One of the most important parameter of our body which is usually ignored is the Lung capacity of
an individual. A record of the capacity over a period of time can help us diagnose
certainty of any lung disease. We use the device known as Spirometer to measure
the lung capacity. Doctors use spirometry to monitor treatment plan.
Digital First Aid provides a digital guide with touch screen interface for various instances like
snake bite, dog bite, burns, fracture, CPR, electric shock and others. The kit also provides a function to call a doctor immediately in case of emergency. These functions provide great
help in rural areas which lack medical facilities in their
This will help to eradicate superstitious
and primitive methods of attending usual medical conditions in these regions.
Project is totally focused on the
monitoring and analysis of
body parameters which help us to stay fit. By keeping a record of our lung
capacity over a period of time we can judge how healthy our lungs
The analysis will helps to diagnose
chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and
emphysema. Monitoring of heath and proper precaution for diseases at the right time is our key goal for implementing this
project Remove the myth about the superstitions in the rural areas about the diseases like jaundice, chicken pox and other primitive
methods of first aid through our digital first aid awareness
Since the people living in the
rural areas have no nearby hospitals
during the emergency, the kit provides the step wise guide the for the same.
Measurements of lung function can vary according to local region, individual’s age and spirometer devices. Lung capacity,
for instance, may vary temporally, increasing and then decreasing in one
person’s lifetime. As a result, ideas about what
constitutes “normal” are based on one’s understanding about the sources of
variabilities and can be left to interpretation.
Traditionally, sources of variation have been
understood in discrete categories, such as age, height, weight, gender,
geographical region (altitude), and race or ethnicity. Global efforts have been
made in the early 20th century to standardize these sources to enable proper
diagnosis and accurate evaluation of pulmonary function. Spirometry has been used to diagnose the
lung diseases since quite long. Implementation The Arduino Mega is a microcontroller
board based on the ATmega1280 (datasheet).
Mega 2560 has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 14 can be used as PWM
outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator. It also provides a USB connection, a
power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed
to support the microcontroller
and connect it to a computer
with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.
The Mega shows great
compatibility with most of the shields
designed for the Arduino series.
The MPX10DP is dual-port uncompensated silicon
Pressure Sensor for environmental control systems and level indicators. The
MPX10 series silicon piezo-resistive pressure
sensor gives accurate and linear
voltage output i.e. directly proportional to the applied
pressure. This standard uncompensated sensor permits manufacturers to design
and add their own external temperature compensation and signal conditioning
Compensation techniques are simplified because of
the predictability of NXP’s single element strain gauge design. o Patented silicon shear stress strain gauge design o Ratiometric to supply voltage The INA122 is a precision instrumentation amplifier
that provides accurate, low noise differential signal acquisition.
Due to its two-op-amp design it provides excellent
performance with very low quiescent current, and is ideal for portable
instrumentation and data acquisition systems. The INA122 can be operated by a single power supply
ranging from 2.2V to 36V and
quiescent current is a mere 60?A. It can also be operated from dual supply mode. By utilizing an input level-shift
network, input common-mode range extends to 0.1V below negative rail (single
A single external resistor sets gain from 5V/V to 10000V/V. Laser
trimming provides very low offset voltage (250?V max), offset voltage drift
(3?V/?C max) and excellent common-mode rejection. Packages options include
8-pin plastic DIP and SO-8 surface-mount packages. Both are specified for the
-40?C to +85?C extended industrial temperature range.
This is a compact and reliable wireless module. The SIM900A provides a complete Dual-band GSM/GPRS solution in a SMT module that can be embedded in the
required applications. It allows the benefits of the small dimensions and cost-effective
solutions with low power consumption.
The SIM900A features an interface that is
industry-standard and delivers GSM/GPRS
900/1800MHz performance for voice, SMS, Data, and Fax. With
a tiny configuration of 24mm x 24mm x 3 mm, SIM900A can fit almost all the space
requirements in any applications, especially for slim and
compact demand of design. It offers a variety of interface options viz. SPI, serial
interface, GPIO, PWM, ADC and Antenna Pad.
AT commands are used to control the
various functions of the GSM module. One of the important components of the kit is the
user friendly touch screen. The screen is used to display the spirometer graph while using spirometer and as a guide interface for
digital first aid. This is a TFT display screen with 4-wire resistive touch that is compatible to microcontrollers
like 8051, PIC, AVR, ARM, Arduino and Arduino series.
The TFT screen is backlit screen with models
having SD card slot at the back while in some it can be attached externally to the Arduino. It can be used to draw as well as display images, texts and
shapes using the TFT library. The GFX
library is used for the routine
drawing, while the ST7735 library
is specifically for the screen on the Arduino screen.
The TFT library depends on the SPI library, which must be
included all the sketches that use
the screen. If we have to use the SD card, we need to include the SD card library as well. The screen has a display of 2.4″
diagonally and has a resolution of 240×320. The coodinates of the screen can be mapped and configured pixel wise
individually in the grid. This feature of TFT allows a range of colour shades on the screen.
The LCD operates at 3.3 V logic level. Arduino is an open-source electronics platform, based on easy-to-use hardware and software that allows a variety of applications. Arduino boards are able to read inputs like light, pressure sound, distance
from sonar sensor, etc. By sending a set of
instructions to the microcontroller on the board many functions can be carried out.
To do so you use the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring), and
the Arduino Software (IDE), based on Processing. The basic steps involve taking sample of breath of a
person. The results are more reliable if taken by putting a clip on the
person’s nose to block the escape of air through nostrils and allow breathing through the mouth.
When the person breathes out through his mouth in the pipe, pressure is exerted. This
pressure on the diaphragm of the DP transducer gets converted in voltage signal
of a low level. This value is stored in the memory and analysis is carried out. Analysis includes comparing the current
value to the standard average value and with the previous record of the person if it
A comparative graph is displayed to show the results of the analysis. MXP 10 DP transducer is
used to take the breath sample i.e. it measures the pressure exerted by the
lungs when a person breathes. As this signal is very low in
amplitude, we use an amplifier to bring the
output in the feasible range.
INA122 is the instrumentation amplifier
used to amplify the millivolt digital signal generated by the Differential Pressure transducer (MPX10DP) to the volts range.
This output is given to the microcontroller. The circuit involves Arduino mega 2560 as the micro-controller which has
in-built ADC and DAC converters. The analogue signal is provided to the A0 pin of the Arduino. For displaying the output Arduino is
interfaced with a touch screen LCD panel.
The digital conversion of the pascal to
voltage is plotted on the Arduino serial plotter. The conversion is done by programming the Arduino by using the relation given in
the specification sheet of the DP transducer. These results are also stored in the memory card externally interfaced with the Arduino.
The options on the touch screen can be
clicked to call the doctor in
case of any emergency. GSM is
interfaced with the Arduino by the following steps: 1. The SIM card is inserted in the GSM module and locked.
2. GSM is powered up and Ground is connected to the Arduino.
3. Antenna is connected and signal is received within a few minutes. The
blinking rate of ‘status LED’ and ‘network LED’ confirms the connection.
Once the connection is established successfully, the status/network LED blinks continuously every 3 seconds. Connection is checked by making a call to the mobile number of
the sim card inside GSM module. If a ring is heard back, the gsm module has
successfully established network connection. Following SIMcom commands are used to make a call to the doctor.
These commands are prompted to the GSM module via Arduino program. The contact number of the doctor is already saved in the program.
The commands used are: To dial the number- ATD
redial- ATDL To attend a call- ATA To disconnect- ATH The touch screen TFT LCD
panel allows an interface to that guides the person on using the first aid kit step wise to handle a medical situation.
We must note that First Aid is the help that is provided immediately to a person in case of medical emergency so that the person can sustain until professional
doctors are reached. Hence in
case of serious injuries doctors
should be called up immediately. This guide is to provide proper guidance to rural population and discourage unhygienic and
primitive solutions to the various medical conditions.
Images can be viewed on the touch screen
display. The 3.2″ TFT display screen supports the images in the .bmp (bitmap)
file format. The images are stored in a memory card and accessed by Arduino. According to the medical condition the options can be selected and related
images can be viewed. The step-by-step instructions included in the kit include
following medical conditions, which demonstrate what should be done in those
cases: Animal bites Asthma attack Bone, joint and muscle injuries Foreign bodies in the eye Head injuries Insect stings Burns and
scalds Scratches or cuts Cardiac arrests are a sudden occurrence which may
happen anywhere at public places or even at home. In such cases as responsible person it is required to
know how to save a person’s life.
Hence, prompt CPR (Cardiopulmonary
Resuscitation) can save a person’s life. When a person breathes through his mouth in the input port, the value gets
plotted and can be viewed on Arduino Plotter. Spirometry is fundamental to making a
confident diagnosis of COPD1, yet research has shown that it has been under-utilised2.
Spirometry is the most effective way of determining the severity of COPD.3 The onset of COPD is slow and
insidious, and significant airflow obstruction may be present before the
individual is aware of it. When
symptoms do appear, patients frequently accept them as a consequence of
smoking, and do not seek help from a doctor.
A major advantage of spirometry is that it enables you to detect COPD
before symptoms become apparent3. Early identification and persuading
patients to stop smoking may mean minimal disease progression and a long-term
improvement in quality of life3. In this way it can also be used to
track smoking habits of a person. Data Acquisition systems available today widely analyze multiple parameters.
This sensor based electronic module can be used for the acquisition of different
biological parameters and their online transmission can be done to the handheld
via Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or any other wirless technology. The mobile handheld and
the electronic kit can form a
wireless personal area network. These analyses
can be collectively used to generate a reliable medical report of an individual
for temporary references.
A Web-based management application can also facilitate a
continuous remote monitoring of the biological and the subjective data
of the patient. Most of the people
generally consult a Pharmacist for general over the counter (OTC)
medicines and drugs. Pharmacists are an easy access as they do not need appointments and are available at a
So this kit can be of great help to the
pharmacists while they recommend the OTC products. As a human they may not remember
all the names of the drugs, cosmetics and other products, they can make use of the First Aid guide in the kit and refer it.
The digital first aid feature can
be used by any person having basic
medical knowledge during usual daily routines in the absence of a medic.
The patient can be treated using the
guide to temporarily soothe the
condition and gain some time to reach
professional medical help. In
case of sever conditions the
doctor can be called immediately and asked for required guidance. Our project
is not only bound to existing features but there are be possibilities of
further add-ons to the kit.
The kit can be used for analysis of heart pulse as an ECG machine. The kit can be helpful
if provided with blood test feature that examine blood glucose level, test for
pregnancy, hemoglobin and other infection viruses. Also there remains a scope
for research to overcome the disadvantages arise in current one.
Spirometry is a method of assessing lung function by measuring the
volume of air that the patient is able to expel from the lungs after a maximal
inspiration. It is a reliable method to
differentiate between obstructive airways disorders (e.g. COPD, asthma) and restrictive diseases (in which the size of the lungs is reduced, e.g. fibrotic lung disease)3.
Health is an important component for ensuring better quality of life. Large masses of the Indian poorly continue to fight for better medical facilities. In such a condition it is necessary for the maximum population to be aware
of such medical equipments and know how to use them. Developed countries
often train their population to use the first aid in their daily life. This
will improve the overall health of the country, in a bigger picture.