Introduction The idea of a single smart card to be used for multiple services has been around for years. Instead of using separate access devices for different services, a user can access multiple services from different service providers by a single smart card. For example, a user can use the same smart card to log on to a remote server system, enter a secure building, and perform a financial transaction.
This kind of design frees people from carrying many cards, bringing users the great convenience and at the same time saving resources and costs by manufacturing and managing less volume of cards. Therefore, multi-service smart card systems exhibit a high potential for economic and social benefits. Such a system is even more convenient if only one pass- word is used for each card so that users do not need to remember and cope with many passwords. A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC), is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. With a single card, and a single administration tool, organizations from government, to industry to academic institutions can deliver an array of personalized credit and loyalty-based services to their users, while enervating comprehensive reports, and maintaining strict controls on usage.
These cards can offer multiple applications such as: * Credit cards : These are the best known payment cards (classic plastic card): * Financial : Smart cards serve as credit or ATM cards, fuel cards, mobile phone SIMS, authorization cards for pay television, household utility pre-payment cards, high-security identification and access-control cards, and public transport and public phone payment cards. * Health care (medical) : Smart health cards can improve the security and privacy of patient information, provide a secure carrier for patient identity. Identification : A quickly growing application is in digital identification.
In this application, the cards authenticate identity. The card stores an encrypted digital certificate along with other relevant information. Combined with biometrics, cards can provide two- or three- factor authentication. * Schools : Smart cards are being provided to students at schools and colleges. Usage includes: * Tracking student attendance * As an electronic purse, to pay for items at canteens, vending machines etc. In authentication process, the originator of the communication and the respondent orientations. Several methods have been proposed regarding the authentication process from time to time.
Dynamic authentication scheme includes number of factors, among them the password, password index, and date of modification are important factors which decides the dynamic. The static approach authentication schemes are vulnerable to different types of attacks. In order to overcome the threats of the existing approaches, the dynamic authentication scheme is introduced. This scheme ensures the authentication, confidentiality, reliability, integrity and security. Remote authentication scheme remits both the user and the server to identify the genuine transacting partners over an existing communication channel.