Managing Organizational Changes Essay

Managing Organizational Changes

            In the recent times the business environment has been changing rapidly due factors such economic, environmental, political and social economic factors.

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, thus for any organization to keep pace with the changes they have can alter their existing systems and processes so that they can adapt the changes that arise in the organization. The change management framework is a useful tool that can be used by the organization to manage change that occurs in an organization and to enable the business to gain sustainable competitive advantage against its competitors.

            Change management is the procedure that is followed by an organization in order for them to adapt to changes that affect an organization such as environmental changes.  The process of change management involves various tools and processes for managing people at an organizational level, the tools are structured approach that are used to enable groups and organization to go through change successfully.  The employees and groups of people who go through change experience trauma because change can either render them jobless or change to new environments thus the process of managing change should be handled with care.

            In the case of the Galley Cafeteria, it was a canteen restaurant that was located on the top floor of an eight storey office block.  It used to serve meals and snacks to company employees and it provided lunch buffet to the organizations that held meetings and functions within the buildings.  In the year 2002 the company experienced international competition thus its scale of operation declined and this led to the decline of its sale volume thus the employees were affected since their income depended on the Galley’s employment.  The Galley restaurant was later sold to a commercial trading company known as Lunchbox U.K. Ltd.

            The employees of Galley Restaurant retained their positions in the new company Lunchbox U.K. Ltd, after negotiations were made with the shipping company by the representatives of the Transport and General Workers Unions, which was a good decision since it accommodated the Galley restaurant employees who would have been rendered jobless, if Lunchbox U.K Ltd employed its own employees.  Mrs. Jean Porter was appointed to head the management of Lunchbox U.K. Ltd since she had attained experience of running  the restaurant since she had worked in other restaurants thus she was suitable for handling the management of the company.

            It was reported that the employees did not accept the appointment of Jean Porter to head the management of the Lunchbox U.K. Ltd even though she was experienced in running the affairs of the company.  The management of Lunchbox U.K. Ltd should have used the following stages of implementing change so that the employees would not resist the change of their new manager Jean Porter.

            There are five principles that the management of the organization should have used in order to plan and manage change in its organization these are: people react differently to change, they have needs that have to be met, change involves a loss, the expectations needs of people should be properly managed and the fears that are associated with change should be properly addressed.

            The principle where people react differently to change is based on the fact that some people like to do things as they have always been and others like to look at things in different and new ways.  In case the individuals have different opinions as opposed to the situations that they find themselves in these may result to strong dissatisfaction, stress, negative attitude towards individuals with preference at the other side of dislike or distrust, it may also result to resistance and loss of rational judgment.  In the case of the new company known as Lunchbox U.K. Ltd the employees resisted Jones leadership because they wanted Mr. Galley’s leadership yet his leadership was not as good as that of Jone because they had already accepted and had gotten used to Galley’s leadership that is why they resisted the appointment of Mrs. Jones. The also resisted change because they were not involved in the decision making process  of appointing the managers since they felt in one way or another they had the qualities that were necessary in running the affairs of the organization.

            Another principle which states that everyone has a fundamental need to meet, includes the following needs that are fundamental in managing employees reaction to change, there are need for control, inclusion and openness.  The employees of an organization should have control over their destiny or environment in which they are working in, to be included in the decision making process of an organization and to have a chance to express their ideas openly without fear of intimidation.  In the case of Lunchbox Ltd the management of the company should have alerted the employees about the change of leadership so that they would not have a difficult time in adapting to the leadership of Mrs. Jones since she was a good manager despite the fact the employees resisted her leadership.

            There is another principle that was applied in change management that is referred to as loss that people go through after change has been implemented into an organization.  When a person is appointed into a senior position in an organization there is a loss that is experienced although it does not have a greater effect, than where a member of an organization is dismissed from his place of work and may result to loss of income, security and working relationships may go soar that to can have a bad effect on them.  In the Lunchbox Ltd company the employees felt that either of them should have been promoted to be the managerial position of the company since they had worked in the organization for a long time thus the loss that was experienced was that of the workers missing out the top position thus they resisted the experience shock, anger, rejection and they took time to heal about the appointment and also to accept the new manager since they would have liked the appointment.

            Another principle of change management is that of expectations and how they should be managed realistically.  It was noted that if people’s expectations are not met it may lead to unhappiness to the individuals affected by the situations.  The managers or leaders of an organization should set the expectations at a realistic level that can be understood by the employees that are concerned and the expectations should be exceeded in the terms of degrees of outplacement that is within the organizations reach.  In case of Lunchbox U.K. Ltd company Mrs. Jean Porter introduced a wide range of dishes, serving of hot breakfast snacks from 8 am and the provision of menus such as Chinese themed menus ,but since the employees were not ready for those changes it resulted to the employees  unhappiness and  opposition of the idea since they had not been consulted about the idea since the extra work involved other workers to assist them in performing the task thus it was unrealistic for the manager to bring such changes into the organization without the consent of the employees.  The employees would have would have given out suggestions of how to manage the change and the process of bringing the change into the organization could have been easier task for them.

            Another principle that is addressed in the change management process is that of how to deal with fears.  It is noted that people when they encounter change they always fear the repercussions of the circumstances are likely to occur.  Due to the poor performance of the Galley company Mrs. Jones Porker decided to decrease the wage bill of the employees by 5% and this was a negative approach of doing things because the company had earlier on recorded increased profits thus, the employees would not have accepted the move because their standards of living which was based on the income that was being given to them by the company had a negative impact on their lifestyle.

            There are various change management theories that were applied in an organization these are:

ADKAR model theories

            The model dealt with specific groups of people who were involved in the running of the various activities of the organization.  The advantage of this model was to know the level of the employee’s resistance, to help the employees through the transition process so that they many not have a difficult time in accepting change and to create employee action plans.  The management of Lunchbox Ltd should have used this process in order to implement its change in the organization .In the organization the level of resistance was quite high because for example the employees did not accept the appointment of the new manager, they also did not accept the changes that were implemented by the manager such as new cafeteria system which was more cost effective in the organization. Using those observations it was concluded that the ADKAR model should have been used in determining how to tackle the level of resistance within the organization. The management of this company should have used the model to take through the employees through the change process so that they would not have a difficult time in adapting to the new changes.

The six change approach theories

            It was developed by Kotter and Schlesinger whose aim was to minimize or to prevent employee résistance to change.  There are factors that are associated with by these approaches such as self-interest, misunderstanding, and low tolerance for change and employee disagreement with reasoning.  This factor can be dealt with by the employers by communicating and educating the employees about the logic of change, the involvement of employees in the change process would enable them to accept change, managerial support could help employees deal with fear and anxiety during the transition period.  In the model manager could  have combated the resistance to change by offering incentives to employees so that they could not resist change and finally manager could have forced the employees to accept change by stating that failure to accept change would have resulted to loss of job, firing and demoting of employees.  In the Lunchbox U.K. Ltd company the manger should have used this model because it talked about how to deal with the employees and the solution to the problem that existed within the organization would have been resolved, if proper communication had been initiated if proper communication had been implemented such that the employees knew how, when and where change would have taken place so that corrective measures could have been followed/taken.

            Business Process Re-Engineering Theories

             It deals with the outcomes and work processes of an organization than on employee specific issues.  It involves organizing outcomes not tasks, identifying processes in an organization and priotising them in order of their redesign urgency, integrating the information, treating dispersed resources as if they were centralized.  It also involves linking parallel activities in the workflow, putting decision point where work is to be performed and to build control into the process.

Kaizen model Theory

It was founded on five specific elements which are teamwork, personal discipline improved morale, quality circles and suggestions for improvement. It is not possible to measure the results of Kaizen model as those elements can not be measured easily by the management of organizations.  It has good characteristics such as people friendly easy to implement and it can be accessed with ease. The management of Lunchbox should have used this model to solve its problems that exited within the organizations.  In the model the element of personal discipline should have been employed in the organization because instead of the employees being hostile to the appointment of their new manager they should have accepted her appointment. The behavior of the employees to being discontented by the introduction of a new form of service which lead to higher rates of absence, lateness, scruffy dress, lack of politeness towards customers and colleagues was a bad form of tackling the uncertainties of the organization.  The model would have been used to improve the morale of the workers so that they would improve their performance.

Deming cycle PDSA model Theory

            The model consists of elements such as plan, do, study and act that employees constantly used in their operations.  When employees use this model they are likely to embrace change and to be comfortable with the change process. The management of Lunchbox UK ltd should have employed this model in its organization so that the employees would always be alert to embrace change when it occurred within an organization thus they should not have been hostile to their new manager since she was doing work and the company had reached remarkable progress within the given period of time. The traits that a manager should possess in order to perform her tasks properly is by being a good listener patient, knowledgeable about the operations of an organization and to possess the ability to communicate and share knowledge with his or her employees so that they can take corrective measures to curb uncertainties within an organization.  Mrs. Jean porter should have possessed these qualities so that she would have reacted by reducing the wage bill of the employee which would affect the state of living in the future.

            Change Management Theories

They are business process re-engineering theories and top quality management theories.

            Business Process Reengineering

It is a theory that determines the processes that the management of an organization should follow in order for them to ensure things are done in the correct manner. When proper processes are implemented within an organization they are bound to perform their activities efficiently. The theory focuses on the employee’s attitude to their work and towards change.  The theory would have been implemented in the organization because once the employees understood what changes were implemented in the organization they would have

Top Quality Management Theory

It is a theory that focuses on people and their importance to processes of an organization.  The management of lunchbox ltd should have implemented the theory within the organization because

Change management concepts:

            There are three key concepts that are associated with change these are: two legs good, one leg bad, managing change process and communication for change.

            The two legs good one leg bad

            This concept means there are no perfect or right ways in which change should go about yet in organizations they encounter many problems so getting solutions for them can be a daunting task.There are two legs in any change programme of an organization two legs remain in balance so that the programme does not fall down and the other leg ensures it holds the programme does not collapse since it ensures it holds the other programs to be implemented properly.  The concept recognizes the two legs such as human and process to enhance the functioning of organizations activities.

            The concept of managing the change process

It means that change managers should recognize and manage both legs of a programme so that they can achieve the best results for the organization.  The need for change creates a rationale & belief within the organization.  It is coupled by why a situation is happening and once an answer is given a direction is designed which enables implementation to take place   .  In case of Lunchbox U.K. Ltd Company the employees did not know the reason for the changes in leadership from Mr. Galley to Mrs. Jones thus they kept on protesting why the situation arose yet they would have filled the vacant positions.  Once direction was determined it could lead to a vision which would have led the management of the organization to greater height of prosperity.

The communication for change concept

            An organization can implement change successfully if proper communication is practiced within an organization.  The key actions and values within an organization that can enhance good communication are continual value, which states that regular flow of information enables people to feel involved and eases fear that is associated with encountering the unknown situation.  Feedback value allows people to ask questions give ideas, make comments on the general operation of an organization and this enhances employees participation in the decision making process.  The Lunchbox U.K ltd Company should have involved the employees in the decision making process so that they would not complain over the management of the organization decision to implement changes.

            Repetitive value states that key messages should be used appropriately because people do not trust managers or their colleagues who constantly keep on changing their minds such that they fail to do what they are required to do.  The employees of Lunchbox U.K. ltd hostility to the  appointment of the new manager was as a result of poor planning of the strategies of the organization because the introduction of the wide variety of dishes and serving hot breakfast snacks disoriented the employees since they were not used to these tasks. The open value as used in the concept of communication for change meant that people need to be kept informed about the happenings within an organization.  The new manager of Lunchbox Ltd should have been open enough to the employees so as to inform them about what was happening instead of them to meeting strange people to run the affairs of the organization.  The honest value stated that it was important for employers to always speak out the trust about the management of the organization, as it would have resulted to conflicts of interests among the employees.

Models of change management

Kotter model

            It is a model which is based on research which shows that there are eight steps than organizations should go through so as to enhance successful implementation of change these are sense of urgency it indicates the issues that need to be addressed are those that are critical to handle in the organization. The model also includes another step known as forming a powerful guiding coalition that would assemble groups of people who would ensure change is implemented successfully and also to encourage people to work as a team.  The other process is the creation of vision to direct the change effort, communicating the vision to persons who are concerned so that they can give direction of achieving goals within an organization, planning and creating visible performance improvements so that appropriate employees are rewarded using the performance records.  The improvement should be consolidated so that the best approaches can be implemented within an organization so as to develop the best means to ensure leadership development and succession.

The model of improvement

            It states that it creates room for developing testing and implementing changes within an organization so that corrective measures can be taken so as to improve the performance of an organization.

The management of the company of Lunchbox should have imposed the models, theories and concepts into the organization so that it would in a position to enhance implementation to the organization.


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