MICROSCOPY MICROSCOPE PARTS AND SPECIFICATION In year

MICROSCOPY

 

“Microscopy is defined as, the observation of
tiny objects or those things which are not with our naked eye with the help of
microscopes.”

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HISTORY

 

Optical microscope is the first microscope which
developed.

 

·       
The Cornelis
Drebbel was the first who invented first microscope in Netherland in 1920s

·       
But at the same
time it’s also depicted that microscope was first discovered by Hans
Lippershey.

·       
Zacharias
Janssen’s son claimed that his father also invented microscope and telescope.
After that in 1965 Giovanni Faber called microscope the name for Galileo
Galilei’s Compound microscope.

·       
A
Dutch draper and scientist, it was Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), in the
late 17th century became the first man to make and who used a real microscope.

·       
In
1665, micrographia was published by Robert hooke. He gives important
illustrations regarded microscopy. Micrographia published the illustrations for
the use microscopes. 

·       
The
microscope as we know it today came into being is by the advancement of
technology and improved optics.

 

 

WHAT
IS A MICROSCOPE? AND HOW DOES ITS WORK?A microscope is an
apparatus, a machine or an instrument used to identify small or tiny objects
which are not seen by human eye, or designed to make fine details visible. Microscopes
are used produce magnification (magnified image) resolution (separate details
in image) and contrast for the specimen.

 

THE MICROSCOPE 

PARTS AND SPECIFICATION

 

 In year 1590, Zacharias Jannsen a glasses
maker discovered compound microscope.

OPTICAL OR LIGHT MICROSCOPE:

 Lenses and light used in compound
microscope to magnify identify and to enlarge the image is called as optical
microscope or light microscope.

The two types of lenses for higher magnification
are used in compound microscope

·       
The ocular lens.

·       
The objective
lens.

 

   
i.       
Eyepiece Lens:
A compound microscope, at the top the lens is present for see through and 10X
or 15X power lens used in compound microscope.

 
ii.       
Tube:  Tube is
used to connected the eyepiece to the objective lenses

iii.       
Arm:  Arm is used
to supports the tube and connected it to the base

iv.       
Base:  Base is the
bottom and used for supports of the microscope.

 
v.       
Illuminator: In microscope if mirror is present, for the immersion of
light beneath the stage. A steady light source of 110 volts present in a place
of mirror.

vi.       
Stage: The slides we
place in the flat platform. This platform is stage. Slides are hold by stage
clips in place. The slides are moved in mechanical stage by turning two knobs. Knobs
are used for left right and up down position.

vii.       
Nosepiece: A part that are
used to holds 2 or more objective lens and deviate power by revolving this
objective lens.

viii.       
Objective Lenses: In a microscope three or more objective lens powers of 4X,
10X, 40X and 100X is present. These lenses are for examine the object.

ix.       
Condenser Lens: Condenser
lens focus the light on to examine or seen the image. Condenser is for sharpen
the image.

 
x.       
Diaphragm or Iris: Beneath
the stage having a rotating disk in microscopes. Different sizes of perforation
are present in diaphragm and is for giving variations in intensity and size of
the cone of light.

 

TYPES
OF MICROSCOPES:

Optical
Microscopes:

Lenses and light used in compound microscope
to magnify identify and to enlarge the image is called as optical microscope or
light microscope.

The magnifying glass is simplest optical
microscope and is resolution power is good at about 10X magnification.

Common types usually found in light or
optical microscopes are,

·       
Dark-field
Microscope (Ultra-microscope).

·       
Phase-Contrast
microscope.

·       
Differential-interference-contrast
microscope (Nomarski interference microscope).

·       
Ultraviolet
Microscope.

·       
Fluorescence
microscope.

·       
Compound
microscope.

·       
Stereo
microscope.

·       
Confocal
microscope.

DARK-FIELD MICROSCOPE (ULTRA-MICROSCOPE):

HISTORY:

Firstly
Lord Faraday scientifically considered the color of tiny gold particles, and he
obtained a little penetrating visions.

After
30 years, Richard Zsigmondy also broadly considered the estates of
nanoparticles and was rewarded by Nobel Prize.

He
discovered ultra-microscopy, which is known as dark field microscopy, in
partnership with Siedenkopf in 1905

DEFINITION:

Dark field microscope consists of an opaque
disk present in centre in which a special of condenser lens is used, so the
rays don’t directly pass to the objective lens. Because of this microscopy a
brighter image of a specimen is formed in dark background.

APPLICATIONS

In microbiology and auto radiography, this
microscopy is used.

PRINCIPLE

1.  Dark field microscopy is mostly done on the
same microscope on which bright-field microscopy is done.

2.  In reverse of the normal condenser it hold an
opaque disk.

3.  The disk stops light that would fall into the
objective lens without deviation.

4.  Only light that has been returned or deflect by
the specimen design the picture.

5.  The surrounding of field object appears dark
while the object illuminate brightly.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

a.  The merits of darkfield microscopy also
converts into its demerits.

b.  The dark field microscopes deflect brightness
and light rays that making the details of the objects brightly.

c.  Dark field light microscopes gives better
results, especially blood samples.

d.  It gives immense magnifications of bacteria
and small magnifications of the tissues and cells of several species.

e.  Several bacteria and fungi examined by dark
field microscopes.

f.   
It
does not give good resolution.

x

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