng Xai hollows area unit a extensively inclusive recreation set up of caverns that stuffed in as shrouded town-limits amid the Vietnam War. The wideness became domestic to the Antipathetic armed pressure, World Health Organization had been livid the rightist weapon settled in Laotian capital and adjusted into grave by the U.S. armed pressure. Up to 23,000 humans lived within the caverns, that autonomous a recovery facility, forceful living quarters, bread kitchens, stores, and even a theater. The Lao government would like to propel the holes as a touristry aim, agnate to the C? Chi burrows in Vietnam. The Pak Ou Caves area unit within the inside of cold of Luang Prabang on the Mekong River flow into and might be delicate by means that of rear means or waterway watercraft. The hollows area unit acclaimed for his or her very littleBuddha models. many actual fry and for the utmost part injured board Buddhist modified works area unit orderedout finished the financial organization racks. They yield flourishing modified publications of action, along sidereflection, instructing, peace, rain, and fallen (nirvana). Wat Phu (or Vat Phou) may be a poor Khmer sanctuary winding among the inside of at the contemptible of emerge Phu Kao, within the Champasak location. The Hindu sanctuary structures originate the eleventh to thirteenth manyyears. Wat Phu is fry contrasted and also the splendid Angkor-period destinations in Kingdom of Cambodianevertheless the separated structures, questionable crocodilian reptile shake and excessive hedge that availableplentiful of the net web site accord Wat Phu a magical air. The sanctuary continues to be being employed as a Buddhist data processor these days. Found in Vientiane, Pha That Luang (“Great Stupa in Lao”) is one among the a substantial live of apt cairn in Laos. The stupa encompasses a few patios with commemoration associated impersonation a changed date of Buddhist illumination. The common person associated speaks to the particular international; the consummated associated speaks to the apple of nothingness. Pha That Luang became inherent within the sixteenth age on the charcoal of ANbeforehand Khmer sanctuary. Pha That Luang became blasted by employing a Siamese bad blood in 1828, once more once remade by means of the French in 1931. Situated on AN scope of the river, Laotian capital Basic encompasses a written history that extends aback to spherical one,000 AD. The expansiveness become initial of all acclimatized as a results of the abundance of the peripheral sediment fields, and Laotian capital become the essential metropolis-points of confinement of Laos regarding the mid-sixteenth century. One of the a in depth degree of conserving urban regions in south-east Asia, Luang Prabang is that the a amazingdeal of expressed day-tripper charm in Laos. Until 1975, if the unfriendly assumed manipulate over the state, it becomethe noble essential of Laos. The capital designation of Luang Prabang is within the inside of on a dry land within the inside of the Nam Khan and Mekong River waterways. A accumulating of wonderful roofed sanctuaries, board homes and disintegrating French biased barrio substantial the capital streets. At day smash, monks from the particularreligious communities airing through the roads boom contributions of rice. 

p.p1 from road and marin? transport, and

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Th? World H?alth Organization ?stimat?s that 4.6 million p?opl? di? ?ach y?ar from caus?s dir?ctly attributabl? to air pollution (Sci?nc? Daily). Air pollution in Hong Kong has b?com? a s?v?r? probl?m in th? r?c?nt y?ars mainly du? to high-d?nsity of motor v?hicl?s, marin? v?ss?ls, and coal-burning pow?r plants. Air pollution in Hong Kong is also compound?d by high l?v?ls of industrial pollution in n?ighbouring Chin?s? factori?s of th? P?arl Riv?r D?lta. Whil? Hong Kong can do littl? to control wind patt?rns from China, it can tak? gr?at?r m?asur?s to combat air pollution. D?spit? conc?rns that imposing strict?r r?gulations conc?rning air pollution will harm Hong Kong’s r?putation as on? of th? most busin?ss-fri?ndly citi?s in th? world, som?thing must b? don?. Hong Kong Gov?rnm?nt must l?gislat? strict?r laws and ?nforc? p?nalti?s to combat air pollution in Hong Kong in ord?r to pr?v?nt furth?r d?struction of th? ?nvironm?nt, saf?guard human h?alth, and mak? Hong Kong a mor? attractiv? plac? to liv? and work.  ?xposur? to outdoor air pollution caus?s 3 million pr?matur? d?aths worldwid? annually, pr?dominantly h?art and lung dis?as? (WHO), of which mor? than 1,600 w?r? in Hong Kong in 2016 (HKU School of Public H?alth). P?opl? ?xpos?d to high l?v?ls of airborn? particulat? and CO2 pollutants ?xp?ri?nc? br?athing difficulti?s and wors?ning of ?xisting lung and h?art conditions and in th? long-t?rm causing canc?r. A 2016 study found that “air pollution incr?as?d th? risk of dying from canc?r by 22% in Hong Kong”(Th? Guardian). Hong Kong fac?s th? s?rious probl?m of air pollution from road and marin? transport, and its proximity to China which is r?sponsibl? for 60-70% of air pollutants (Hong Kong ?nvironm?ntal D?partm?nt). In th? th? first month of 2017, th?r? w?r? mor? than 300,000 doctor’s visits link?d to smog. L?v?ls of canc?r-causing pollutants hav? ?xc??d?d th? WHO norms for th? last 15 y?ars, oft?n 3-5 tim?s mor? than acc?ptabl? l?v?ls. Th? s?rious toxicological impact on human h?alth of air pollution r?sults in mor? d?aths p?r y?ar than automobil? accid?nts (Sci?nc? Daily), th?r?for?, it is vital that th? Hong Kong gov?rnm?nt tak?s imm?diat? m?asur?s to control th? ?mission of CO2 polluting particl?s and particulat?s to prot?ct th? h?alth of its citiz?ns.In addition to b?ing dang?rous to human h?alth, air pollution can hav? s?v?r? n?gativ? ?nvironm?ntal ?ff?cts, such as acid rain, haz?, and global climat? (Int?rgov?rnm?ntal Pan?l on Climat? Chang?). L?ading sci?ntists pr?dict that av?rag? world t?mp?ratur? will ris? by 1.5 to 3.5 d?gr??s c?lsius by th? y?ar 2100, and s?a l?v?ls would ris? b?tw??n 0.25 and 1 m?t?r. ?xtr?m? w?ath?r ?v?nts will happ?n mor? oft?n and b? mor? s?v?r?. Hong Kong in r?c?nt y?ars has ?xp?ri?nc?d a gr?at numb?r of ?nvironm?ntal probl?ms such as s?v?r? black rains, unusually high t?mp?ratur?s, and int?ns? tropical storms. Th?s? ?v?nts caus? irr?parabl? damag? to Hong Kong’s fragil? ?co-syst?m and disrupt th? daily lif? of its r?sid?nts, both th?ir busin?ss and l?isur? activiti?s.    Th? d?trim?ntal ?ff?cts of air pollution on th? ?nvironm?nt and h?alth mak? Hong Kong a l?ss app?aling plac? to liv? and work. Historically, th? city has b??n consid?r?d as on? of th? most dynamic and vibrant plac?s in th? world, attracting p?opl? looking for jobs in proximity with China, a lib?ral, busin?ss-fri?ndly ?nvironm?nt which wh?n combin?d with th? gr?at quality of lif? provid?d by Hong Kong’s ampl? gr??n spac?s and magnific?nt natur? is ?v?n b?tt?r. But this will chang? if Hong Kong do?s not tak? mor? m?asur?s to combat air pollution. R?sid?nts and global compani?s that hav? th?ir h?adquart?rs in Hong Kong will look for oth?r citi?s to liv? and work in, and Hong Kong will los? its comp?titiv? advantag?. Although Hong Kong gov?rnm?nt stat?s that it is addr?ssing th? probl?m of air pollution, many of its actions hav? b??n in?ff?ctiv? b?caus? it do?s not want to j?opardiz? its r?putation as a busin?ss-fri?ndly city and impos? a numb?r of n?w, strict?r r?gulations on n?ighboring factori?s, and transport. Th? gov?rnm?nt has sign?d a s?ri?s of agr??m?nts with Guangdong provinc? dir?ctly to th? north. How?v?r, th?y ar? un?nforc?abl? and hav? fail?d to provid? “a m?aningful impact” according to th? local gov?rnm?nts and activists (Th? Guardian). Hong Kong gov?rnm?nt has not bann?d old?r di?s?l v?hicl?s or r?gulat?d th? l?v?l of sulfur fu?l, which many contain?r ships can burn right up until th?ir sail into port (South China Morning Post MAYB?).  Th? gov?rnm?nt thinks that ?xtra r?gulation will harm its r?putation as a busin?ss-fri?ndly city, but in fact, strict?r m?asur?s to control pollution and improv? th? ?nvironm?nt will in th? long t?rm contribut? to th? h?alth, w?ll-b?ing, and prosp?rity of its citiz?ns. Hong Kong has a lot of sunshin? and winds and can do mor? to promot? wind and solar ?n?rgy, and ?l?ctric v?hicl?s, such as city’s public bus?s and mini-bus?s. Providing inc?ntiv?s to local busin?ss?s to mak? th? city ‘gr??n?r’ will also improv? th? ?conomy.

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In conclusion, th? Hong Kong Gov?rnm?nt n??ds to tak? imm?diat? and s?rious m?asur?s to tackl? th? dang?rous air pollution caus?d by land and s?a transport, pow?r plants and th? n?ighbouring industrial provinc? of Guangdong. Air pollution has alr?ady had a s?v?r? n?gativ? ?ff?ct on th? h?alth of Hong Kong r?sid?nts, on th? b?autiful but fragil? ?nvironm?nt, and on th? city’s r?putation as a gr?at plac? to liv? and work. Whil? in r?c?nt y?ars, Hong Kong has r?cogniz?d th? probl?m, mor? aggr?ssiv? m?asur?s such as tough?r controls on th? v?hicl? and industrial ?missions and targ?t?d support for r?n?wabl? ?n?rgy solutions ar? n??d?d. Finally, a gr?at?r awar?n?ss and a coll?ctiv? ?ffort from r?sid?nts to liv? a gr??n?r way of lif? will ?nhanc? Hong Kong’s quality of lif? now and in th? futur?.

Introduction owners discover how to move beyond

Introduction I want to start by saying thank you for taking time out of your busy day to read this valuable report.My goal is to educate you as to the biggest mistakes I see working with small business owners, as their bookkeeper. I want you to avoid these bookkeeping mistakes so that you can earn more, pay less in taxes and have peace of mind knowing your books and finances are in order. I’ve been the unfortunate witness of many disasters when it comes to bookkeeping. When I am called in to help a business, the bookkeeping situation can be chaotic and stressful for the business owner. However, the good news is that, within a relatively short period of time, I am able to restore order and bring peace of mind back to the owners. I don’t want bookkeeping and financial chaos or stress to be a part of your life! Please read these mistakes and see if they sound familiar to you. If you are making these mistakes that’s ok: there are easy to follow solutions to go along with each mistake. One word of caution: great solutions, in the hands of an unskilled bookkeeper can end up making a bad situation even worse. No matter what you gather from this report, get REAL help. Whether from myself or another qualified bookkeeper, just make sure your bookkeeper knows the tricks of the bookkeeping trade as they relate to your business.I serve small business owners exclusively as their bookkeeper and trusted advisor. After you read this report and you feel that you need help applying the recommended solutions, I encourage you to make an appointment with me to discuss your situation. I offer free consultations to help small business owners discover how to move beyond chaos and restore order to their business. To schedule your free consultation, visit I am a bookkeeper, which means I am not a salesperson. I will shoot straight with you about your situation and if we decide to move forward, then that is fine. If not, that is fine too. Mistake #1: Not Having A Budget And Monitoring It Explanation The number one differentiator between an excellent and an average performing small businesses is the use and implementation of a budget. I know the word “budget” sounds boring and mundane but trust me, the businesses that experience growth and obtain financial success are all using a budget.Small business owners that are using budgets take it seriously. They incorporate the budget into their bookkeeping software, monitor it on a monthly basis and adjust their finances accordingly to ensure they reach their goals outlined in the budget. Solution Develop a budget. Work with someone who understands small businesses. Review the budget on a regular basis and create a new budget once a year. Mistake #2: Missing Legitimate Tax Deductions Explanation A lot of small businesses are missing out on legitimate tax breaks because they just don’t know. And, hey, it’s not their (or your) fault. You started your business because you knew the industry and had a product or service that your customers needed and wanted. How much time did you spend learning about taxes, bookkeeping and financial matters? This lack of knowledge can cost you a lot of money and many sleepless nights over the course of your career. Don’t let this happen to you. Solution Develop a bookkeeping system designed to capture every tax break possible. This system needs to be tailored for you as a small business owner. You see, you have unique tax breaks that aren’t common among other businesses. The way we design our bookkeeping systems for our clients makes it difficult to miss out on tax breaks. You and your accountant will love the way this functions. And the best part is you know you’re capturing tax breaks in real time. Mistake #3: Loose Or No Controls On Your Bookkeeping, Financial And Banking Processes Explanation This can be a scary one. The business owner hands over control of their bookkeeping, financial and banking processes to one employee or manager. More often than not, there are loose or no controls so if, heaven forbid, you end up with an unhappy employee…I don’t even want to finish the sentence. Don’t believe me? Google “Employee Embezzlement” and read through the 100s of cases that happen each year. Solution Set up sound bookkeeping, financial and banking controls within your business. For example, no one other than you should have access to the banking records whether online or paper. Have your businesses bank statements sent to your home address if you’re using snail mail or delivered to your PRIVATE email inbox if you receive them in electronic form. Doesn’t that sound like a simple fix? It is! Apply this, along with the other financial controls I recommend, and you make it much more difficult for anyone to steal from you. However, even with these controls in place, there are more important things you need to consider as it relates to employee embezzlement and internal controls. That is a topic I do NOT want in writing as it gives thieves an understanding of what to be on the lookout for. If you like, please schedule your free consultation and I will discuss this with you in private. Mistake #4: Pretending That Bookkeeping Doesn’t Exist And “Doing The Books” Once Per Year Explanation How many business owners have had this thought? “I’ll do my job of being a great business owner and everything else (the bookkeeping and the finances) will work itself out. There is not a good ending to a story where the books and the finances were ignored within a business. This kind of thinking will eventually catch up to you and the consequences vary by the length of time the books were left to sort themselves out. Now, this does NOT mean you need to go back and get a degree in business or finance.Solution First off, find a professional who can teach you the what it takes to run your businesses finances. Second, find someone to take over all of the routine bookkeeping and accounting matters. Third, review this person’s work on a regular basis. If this person has done a good job in teaching you how to run your businesses finances then you will be able to tell the difference between care and carelessness. Mistake #5: Allowing Someone Unqualified To Do The Bookkeeping Explanation I asked one business owner who was doing their books. She Looked down at her shoes and told me that her office manager was responsible for handling the books. Hoping for the best, I replied: “Oh, good, she must know what she’s doing and have some background in bookkeeping.” From the look on her face, I could tell my hope was not what was really going on. It turns out, this office manager had made a mess of the books. Problem was, the owner didn’t know how to fix it so she just let it ride. No funny business going on; the office manager was doing the best she could, it just was a royal mess. Solution Would you allow your office manager to invest your retirement funds? How about your kid’s college education fund? I hope you would say “No”! However, when we allow the office manager or any other unqualified individual to manage the bookkeeping, in effect, you’re putting them in charge of the largest investment you have in your portfolio. The solution is simple: hire a trained professional to care for the bookkeeping. Mistake #6: Keeping Incomplete, Non-Existent Or Outdated Books Explanation This usually is coupled with mistakes #4 and #5. Over the course of the year, you turn a blind eye to the books and hope nothing bad happens. At the end of the year, all of your banking and “bookkeeping” records (a big box full of receipts) are turned over to your accountant at tax time to let them deal with it. After all, who has time for that mess? In the long run, this is costing you LOTS of money and unneeded stress.Solution The most likely reason for this is that you or someone within your practice is responsible for this activity along with about 20 other more pressing matters. It’s important to hire someone whose sole function is to care for the books. This not only keeps you prepared for tax time but allows you to see the financial health of the business on a regular basis. Businesses that know where their business stands financially are the businesses that are succeeding and thriving.Mistake #7: Using A General Bookkeeper Explanation As mentioned before, your business is unique and there is no one business that is identical to yours. Most of bookkeeping is the same for any business whether is a chiropractic practice or an ice cream truck. But…the last few percent is what separates the great from the mediocre.  Solution Hire a bookkeeper who knows the ins and outs of small business bookkeeping. Hire a professional who knows what it takes for you to succeed. Now is not the time to try to cut costs and go for the cheapest option, these are your finances we are talking about and the life blood of your business. Surprisingly, getting this kind of dedicated help is reasonable and will actually become a profit center for you rather than a cash drain. Conclusion I’ve got to be honest with you: I will set up your business for financial success and monitor it every step of the way. Every one of the mistakes and solutions I just informed you about, I tackle on a daily basis. Now, I would like the opportunity to talk about your specific business situation and how I can serve and guide you toward financial stability and success. If you’d like to take me up on this offer, please email me at [email protected] or call me at 907-331-0208 for your free consultation. If you don’t contact me, that’s totally fine and I completely understand. But please do one thing for yourself and find a qualified bookkeeper to set up the books for your business. Don’t make the same mistakes I’ve seen so many other business owners make! They are unnecessary and it breaks my heart to see small business owners missing out on the benefits that come from gaining financial control of their business. I hope this has been helpful and inspires you to take action. Natalie ParisThe Small Business Bookkeeper

Competitive experience. Flight Tracker EasyJet became the

Competitive Advantage Case Study –

EasyJet is a low-cost air carrier that is based in United
Kingdom. It was founded by Clelia Haji-Ioannou, in March 1995.The airline
operates using its route network segment (Reuters,n.d.). It operates short-haul
flights across Europe. The airline flies over 820 routes across 30 countries.
Currently, it has about 250 Airbus aircrafts that are in operation. EasyJet has
several company bases that are located in various countries in Europe. The
bases include United Kingdom, France, Italy, Switzerland, Barcelona and more.

Competitive Advantage

the years, EasyJet has successfully competitive advantage by making use of
information technology in order to make travelling simpler and affordable for
its customers in its long-term plan. EasyJet have been digitally innovative in
order to reduce disruptions and increasing its operational efficiency. During
the last 5 years, the airline has made transformations to the airline and its
customers’ travel experience.

Mobile App

award winning mobile app enables its passengers to book and check-in flights. They
can also receive real-time information on their flight status. In 2013, the
airline had added a mobile-boarding function to the mobile app. This function
will let its customers to check in their flight in less than 10 seconds
(EasyJet,n.d.). Thus, passengers are able to download their mobile   boarding
passes and store them in their mobile phones. To add on, the app also has
Apple’s popular Passbook functionality. This functionality allows its
passengers to store their boarding passes with ease. The app has been
downloaded for 18.3 million times, showing an increase of 30% compared to last
year. Therefore, EasyJet’s mobile app has definitely make it
much more convenient for its customers to fly with them and improves customer



EasyJet became the first airline in the world to partner
with Flightradar24.The purpose of the partnership is to integrate live flight
tracking with its mobile app. Hence, this would mean that EasyJet’s passengers
are able to watch exact locations of the aircraft that they will be flying in,
up to three hours before flight departure (EasyJet,n.d.).

Apple Pay

EasyJet is one of the first airlines in
Europe to be offering Apple Pay. After making flight booking, customers can
simply use Apple Pay to make their payment (,2016).
After booking, customers can simply choose the credit card of their choice to
pay and authorize a secure payment. Hence a secure payment is made using the fingerprint
recognition on their mobile phones. Hence, this helps to speed up the payment
process for the customers.

Bag Drop

EasyJet had introduced fully-automated bag
drop machines at most of its check-in counters in airports. This avoids
customers from having to queue for a long time before checking-in and dropping their
luggage. Therefore, queueing times have been reduced by about half. It is also
estimated that most passengers will now have to queue less than five minutes at
the bag drop. Overall, this machine helps passengers to save time and makes
check-in process smoother.

Future Plans

EasyJet is also exploring
various opportunities in order to operate their bussiness more efficiently and
attract more customer loyalty in the future.

3D Augmented reality

EasyJet is looking at deploying a 3D Virtual Reality and
Augmented Reality technology in the future. This technology will enable remote
engineering team to view what a flight crew or flight engineer is viewing, using
virtual reality glasses. Glasses will adopt the world’s first high definition
see-through display system (EasyJet,n.d.). Hence, augmented reality is provided,
thus assisting the flight engineers to diagnose a technical problem from a distance
away. Therefore, this technology will certainly be beneficial for some of EasyJet’s
remote airports across its flight network.

Inflight Monitoring and Prognosis

EasyJet is partnering with FlightWatching to
install a sophisticated early fault prognosis tool. The function of this tool
is to provide its operations and engineering employees with live updates coming
straight from flying aircraft. The system is a web-based software system from
FlightWatching. It is called WILCO.WILCO is capable of receiving real-time
information from the aircraft messaging system. Hence, data is then converted
into an animated schematic which could be used to predict any potential
technical issues (EasyJet,n.d.). Hence, the airline’s ground engineers are able
to start an investigation as early as possible. They also could make sure that
the correct engineering parts are available for maintenance work as soon as the
aircraft lands at the airport. Therefore, this tool will improve the operational
efficiency for employees who are working in the aircraft maintenance

In conclusion, EasyJet has successfully
gain competitive advantage by making full use of its information technology
capabilities. By being digitally innovative, the airline has established a key
point of differentiation from its competitors. Its mobile app and other technological
enhancements like Apple Pay and auto bag drop helps to improve customer
experience. Not only that, it also helps to foster customer loyalty for EasyJet
as well. Its inflight Monitoring and Prognosis will help to increase the
operational efficiency in its maintenance department. In order to stay
competitive, the airline is constantly exploring various sophisticated
technologies in order to serve its customers with a better travel experience. Overall,
EasyJet continues to invest in its digital capability, in order to improve its
digital customer interface in the future.