1. Discuss the impact of both the law and organisational procedures on the process of recruitment and selection
This generation is in the epoch of organizational reform and innovation. The time is marked with rapid changes in the demography of workforce, changing corporate culture, and changing institutions. In the light of the rapid shift in today’s organizations, the skills required of managers, beginners in the profession and even aspiring students in the discipline, rest on the foundation of knowledge on the whole gamut of organizational development. Corporate America is not without its complications. When the company “succeeds,” there is with it (the success) a corresponding notion of responsibilities and liabilities. Organizations thrive today because of the policies and guidelines they have managed to fixed firmly in their set-up and translated into their day to day affairs. Big businesses have the competitive edge over others – i.e., over small entrepreneurs, because they have arrived at their positions in the market place by securing certain parameters in the many facets that comprise their organizations. This is especially true on government laws and regulations (McKenna, 2000).
2. Discuss the Recruitment and Selection process and evaluate the various assessment and selection methods available, selecting the route you think is the most appropriate, giving valid reasons for your choice
One of the important uses of the job description and specifications is in the planning of the human resource and in the recruitment and selection of employees. These are the bases for determining the duties and responsibilities of the jobs to be filled, and the skills and other qualifications required of the men and women who are to fill them.
The main objective of good employee selection is to acquire people who possess the ability and competence to accomplish successfully the duties and responsibilities not only of the job to be filled but also of the potential to grow with the company (Maier, 1966).
Finding the right man for the job and finding the right job for the man who is available are essential to sound employee selection and placement. A company which must meet competition and maintain its leadership in the field can leave the hiring and selection of its workers to chance. It needs people who can contribute to the company’s business – people with progressive ideas for new products, services or methods (Maier, 1966).
Employees with the right qualifications for a job are more economical for the company in the long because they learn faster and are less costly to train. People who possess the right qualifications for their jobs also require less supervision, give better work performance, get along better with fellow employees, and are happier in their jobs than those who lack these qualifications. And they are far less likely to do damage to the company’s equipment, customers, publics, and corporate image (Maier, 1966).
Thus any extra effort and expense required to improve the process of selection will more than pay for itself by having more efficient employees on the company rolls and less employee dissatisfaction to deal with. Fortunately, through the use of scientific instrument and selection techniques, much can be done to reduce, if not wholly eliminate, errors in the choice of employees (Maier, 1966).
A. Elements of a Good Recruitment Program
The objective of employee selection is to hire the best qualified candidate or employee available for the position to be filled. To the extent that the company is able to achieve this objective the company will likely attain high productivity and the employee will most likely find his work satisfying and rewarding. However, there are a number of things that need to be done to achieve this objective. One is to be careful about the selection of employees. The company must use the best techniques for the selection of employees who are to fill. It should candidates who have the potential to take on added responsibilities. The employees should be placed on jobs where they can make the fullest possible use of their talent and skill (Webster, 1977).
In selecting employees, the company may not always be right. From time-to time s person may be placed in a job not exactly suited to his qualifications or be given responsibilities that he is not prepared to handle. It is important that the company recognize such errors promptly and take immediate corrective action (Webster, 1977). This doesn’t necessarily mean that the employees should be terminated, although sometimes, this may have to be done. In connection with this important objective, the company should also have an effective placement program. This requires a knowledge of and a record of employee’s skills and interests, so that the employee’s skills and interests, so that employees may be placed in jobs where they can utilize their skills and be fully productive. In the last analysis, the company’s position in the industry, its competitive advantage, it’s profitably, its success as its success as a business enterprise will depend largely upon the caliber, talent, and productivity (Webster, 1977).
B. Responsibility for recruitment
The choice of workers has long been based on such factors as age, appearance, height, physical build, skill, education, race and religion.
Responsibility for the recruitment of employees differs among companies. In small firms, this task is often done exclusively by the owner of the enterprise, the superintendent or the manager. This is the traditional unplanned method of hiring (Webster, 1977).
Generally speaking, we consider one person more efficient than another if he accomplishes more in the same time, or with the same energy expenditure. Other factors that have an important bearing on efficiency are: (1) the adequacy of training for the job; (2) the characteristics of the machine and other devices; (3) the motivation and related conditions of work; and (4) the degree to which performance is free from fatigue.
It is common in business to have employees whose performances are not satisfactory and who are sometimes an actual problem to management. Good selection technique is a sound personnel practice.
3. Compare and contrast the theories of motivation and discuss delegation as a management tool, from your results draw conclusions as to why it is important for a manager to both motivate and use delegation as a tool
Working relationships are a central portion of a person’s life. Motivation and dedication to any endeavor (e.g. work) and the pleasure from it are collective concerns of the organization and the individual. There are definite factors that generate satisfaction, the so-called “motivator” factors according to Hertzberg. These factors push the worker to the highest levels of accomplishment possible. They are an inherent part of the work itself and consist of the nature of the work, the person’s sense of achievement, level of responsibility, and individual development and improvement. These motivator needs can only be rewarded by stimulating, challenging, and absorbing work. Consequently, the goal of motivation should be to enhance individual growth and advancement, develop sense of accomplishment and liability, and provide recognition (Franken, 1994). In a multinational company like National Panasonic, they practice and execute specific agenda for increasing motivation, one of which is Management by Objectives (MBO). They have faith in involving their employees in goal-setting and in decision-making. MBO works by integrating goal-setting into individual participation in decision-making in order to establish individual work goals to which the employee feels reasonably committed. At the motivational level, it is theorized that resistance to change is decreased if individuals participate in decisions regarding change and that individuals accept and are more committed to decisions in which they have participated in making. To further encourage and increase involvement, the company provides suggestion boxes and hold monthly contests where they give monetary rewards for the best three suggestions. These give the employee a sense of achievement and responsibility for its success. For this company, the employees receive incentives in the form of Ladder promotion, general salary increase annually plus performance rating salary increases, CBA – employees can expect a minimum of 15% increase in salary annually within three years; and welfare benefits which include group insurances, medical insurance, accident benefits among others Baron, 1983). A company like this goes to such great lengths at least to assure that it does something for sustaining employees’ morale and motivation.
Describe the various management and leadership styles and discuss how the style adopted can affect performance at the organisational, department and team levels
Management and leadership theories are intricately related to a degree. My understanding is that leaders should be able to manage in most ways while most managers are not necessarily leaders or do not automatically possess leadership traits or abilities. Hence management theories focus on acquiring leadership qualities while leadership theories focus on the technical aspects if and when leaders who hold the reins lack technical know-how. They are distinct from each other precisely because there are those elevated to managerial positions that lack people skills or traits that make them handle people better or effectively (Clement, 1981). Management and leadership tasks are not that different that they can reside in one person. When a person develops managerial skills, he or she may not necessarily possess leadership abilities even with training. There are some who may develop abilities or acquire these characteristics important to governance for instance, and will still have to learn alongside the managerial competence (Clement, 1981).
Which management and leadership style would you adopt? Why?
~Important leadership traits
Beckhard (1969) elaborates about what leadership is like, drawing the line between this and that of management. Leadership has to do with change, enthusiasm and encouragement for the tasks, and influence. These three vital traits, each one linked with a specific function for leaders include:
1) The imagination to innovate: To promote innovation, successful leaders assist in cultivating novel view, the ideas, paradigm, and applications of expertise that makes an organization distinct. 2) The professionalism to perform: Leaders offer personal and organizational capability, assisted by personnel preparation and education, to implement impeccably and dispense worth to ever more difficult and exacting customers. 3) The openness to work in partnership: Leaders create associations and linkages with partners who can enlarge the organization’s contact, improve its contributions, or strengthen its systems. Since an organization is composed of people, this leader knows a lot about human nature so he can appropriately anticipate and adjust to various personalities (Beckhard, R. 1969).
~Important management traits
These include the following (not necessarily in this order):
– He/she must have the ability to inspire team members
– He /she must know what the priorities are in his/her department
– Has the ability to handle multiple tasks at the same time and constantly reprioritizes these tasks
– Possesses a sense of humor
– Can take all kinds of opinions and reactions hurled at him/her
– Up-to-date technical skills
– Has the ability to say ‘no’ mostly without making people angry
– And more importantly, has a good sense of values of family, faith and country.
Basically, the same as the management traits that must be possessed, since those in management are expected to influence people and are expected to lead. But as mentioned, these are traits, more naturally present in leaders per se, but are expected to be developed among those in the management levels.
Bruffee, author of Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge, explains in précis the need for a more efficient, economical and equitable management of the people in the industry or organization has never been as pronounced as it is today. This need has never been brought about by factors which inevitably affect not only the established structures and ways of doing things within the personnel area but also by the more meaningful and substantial task of managing the organization’s most important asset – the human capital. Among these factors are: stiffer competition in business; rapid changes in technological, competitive and economic environments; the explosion of technical and managerial knowledge; spiraling wage and benefits cost and so many others. These factors have no doubt been responsible for the emergence of the personnel function as a vital area in the implementation of corporate strategy.
Demick and Miller (1993) place in context what an organization is like and settles how it can affect behavior in general and when that is established, proceeded to explain leadership and management in this context. In organizational behavior which is basic to the management of human resource, it points to the inquiry and application of learning about how people, individuals, and groups perform, operate, and work in organizations. It accomplishes this by means of adopting a system approach. Explicitly, it infers people-organization affairs in terms of the entire person, group totality, complete organization, and total social structure. Its intention is to put up enhance relations by attaining human goals, organizational purposes, and social goals. In such a milieu, the goals to effect change are influenced by several significant factors which are crucial to the overall results. Hence, there are expected leadership behaviors that maintain momentum during the change process.
Organizational behavior is actually a complex and dynamic mechanism. It includes the application and integration of theoretical perspectives from the social and behavioral sciences to shed light on how and why individuals behave in a variety of ways in organizations (Demick and Miller, 1993). Included in the study are the ways the individuals carry out their tasks, the structure, design and operation of human persons in simple and complex organizational set-ups.
This is accomplished utilizing the systems approach or systems model. The latter is meant as interpreting people and organizational relationships in reference to the whole individual, “whole group, whole organization, and whole social system” (Knoster et al., 2000). The objective is developing improved and enhanced relationships by attaining individual aims, organizational goals and social aspirations (Mangelsdorff, 2007).
Specifically, any student who pursues the study of the concepts involved in the matter will examine how individuals work in groups; acquire insights into human strengths and interpersonal relationships. Intertwined in the study is to delve into theories or principles of motivation of personnel, effective leadership with the goal of formulating a sound thinking and values of management and leadership. Moreover, organizational behavior investigates scientific data and utilizes a variety of research traditions to further understand how individuals work and function efficiently in diverse forms of structures (Shortell et al., 2000)
Organizational behavior, when scrutinized closely, thus far covers a lot of topics. It embraces the understanding of structure, design of the organization itself. It also includes the study of the work design, policies and practices of the human resource, job design, and decision making as an organization. Furthermore, it also examines the organizational culture, its dynamics where change is aimed to be implemented (Revans, 1982). The elements of organizational behavior lean upon management’s plan and philosophy, vision and objectives. Basing on this foundation springs the organizational culture where the formal and informal types of organization and the social environment are best understood (Knoster et al., 2000).
4. Define what might constitute poor performance, the options for addressing this within an organisation and the possible wider impact on other employees. How important is training and development in improving organisational performance?
We are in the epoch of organizational reform and innovation. Our time is marked with rapid changes in the demography of workforce, changing corporate culture, and changing institutions. In the light of the rapid shift in today’s organizations, the skills required of human resource managers, beginners in the profession and even aspiring students in the discipline, rest on the foundation of knowledge on the whole gamut of human resources and organizational development. Corporate America is not without its complications. When the company “succeeds,” there is with it (the success) a corresponding notion of responsibilities and liabilities. Organizations thrive today because of the policies and guidelines they have managed to fixed firmly in their set-up and translated into their day to day affairs. Big businesses have the competitive edge over others – i.e., over small entrepreneurs, because they have arrived at their positions in the market place by securing certain parameters in the many facets that comprise their organizations. This is especially true on government laws and regulations (McKenna, 2000).
Company policies reflect the company’s intentions of not only looking into employees’ benefits and/or plight, but its willingness to comply with authorities. Safety must be of prime importance in each organization and cooperation between employees and the imposed restrictions must be monitored and regulated. Any accident prevention program can only be effective and successful with the combined efforts of the management, supervisors, foremen and employees. This is where motivating the employees to participate is also critical and the constant and proper communication channels are employed in the organization. Government’s monitoring should also be unceasing because the tendency for institutions to make lapses and/or company support to be negligent with their duties can oftentimes occur (McKenna, 2000; Clement, 1981).
~ Training Programs: its purpose and efficacy
Training and training programs instituted by an organization requires that the management realizes the need for a systematic program for employee training and development through the formulation of company policy and its implementation by specifying who should be responsible. Management must therefore consider training as one of its major functions. It must realize this need because training is a continuous activity and requires management’s attention and support. Without management’s continued backing, financial, and moral, the program will fail (Clement, 1981).
Regardless of the sophistication and predictive validity of a selection program, it is almost always necessary to expose newly hired employees to some kind of training before they can be maximally effective on a new job, even if the employees are already experienced with the tools utilized in the workplace. The purpose of which is to increase the employee’s productive efficiency and to enhance organizational goals. Training requirements are made more complicated when the workers have had little actual job experience or are being hired for a type of work they have never performed (Baron, 1983). The organization’s selection procedures ideally ensure that new employees have sufficient intelligence, aptitude, and attitude to learn the job. The effects of a training program are in some cases tangible and in other cases, intangible. In the case of the former, empirical measurement of effectiveness is relatively easy; but in the case of the latter, it is not so. For example, the effectiveness of a training program, such as one for operator training, work study or inventory control, can easily be measured in terms of increased productivity or reduced cost, after the trainees have completed the program. But in the case of a program on human relations or leadership, the benefits cannot be measured in terms or units; they are seen and felt over a period of years. The effectiveness of such programs can also be measured from the point of view of objectives of the program by conducting in depth interviews of the participants, their superiors and subordinates (Baron, 1983).
~ The HR Manager’s role to make training effective
The HR manager should determine, in consultation with the different line departments, what training activities are needed, arranged according to priorities. He should evaluate the training programs and submit to management annual reports on the status of each program, their effectiveness, and the quality of the training activities. He should continually sell the training programs to all supervisors and managers and integrate the programs with other personnel actions, such as promotions or transfers. He should also extend technical aid to the supervisors and managers at all levels in determining training needs, selecting instructors or demonstrators and evaluating results (Landy, 1985; Baron, 1983; Clement, 1981).
Another important role of the HR manager is to evaluate whether the training conducted met what was intended for and if further follow-up or reinforcements are needed, there are contingencies that are also in place. Management, furthermore, as a rule wants to know whether or not the expense involved in the training and development of its employees will be a profitable investment. In evaluating the effectiveness of training there is a need to define what one wants to get from that particular training to be able to evaluate its results. The usual approach of relating the effects of training to gross changes in the organization in terms solely of the attitudes and behavior of workers is not enough as these are not all the effect one gets out of training. There are intangible benefits that a trainee acquires which broaden his outlook in life through his contact with society at large, boost his morale and motivation towards his work, and develop his pride to belong to his organization. Quantification should be in terms of identifiable units as psychomotor skills, knowledge and information gained and specific behavior patterns instilled (Landy, 1985; Baron, 1983; Clement, 1981).
Effectiveness is measured in terms of the application of what the learners have acquired during the training course. This application in turn is affected by various factors, the most important of which is the organizational framework and climate within which to apply the ideas learned from the course. Training is not transferred until it is well-integrated and successfully applied in a given job for which it was intended. Not all knowledge or skill can be used immediately in all situations but the learner will have it ready for his use when the need arises (Landy, 1985; Baron, 1983; Clement, 1981).
5. Discuss how Counselling, Mentoring ; Coaching can improve employee performance and increase motivation
In Megginson’s word (The Mentoring Manual), he defined “mentoring” as “providing guidance, support and practical help through life crisis or into new stages of development.” It seems that, with the word, comes a new meaning or new approach in nurturing would-be leaders (Eims, 1978). Malcolm Muggeridge, towards the end of his life, he reflected: “Looking over my 90 years, I realize I have never made any progress in good times. I only progressed in the hard times.” While this may not be easily acceptable in today’s ears, in mentoring, spiritual progress is made and sustained most of the time, not in good times, but during difficult times.
In the life of Charles Haddon Spurgeon, true mentoring is no less than a dedication of whole life to God and the work. His was the life of true sacrifices exemplified even in times when sustaining the ministry is so tough by all human standard. Spurgeon’s wife was physically invalid in a very young age of thirty three. This physical condition of his wife has forced Spurgeon to subdue his own sexual desires. Aside from that, he was stricken with rheumatic gout that caused him to be confined to bed and at times even preached with searing pain in his knees. Moreover, Spurgeon struggled with deep depressions. Through all these, many indelible lessons can be gleaned from Spurgeon as a mentor.
6. Discuss the importance of an organisation following discipline, grievance and dismissal legislation and the possible consequences of a breach of such.
No human relationship in an organization is ever perfect that misunderstandings and complaints do not occur. There are always employees who feel that they are not being treated fairly or that their working conditions are not satisfactory. Policies, rules, methods, work conditions, personality clashes, and interrelationships among employees and supervisors are bound to create friction and gripes. Differences among persons in the firm inevitably occur from time to time. Many problems arise because of changes that cannot be anticipated or adequately covered in the company policies, rules and regulations, or in the bargaining agreements (Clement, 1981).
Employees are human beings with widely different feelings, aspirations, and thoughts. As long as they think for themselves, misunderstandings and complaints are inevitable. An employee who thinks he is mistreated is mentally and emotionally tense. This tension affects his performance because he becomes more occupied with his personal troubles than with his work. One of the most important aspects of the day-to-day relations between a company and its employees, whether the company is unionized or not, is the manner in which the grievances (real or imagined) are treated by management. Employer-employee relations can be materially improved by setting up a workable procedure for hearing and settling employee complaints. Employee problems must be skillfully handled and settled as promptly as possible. There is no hard and fast rule to follow for all employee relations problems. The ability to handle complaints and grievances is an art and that may be acquired through training and practice. Since this a line responsibility, line supervisors should be well trained in the art of handling complaints and grievances. Likewise, the personnel manager, should understand not only his role in helping, and advising line management but should also equip himself with the knowledge of the legal aspects of the case. The speedy settlement of grievance is essential to management’s harmonious relations with the employees. Since good employee relations is a major management responsibility, it is important that all levels of management, especially the line supervisors, have a full comprehension of grievances with respect to their nature, classification, causes, and effective settlement (Clement, 1981).
Baron, R. Behavior In Organizations: Understanding and managing The Human Side of Work. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1983.
Beckhard, R. 1969. Organization Development: Strategies and Models, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. John Wiley ; Sons, Inc. Permissions Department, 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ07030 USA.
Bruffee, Kenneth A. Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1993.
Clement, R.W. 1981. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Management training. Human Resources Management, Volume 20, pp.8-13.
Franken, R.E., (1994), Human Motivation (Belmont, CA, Wadsworth).
Maier, N.R.F. 1966. Principles of Human relations: Applications to Management. New York:John Wiley and Sons.
Mulhauser, Greg. Management Skills and Leadership Skills. Accessed May 10, 2008. http://coaching.mulhauser.net/executive/manage-vs-lead.html#evidence
Jaques, E. (2002). Social Power and the CEO: Leadership and Trust in a sustainable free enterprise system. Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books in McMorland, Judith. 2005. “Are you big enough for your jobs? Is your job big enough for you? Exploring levels of work organizations. University of Auckland Business Review. Vol. 7, No.2.
Knoster, T., Villa, R., ; Thousand, J. (2000). A framework for thinking about systems change. In R. Villa ; J. Thousand (Eds.), Restructuring for caring and effective education: Piecing the puzzle together (pp. 93-128). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Mangelsdorff, David A.2001. “Organizational Behavior and Theory. Accessed May 11, 2008 ;http://users.idworld.net/dmangels/orgbeh.htm;
Shortell, Stephen M. and Arnold D. Kaluzny. 2000. Health Care Management: Organization Design and Behavior, Fourth Edition, Delmar Publishers Inc.
Revans, R. W. 1982. The Origin and Growth of Action Learning. Hunt, England: Chatwell-Bratt, Bickley
Webster, Frederick E. 1977.Industrial Marketing, Strategy.New York: McMillan Publishing CO., Inc..