Oszua lead to the implementation of numerous

Oszua and Agbalajobi (2016) explored opportunities and
challenges of young academia in a male dominant university system. From an
exploratory qualitative design, the article shows empirical evidence through
structured face to face interview with purposeful selected thirty-six females
in academia. The participants were recruited from the Obafemi Awolowo
University, a first generation, public owned university in Nigeria.   A thematic data analysis reveals common
challenges as inadequate and non-availability of older female role models for
upcoming females in   academia. Other
factors included fear of being stigmatized by other colleagues when a female
has a male as a role model, unfriendly gender polices, and work environment
that does not cater for women’s needs. Based on these findings, the researchers
call for formal mentoring relationship for young women in academia.

            Poor and Brown (2013) conducted a quantitative study
regarding women mentoring program. The researchers were concern with the
retention of women in engineering, which lead to the implementation of numerous
programs to improve retention, including meeting program.   The college of engineering at Washington
State University started a novel women’s mentoring program, using professional
engineers who graduated from the university as mentors. The results indicated
that participants in the mention program are retained at a higher rate than
states that do not participate.  Seventy-four
percent of the participants stayed in engineer compared to 68% for all 54
women. In the past, an average of 51% of female students are still in
engineering at the end of their freshman years.

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Dunbar
and Kinnersley (2011) conducted a quantitative study to examine the experiences
of administrators who have been mentored. The participants who were used in the
study were two hundred and thirty-nine and, they were employees who work with
Tennessee institution of higher education. 
The Kinnersley Mentoring survey was used to gather the data. The results
suggest that women prefer mentors who were also women. The results also
revealed that there was no significant difference on mentoring
relationship.  The results also show that
mentees who had mentor who were of the different race had satisfying mentoring
relationship, and mentors who were of higher rank had useful sessions even when
their mentors were of the same rank with them.

Johnson
(2011) examined the effect of mentoring on female career development. The total
number of participants who were used in the study was sixty-seven and, they
were faculty and administrative employees of a university. The instrument used
to collect the data was developed by the researchers the results suggest that
mentoring encourages women to perform well within ther organization. The
results also show that mentoring enabled women to create career goals that were
attainable with a five-year period. The more mentoring women received the more
they became sure of themselves.  This
provided an opportunity for purposeful dialogues and enabled mentees to make
better decisions and solve problems. Furthermore, Ncube and Washburn (2010) studied
how a care focus mentoring team model can assist women in advancing their
careers.  A total of six participants
were used for the study and the participants belonged to a local Association of
women Business owners chapter. The results suggest that women collaborated with
each other and created network system were they strategize about how to improve
and advance their business.  

Radu Lefebvre and Redien-Collot (2013) conducted
a mixed method study to assess the impact of a learning programs in mentoring.
The total number of participants used in the study was one hundred and ten and
they were from Paris, France. The results suggest that mentors use persuasion,
encouragement and criticism as mentoring strategies. The results further showed
that encouragement and persuasion had positive impact on mentees
attitudes.  When mentees were 

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