After the 1815 “Congress of Vienna” . Prussia was officially one of the great powers in Europe. However in the German alliance Prussia had to vie with Austria for laterality. which eventually resulted in a war in 1866. Constructing up to this Prussia became progressively strong compared to Austria. the grounds for which have to be explored.
In 1815 Prussia’s population consisted of 73. 5 % rural people. while Austria had 80 % rural people. However. after 1815 Prussia experienced a fast population growing. which meant that many people decided to travel to the metropoliss for work and so for illustration Berlin grew from 172. 000 in 1800 to 419. 00 in 1850. This enabled a large potency for industry in the metropoliss because work forces were now available. One of the grounds why Prussias’s industry was dominant over that of Austria was that it. after the 1815 “Vienna conference” . annexed the Rhineland and hence gained entree to one of the greatest militias of natural resources in cardinal Europe with non merely the Rhineland but besides Silesia and the Saarland. Prussia could spread out their industry without holding to be concerned about resource scarcity. which lead to industry enlargement. This is a major factor of the laterality over Austria. as Austria couldn’t rely on such great resources and therefore their economic system wasn’t boosted.
Another ground as to why Prussia became dominant is that Prussian economic policies strongly supported economic development. such as the revenue enhancement reforms and the route edifice programme by Friedrich von Motz. who was Minister of Finance between 1825 and 1830. This and the abolition of Surfdom in 1821 enhanced Prussias industry and economic system because new occupations were created and authorities financess lead to more market orders.
Austria on the other manus maintained rigorous control over all trade prohibited greater enlargement of the economic system. The development of the economic system in Austria was merely seen in Bohemia. and a railroad building in 1828 every bit good as a port in Triste. which lead to Austria dawdling in comparing to Prussia. economically.
The biggest factor nevertheless. which significantly influenced Prussia emerging as the dominant power in 1866 was the constitution of the “Zollverein” on the 1st January 1834. The Zollverein covered 18 provinces in 1834 which increased to 25 by 1836. It united most of the German provinces under itself and showed great economic success. However many historiographers such as Helmut Bohme argue that Prussia non merely wanted economic progress but besides wanted to pull out Austrias influence from Germany. Prussia enjoyed the leading of the “Zollverein” and by 1844. excepting merely Hannover. Bremen and Hamburg. all German provinces were members. This enabled Prussia to take an economically virtually unified Germany. Puting Prussia in a strong place. a place which Austria failed to busy by non fall ining the “Zollverein” . Austria. due to national markets. which she didn’t want to upset didn’t fall in the Zollverein and this non merely led to a weaker place but besides to economic stagnancy. while Prussias economic system was booming.
This is shown through the end product in Prussia during the industrial revolution which reaches Prussia 1850. Prussias economic system experiences a great progress. the railroad web additions from 3869 kilometer to 7169 kilometer between 1850 and 1860. non merely does Prussia’s conveyance system better but besides the industrial end product such as coal. which increases from 700. 000 dozenss in 1850 to 2. 2 million in 1860 in the Ruhr country. Austria on the other manus. couldn’t maintain up with Prussia. their export even decreased between 1853 and 1856 from 184. 3 million thaler to 150. 3 million.
In 1866 Austria was economically inferior to Prussia. as they didn’t fall in the Zollverein. they didn’t have the resources Prussia did and their policies were excessively rigorous and didn’t allow room for industrial enlargement. Furthermore Austria didn’t industrialise the manner Prussia did and had a greater part of the population still populating in rural countries.
One of the jobs of the Austrian Empire was that it consisted of legion different civilizations e. g. Hungary. Croats. etc. This meant that there were different impressions of patriotism within the Empire and these largely didn’t include a loyal feeling for the Austrian Empire. Such was the instance with Kossuth. the leader of a extremist Magyar Magyar motion. His fiery addresss were shortly printed in Vienna and initiated rebellions. Metternich overrating the revolutions fled Austria and on the 15th March. Hungary was granted independency under Austrian regulation. Other parts of Austria wanted the same position. nevertheless after the new Emporor Franz Joseph came to the throne. he appealed to the Russians who helped and ended the 1848 revolutions. The revolutions in Austria weakened the Empire because for one Metternich. who had managed to supress liberalism for such a long clip. resigned but besides it demonstrated that Austria didn’t have full control over her districts any longer. which puts her in a diplomatically weaker place.
Metternichs stepping down swept the exhilaration from Austria over to Prussia in 1848. King Friederich William IV. promised elections and took a really broad point of view. nevertheless after he came back to his throne he decided that this broad experiment had gone on for long plenty and changed his head. Although this didn’t needfully bring any alteration. in other parts of the German alliance there were broad alterations such as in 1846 when the expansive duke of Baden accepted a broad fundamental law. After the broad moving ridge that swept through the German alliance in 1848 the cardinal diet which was led by Austria was replaced by the Frankfurt assembly which was under the lead of Austria. This non merely shows a alteration in laterality but besides the German provinces have a stronger feeling of integrity. This went every bit far as the Frankfurt assembly offering Frederick William the Crown after Austria stated that either the full imperium or none of the imperium would come in the new Germany. Frederick William defied the Crown. nevertheless this offer was an deduction that Prussia was going the dominant force in the German alliance.
Josef von Radowitz tried to magnify this influence through the “Erfurt Union” which would be a brotherhood of the northern German provinces under Prussian presidential term. This Union was rapidly annulated through the “Olmutz agreement” in November 1950. where Prussia had to give in to the resurgence of the “German Confederation” . The events at Olmutz didn’t enhance Prussias laterality over Austria. nevertheless once more through the “Erfurt Union” Prussias purposes became obvious.
Austrias diplomatic isolation taking up to 1866 ensured Prussia diplomatic laterality and it was through Bismarck’s cunning diplomatic manuevers that this was achieved. Austrias isolation began with the Crimean war ( 1853-1856 ) in which Austria refused to assist Russia although the Russians themselves had aided Austria militarily during the 1848 revolutions.
Preussen on the other manus. had become more attached with Russia through the Alvensleben convention of 1863. Prussia sent General Alvensleben to allow Russian military personnels permission to follow the Polish rebells into Prussian district. This meant that the first great power in Europe was no longer friendly to Austria and in instance of war wouldn’t side with her.
In February 1864. Prussia and Austria attacked Denmark with the result that Prussia received Schleswig and Austria received Holstein. Britain substained to step in here and hence most likely would forbear from siding with anyone in a war over the spoils. The war with the Danes provoked diplomatic complications between the two powers but led to the consequence that Bismarck knew that Britain wouldn’t side with Austria in instance of war.
Austrias diplomatic isolation was further enhanced by Frances neutrality. To guarantee this Bismarck met with Napoleon III in Biarritz and although it is non known what was decided at this conference. looking at a missive written to William I. by Bismarck and the war so one can generalize what happened at the conference. Bismarck knew of Napoleons want to spread out and therefore implied that France could derive any Gallic speech production district after the war. This evoked the Gallic to remain impersonal.
Austrias diplomatic isolation was completed through the Italian matter. as Austria still held on to Venetia. Italy became a natural enemy of Austria. Bismarck connived a military confederation together with Italy and hence would trip a two front war with Austria. should war be declared between April and July 1866.
Von bismarcks part to Prussia going the dominant power were important. which can besides be seen through the “iron and blood” address. With this he convinced the the Landtag that Prussia could merely be winning through military power and ”Not through addresss and bulk decisions” . Prussia would necessitate “Iron and blood” and Bismarck wanted to upgrade the Prussian military. This is of import for Prussia going the dominant force becauseas Bismarck justly said conflicts are through work forces and arms.
Preussen became the dominant German province between 1815 and 1866 through Von bismarcks cunning political manuevers. economical promotion every bit good as diplomatic success. Through this they became dominant over Austria. who didn’t have such rich natural resources and were diplomatically blind at times.