Maternal Child Nursing Course. Nephritic Syndrome: Inflamed Is No Game In nephritic syndrome, it is essential to understand the function and inner workings of the kidneys. The human body requires blood to be circulated in order for organs and tissues to be perfuse. The perfusion of blood Is enriched with products such as plasma and cells, used to keep the body functioning. Once the products are used to their capacity they need to filtered out and become waste products to be excreted.
A portion of these waste products get excreted through the kidneys. The kidneys filter blood and excrete urine (Smith, 2013). Blood and its products pass into the kidney through the renal artery and returns through the renal vein. Inside the kidney; Into the neoprene, the blood fills into capillaries (the globular membranes) and filtered into Bowman’s capsules removing water, urea, and creating (by- products of protein) from the blood. The fluid is then passed through the coiled part of the neoprene; so that glucose cannot escape into the urine, and is then concentrated by the Loop of Henley.
The fluid becomes classified as urine as it Is excreted into the Reuters, filling the bladder, and exiting the body during urination (Adler, 2012, p. 24). Nephritic syndrome occurs when the kidneys are inflamed and, the glamorous within the neoprene have a “defect” which causes them to become extremely permeable. The glamorous have membranes that allow the right amount of space for water and small molecules to pass through the membrane (Somers, 2011, p. 2). When the glamorous are extremely permeable; products and large molecules pass through the globular membrane Instead.
One of these “unwanted” products that pass through is protein and is excreted into the urine; proteins. Serum albumin; the blood plasma protein, leaks into the capillaries and is excreted, causing triglycerides in the blood, are not filtered because of the low pressure in the capillary beds from hypoglycemia (Adler, 2012, p. 25). Accompanying the three major findings of nephritic syndrome; proteins, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia, is edema. Edema is swelling that can occur in the face; around the eyes, in the extremities, the abdomen, and/or the genital area.
The swelling is due to “fluid leaks into the interstitial spaces, collecting into body cavities” (Somers, 2011, p. 17). The classification of nephritic syndrome depends on when the symptoms occur; Congenital, primary, or secondary. Any form of nephritic syndrome is characterized by the exacerbation and remission of symptoms. Congenital nephritic syndrome is where the child is born with the symptoms. Nephritic syndrome is an autocross recessive trait which means that both parents must carry the gene in order for it to be passed to the child (Perry, 2010 p. 1 535).
Idiopathic; or primary, known distinctly as “childhood nephritis”, or “minimal-change nephritis” is characterized as a “result of renal disease” occurring between the ages of two and seven. Secondary nephritic syndrome occurs when there is a clinical manifestation of a disease that has a systemic effect on more than one part of the body (Perry, 2010 p. 1 536). The diagnosis of nephritic syndrome in children; once the clinical findings have been determined, diagnostic tests that are ordered by a pediatrician. A urinalysis is collected to determine the amount of protein in the urine.
A blood draw is done to see the amount of plasma protein and albumin, as well as, the creating and cholesterol levels in the blood. SGF stands for globular filtration rate; this is an estimate on how well the kidneys are functioning as determined by how fast they filter out urine Gaffe & Chub,2013, p. 2). The most accurate way to diagnosis nephritic syndrome is a kidney biopsy; an invasive procedure where the child; placed under general anesthesia, the surgeon uses an ultrasound machine to remove a small piece of the kidney.
The piece containing around twenty of the thousand glamorous filters is examined under a microscope (Smith, 2013). When the child is diagnosed, the treatments are mirrored to the signs and symptoms the child experiences. Nephritic syndrome can play a toll on the growth and development of children. The signs and symptoms are prominent and can lead to further hindrances. The presenting signs and symptoms of the disease are; a foamy, dark appearance in the urine due to the high amounts of protein. Weight gain from the fluid retention; the capillaries lining the tissues are filled with fluid, making swollen patches around the body.
Along with fluid retention, a child will have a scant amount of urine excreted; Algeria, because the glamorous are not filtering an adequate amount of fluid and leasing too much protein. Children may become irritable, have a loss of appetite, and may have a decrease in activity with severe edema. In which case, the child will need to be hospitalized to decrease the fluid retention. Nephritic syndrome can also trigger nausea and vomiting; making it difficult to treat and require intravenous fluids to be administered to keep the child hydrated (Perry, 2010 p. 1536).