Problems of Moral and Social Values Essay

“According to the Greatest Happiness Principle. as above explained. the ultimate terminal. with mention to and for the interest of which all other things are desirable ( whether we are sing our ain good or that of other people ) . is an being exempt every bit far as possible from hurting. and every bit rich as possible in enjoyments. both in point of measure and quality ; the trial of quality. and the regulation for mensurating it against measure. being the penchant felt by those who in their chances of experience. to which must be added their wonts of self-consciousness and self-observation. are best furnished with the agencies of comparing.

This. being. harmonizing to the useful sentiment. the terminal of human action. is needfully besides the criterion of morality ; which may consequently be defined. the regulations and principles for human behavior. by the observation of which an being such as has been described might be. to the greatest extent possible. secured to all world ; and non to them merely. but. so far as the nature of things admits. to the whole sentient creation… ( Mill. 1863 ) ”

The citation seemed to connote the thesis made by John Stuart Mill in Chapter 2 of his workUtilitarianism.As he explained the statement of the utilitarians. it was unintelligible for the oppositions of the Theory of Utilitarianism to say that the rule that they advocate promote the construct of pleasance or that of felicity.

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The argument on the issue of quality and measure as the index of the greatest public-service corporation was described by Mill as nil but an reading of an irrational being. The terminal of the human behavior implied the criterion of morality ( Mill. 1863 ) therefore it was nonmeaningful to state that a individual withheld his chase of felicity or pleasance for the publicity of the greatest public-service corporation. In this point. Mill contended that the greatest public-service corporation was so the same thing which gives the greatest felicity.

As systematically highlighted by the utilitarians. publicity of pleasance and antipathy from hurting were the lone things that a adult male must take as his ultimate terminals. In this manner. what satisfied him or gave him felicity was the very thing that gave him the best public-service corporation. However. this statement was erroneously interpreted by the antagonists of the Utilitarian rule by stating that non all work forces needfully have the same respect to different objects of pleasance – significance. their grade or strength of being satisfied varied. Therefore. the antagonists claimed. that the greatest public-service corporation for the greatest measure was non operable given that one may saw one thing as more valuable than other things while others saw these things as more of import than the other one.

Mill attempted to rectify this manner of looking at the useful rule by. once more. using the most noteworthy comparing between swine or animal and adult male. Man was higher than the former since adult male had superior mental modules which allowed him to judge rationally. He was non easy satisfied by less enjoyable things as how swine and animal would make. Man obsessed “pride” and. much. “has sense of self-respect ( Mill. 1863 ) . ” He could non stand the instance that his pleasances were as low or the same as the swine or animal. Hence. in some manner. all work forces had the same modules to judge between the lesser and the greater pleasance.

To back up this. Mill insisted the function that the “habits of self-consciousness and self-observation ( Mill. 1863 ) ” played. Having the ability to detect. comparison. and analyze the manner things were presented to him. adult male could give his judgements on the issue raised earlier. There could be a instance that a adult male would be given to be inclined with lesser pleasances than being in tuned with the greater pleasances but still at some point. adult male knew which of the pleasances weighs than the other. It was merely his moral judgement was weaker and more prone to travel before the bodily pleasances.

Mill furthered that this human ability to get at moral judgement could be compare with wellness. Mind and organic structure comprised adult male. Both required the latter to prosecute fuels that would keep the stableness of the two constituents. However. to go healthy. adult male must be able to recognize that the demands of the psyche or the head were far greater than demands of the organic structure. Thus. adult male could merely go healthy if he had successfully done this.

As a consequence. all work forces. who all had rational abilities to judge whether one thing had greater value than the other. would non state that the other thing possessed the greater value. This opened the thought that all work forces recognized things of greater value. They were so being urged by their organic structure to take the lesser pleasances but as a moral agent. they would easy be satisfied by those meagre pleasances. Hence they would agree with the common good which offered the greatest good.

Mill’s last statement to back up the theory of Utility as the appropriate criterion of morality talked about the sensed impossibleness to execute pure selfless Acts of the Apostless. Sacrificing one’s individual felicity did non needfully intend that his or her felicity was outweighed by others’ felicity.

It merely implied that he or she recognized that merely by allowing spell of his or her personal involvements that he or she could hold achieved the greater felicity possible. And this greater felicity would non merely profit the bulk but besides himself or herself. Individual felicity so as Mill suggested. was non truly neglected or taken for granted but was so reinforced by the attainment of the greater good for the greater figure ( which included the moral agent himself ) .

To reflect on the statements raised by Mill. it was true that what made a enjoyable thing pleasurable was the sum of felicity one may acquire from it or the chance to forestall the being of hurting. Everyone would hold with such definition ( except in the instances of a masochist which considered the feeling of hurting as enjoyable ) . And since work forces has the power to do moral judgement which made him non to take the lesser signifier of pleasances. his pick must hold ever on the degree as how other rational existences would hold.

Bing with the pick of other rational existences. a moral agent would so acknowledge the demand to continue this pick for the accomplishment or care of the greatest public-service corporation or the greatest felicity. Therefore. he learned to set aside his lesser concerns to be able to fix himself to make more elevated attempts for the improvement of world. Yet. this did non do him perfectly selfless. Whatever his attempts done even if these may look for the benefit of other people. still he or she would have something in return. And that explained his pursuit for the greatest public-service corporation.


Mill. J. S. ( 1863 ) .Utilitarianism.Aspen Publishers.


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