This report analyzes the strategic position of Amnesty International and seeks to lay out some strategies that the senior management should pursue so as to be effective in the running of the organization.
Generally, the report covers the background of Amnesty International (AI) and goes further to analyze the external and internal environment of the organization. It further demonstrates the three key strategic options that are involved in communication within the organization based on the external and internal stakeholders.
The report finally concludes with recommendations that the senior management should incorporate into the organization in order to effectively promote and protect human rights.
Amnesty International (AI) is an international campaigner association that was founded in 1961 by the British Lawyer Peter Benenson. The affirmed purpose of setting up this association was to promote all individual rights that were preserved within the United Nation’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other global values. (Amnesty International, 1996, p. 69)
AI participates in campaigns that are designed to prevent and end serious mistreatment of the rights mentioned above. It goes ahead to demand that all the administration and other influential bodies to respect the decree of law. Some of these campaigns include the following: (Lawson, Bertucci et al, 1996, p. 112)
ü Protecting the human rights of refugees and migrants.
ü Regulating the international arms trade.
ü Stopping aggression against women.
ü Abolishing death punishment.
ü Protecting the rights and dignity of those ensnared in poverty.
ü Ensuring that there is fair and punctual trails for political prisoners.
ü Ensuring that there is an end of political killings and enforced disappearances.
ü Ensuring that the prisoners are untied from their conscience.
This process determines suitable ways forward so that the organization can attain its objectives and in so doing achieve organizational underlying principle. AI’s strategy mirrors the ecological scrutiny that leads to the fulfillment of the administrative mission and ultimately results in the achievement of the administrative objectives. (Morden, 2007, p. 82)
External Environment (PESTLE Analysis)
ü With the American Presidential Election that is to be held on 4th of November, it then follows that there will be a main consequence that will be caused from the transformation of government headship. (Starmer, Christou et al, 2005, p. 94)
ü In the Middle East and North Africa realms, governments are to be expected to predominate, and this is in spite of the slow moves towards self-governing restructuring that exists in Jordan, some Gulf States and Morocco. (Donnelly, 1998, p. 82)
ü Administrations are becoming weaker in various parts of Asia and this is because there is too much corruption involved within these governments. (Merckled-Garcia & Cali, 2006, p. 88)
ü Majority of the Eastern European countries are endangered by additional fiscal crises, conflict, redundancy, deprived social provisions, undermined manual labor rights and racial disharmony. (Leibold, Gibbert et al, 2005, p. 105)
ü In the area of Africa, political control carries on to depend on the menace or use of vigor. (Stahl & Grigsby, 1997, p. 93)
ü Majority of the countries lack self-governing stability, and as a result have high offense levels and augmented public uncertainty. (Balogun, Hailey et al, 2004, p. 72)
ü Countries and their administrations differ in their level of openness. (Courtney, 2002, p. 104)
ü The Israeli/Palestinian clash will continue unsolved thereby leading to augmented antagonism of Israel amongst the neighbouring states and improved support for radical Palestinian grouping. (Hendrickson & Psarouthakis, 1998, p. 69)
ü There is an increase in the Anti-US sentiment across the area of Middle East; this is as a result of the proceedings in Iraq where Human Rights NGOs are being targeted and secluded as “pro-western”. (Amnesty International, 1986, p. 78)
ü Some of the external actors such as IMF/the World Bank, multinational corporations, donor governments, just to mention but a few, have an influential fiscal impact on the area of Africa. For instance, they frequently obscure or eradicate government accountability and well-liked involvement. (Stoffels, 1994, p. 115)
ü There are complicated fiscal conditions such as increase in debt, decrease in income, over-reliance on oil as a key source of nationwide income and lack of reorganization in the Middle East. (Egnan, 1995, p. 111)
ü The economy of Russia is to be expected to cultivate further due to the retention of its tactical nuclear responsibility and UN Security Council seat. As a result, the country will have a much bigger responsibility in reforming Europe. (Kozamin, 2005, p. 101)
ü Poverty will carry on affecting hundreds of millions of individuals in the area of Asia and many other countries due to high inflation and credit crunch. (Rowe, 1989, p. 90)
ü There is the gap between the wealthy Western and inferior Eastern Europe. (Pearce & Robinson, 2000, p. 102)
ü Globe financial system/Major monetary crisis. (Strategic Management Society, 1993, p. 110)
ü There are difficult fiscal conditions, moribund community services and rising redundancy strain relationships between groups, thereby escalating the menace of social unsteadiness and oppression. (Franck, Nyman et al, 2003, p. 106)
ü Juvenile individuals preponderate in South Asia and other areas. A majority of them are unemployed and are prepared to embrace fresh causes. However, political philosophies have lost trustworthiness and the empty space is being filled with fresh beliefs, crime, social turbulence and aggression. (Hopgood, 2006, p. 59)
ü Crises and lack of opportunities has contributed to an augment in the number of internally dislocated individuals and emigrant in the US. (Amnesty International, 1996, p. 78)
ü Increase in HIV/AIDS levels. (Lawson, Bertucci et al, 1996, p. 118)
ü Identity-based agitation organizations are rising in Asia where they are more and more engaging in social action on fiscal, ecological, societal and cultural issues. (Morden, 2007, p. 91)
ü Racial discrimination, far-right politics, rising social tensions and anti-immigration guiding principles intimidate the protection of susceptible populations. (Starmer, Christou, et al, 2005, p. 98)
ü Medical care, edification, food, accommodation and social wellbeing remain to be limited in several countries, in particular in clash areas. (Donnelly, 1998, p. 99)
ü Community movements are following the universal trend for better and more fluid association through IT communication. (Meckled-Garcia & Cali, 2006, p. 103)
ü There is growth of internet bazaar and information networks which act as tools for the international individual rights movement, safety forces, political networks, prepared crimes and administration bureaucracies. (Leibold Gibbert et al, 2005, p. 107)
ü Increase in the amount of internet’s users has enabled both the individual right movement and traditional ideologists to stretch their messages. (Balogun, Hailey et al, 2004, p. 85)
ü Effect of fiscal decline hinders the government from buying innovative machinery. (Hendrickson & Psarouthakis, 1998, p. 106)
ü There is an increase in menace of bio-warfare and bio-terrorism. (Courtney, 2002, p. 106)
ü Dwelling within the regulation may not at all times be simple due to what AI associates are agitating for. (Amnesty International, 1996, p. 102)
ü There was the espousal and announcement of Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948 and this is owing to weather change, hurricanes, floods, droughts and landslides distressing numerous countries. (Amnesty International, 1986, p. 94)
ü Legislation appears to be dissimilar in every state. (Egnan, 1995, p. 116)
ü Political associations cannot be granted charitable position, and this is under the UK charity laws and as a result, Amnesty has its own political and charitable arm. (Kozamin, 2005, p. 119)
ü Effluence and contagion of land, air and water, obliteration of biodiversity, mining, nuclear waste, just to mention but a few, have lead to change of climate and reduction of natural resources thereby affecting numerous countries. (Rowe, 1989, p. 93)
ü Rise of urbanization will have an effect on water, air and cleanliness quality. (Pearce & Robinson, 2000, p. 107)
ü Aboriginal communities will carry on being detached from familial lands thus leading to aggression. (Strategic Management Society, 1993, p. 112)
This is an in-house process driven activity that engages budgeting, organizing, administering, culture-building and leading to make the executed policy work just as the way it was planned. (Pearce & Robinson, 2000, p. 108)
AI has resulted to engage themselves in strategic relationships with a number of nations. These comprise the relationship between them and the United Nations. They united forces with Oxfam and International set of connections for diminutive arms in 2000 for a campaign in opposition to the arms trade. In addition to this, they also have relations with a number of superstars through their concerts and donators. A good illustration is seen where Yoko Ono bestowed the rights of John Lennon’s whole Solo songbook and a number of musical group and comedians through their performance and Secret policeman’s Ball. Moreover, they have also established good relations with politicians, trade unions and educationalist. Last but not least, AI has a close association with the media where Times frequently prints articles concerning Amnesty in their daily column. (Amnesty International, 11996, p. 105)
AI has also incorporated a positioning strategy whereby it has a multidivisional organization with members from 150 countries universal. This has created a competitive edge that is away from their competitors such as Human Rights Watch, CARE International, Oxfam, UNEP, WWF, Green Peace and Friends of the Earth. In addition to this, their sturdy brand name has created a competitive advantage in the sense that individuals are aware that their contributions are going straightforwardly to the corporation itself. (Amnesty International, 1996, p. 108)
AI has also created awareness of the existing issues that are being address through broadcasting their apprehension in brochures, posters, ad and websites. It should be noted that their universal network has the ability to generate thousands of plea letters on behalf of the individuals and society at risk thereby giving an emphasis to the actuality that this is one of Amnesty’s resources. (Amnesty International, 1996, p. 110)
It has installed support systems that methodically and neutrally research the facts on person’s cases and patterns of individual rights abuses. Moreover, it has incorporated diversity in both the service delivery and procedure whereby it endorses diversity and seeks out to integrate its principles into its scheme and ways of functioning. (Amnesty International, 1986, p. 103)
AI has also incorporated a strategic leadership whereby only the proficient Marketing managers are employed and as a result the personnel are all conscious of full managerial purpose, guiding principles and aims. (Amnesty International, 1986, p. 105)
This involves measuring the efficiency of the administrative guiding principles. It involves a comprehensive conduction of SWOT analysis. Generally, SWOT is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. (Strategic Management Society, 1993, p. 117)
ü AI has 2.2 million members universal. (Franck, Nyman et al, 2003, p. 109)
ü It has a sturdy brand name, company logo and eminent history. (Hopgood, 2006, p. 66)
ü The corporation has a self-governing brand name that gives them a sturdy competitive advantage since it is not sponsored by any administration; as a result, individuals recognize that their contributions will go straightforwardly to the corporation itself. (Lawson, Bertucci et al, 1996, p. 120)
ü Acknowledgment of their individual right work through Nobel Peace Prize. (Morden, 2007, p. 97)
ü The corporation continually reviews and self assess their strategies. (Starmer, Christou, et al, 2005, p. 101)
ü The corporation has a self-governing administration, political ideology and fiscal interests. (Donnelly, 1998, p. 110)
ü There is a direct action association whereby individuals are assisting other individuals by not just donating money but also combating for a change which eventually will empower them. (Meckled-Garcia & Cali, 2006, p. 107)
ü They are monetarily independent and thus are completely supported by donations. (Balogun, Hailey et al, 2004, p. 94)
ü They have a good corporate public image that is really strong at promoting itself.
ü They uphold geological and political neutrality since members all the time campaign in divergent areas to their habitat base. (Leibold Gibbert et al, 2005, p. 112)
ü They have fundraisers such as the Secret Policeman’s Ball and recitals that have high silhouette celebrities. (Hendrickson & Psarouthakis, 1998, p. 109)
ü The abortion approach has disappointed a number of members particularly the Roman Catholic Church who contribute majorly towards their donations. (Courtney, 2002, p. 108)
ü The 2.2 million Members is not an enormous number when compared to the globe population that is estimated at 6.6billion. (Franck, Nyman et al, 2003, p. 109)
ü The claims made can be unsubstantial and ultimately damage their general credibility. (Egnan, 1995, p. 118)
ü The research results are not always accurate since they are hardly ever subjected to the exterior analysis. (Kozamin, 2005, p. 122)
ü Apparently, there appears to be a small number of individuals on the committee who makes decisions in the association with millions of members. (Rowe, 1989, p. 97)
ü Their selection is bias since they seem to write an additional report in open countries. (Hopgood, 2006, p. 85)
ü They seem to be diverting from their initially definite focus. (Morden, 2007, p. 100)
ü There is no assured income. . (Starmer, Christou, et al, 2005, p. 104)
ü Their objectives are not limited to precise projects as human right is an enormous area. (Pearce & Robinson, 2000, p. 110)
ü Their websites are accessible across the world and the corporation alerts urgent information via email to their members. (Lawson, Bertucci et al, 1996, p. 125)
ü They are not limited geologically since they work internationally. (Hopgood, 2006, p. 95)
ü They lately extended their range to contain fiscal, social and cultural rights. (Leibold Gibbert et al, 2005, p. 117)
ü They are capable of taking advantage of close relations with big corporations. (Hendrickson & Psarouthakis, 1998, p. 115)
ü Majority of the formats of action are not restricted on how they can execute their agitation. (Franck, Nyman et al, 2003, p. 118)
ü There will all the time be human rights tribulations around the globe and as a result, one would wonder whether they are fighting a losing battle. (Kozamin, 2005, p. 123)
ü There is loss of members owing to the approach that the organization had taken on abortion. (Egnan, 1995, p. 119)
ü Monetary crisis could have an effect on donations from the universal public as 75% of their proceeds are in the form of contributions. (Rowe, 1989, p. 104)
ü There are unbalanced macroeconomic and political surroundings. (Courtney, 2002, p. 110)
ü The corporation appears to be receiving awful publicity. (Hopgood, 2006, p. 102)
According to Johnson and Scholes model, strategic alternatives are assessed against three key accomplishment criterion and these include suitability, feasibility and acceptability. (Strategic Management Society, 1993, p. 125)
This deals with the general underlying principle of the policy. The AI strategies have been pinpointed in a way that would facilitate suitability in terms of the environment within which they are working in and capabilities. This can be evaluated through the use of ranking strategic options. For instance; we see that AI is composed of individuals who give unreservedly of their time and energy in commonality with those whose rights have been ill-treated. They emerge from all walks of life with extensively dissimilar political and religious views unified by their major concentration in functioning for a globe where everybody enjoys human rights. (Amnesty International, 1986, p. 110)
In addition to this, we find that a majority of the individuals work voluntarily with the major attention of putting force on the administration to stop ill-treatment. AI research is carried out by connoisseur personnel supported by specialists in a variety of fields therefore knowledge is one of their assets of making sure that there is suitability within the organization. (Amnesty International, 1996, p. 119)
This involves the resources that are necessary to execute the obtainable strategy. Some of these resources comprise of financial support, individual, time and information. The principal role of the global executive committee for AI is to offer headship and stewardship for the entire of Amnesty International universal. Their major interest is to make sure that there is a sound monetary strategy for Amnesty and that the monetary strategy is constantly executed across the global association. (Amnesty International, 1986, p. 116)
Moreover, it should be noted that all the guiding principle decisions are taken by the intercontinental council. Their major concern lies within making sure that the functioning of Amnesty adheres to their general strategic plan. Also, Amnesty obtains a lot of its information from a diversity of sources counting the fatalities of human rights ill-treatment. Their major interest is for liberty to take pleasure in all of life’s individual rights. (Franck, Nyman et al, 2003, p. 113)
AI has research squad that examines and account on human rights ill-treatment and obtains information from a number of associates such as lawyers, prisoners, reporters and other Human Rights associations. Their major interest is to ensure that there is an existing association between the organizations and that these associates are sturdy. (Amnesty International, 1986, p. 119)
This covers the expectations of the acknowledged stakeholders with the anticipated performance results that can either be return, threat and stakeholder response. AI generally covers the stakeholder’s reaction in a massive way. For instance, we find that AI forces administrations to endorse and abide by International Human Rights agreements and to reinforce intercontinental human rights values. Since the government interest is to gratify the inhabitants, it then follows that they are the ones who make a decision on the projects to be pursued. (Amnesty International, 1996, p. 126)
The media are regarded as an imperative stakeholder to AI since their stories can have an effect on Amnesty’s repute. Moreover, AI necessitates support from the general public in order to be victorious. Their major interest is to make sure that everybody is capable of enjoying all individual rights. (Franck, Nyman et al, 2003, p. 116)
AI also obtains the majority of its sponsorship from contributions. Their major interests are to make sure that their contributions are spent on precious resources. As if this is not enough, Amnesty also attempts to influence other NGOs whose major interests is to stay competitive with amnesty and not permit the cutthroat advantage. (Amnesty International, 1996, p. 130)
I recommend that the senior management should evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the offered UN bodies that are dealing with human rights. It should be in session all through the year and as a result it will be able to meet in additional common focused sittings and be competent of convening swiftly to deal with individual rights crises.
It should comprise of members who are obviously dedicated to the defense of human rights. For instance; members would formulate electoral pledges to endorse and defend human rights which may possibly be subject to peer evaluation.
The assessment of normal programmed review of the individual rights achievement, inadequacies and capacity-building requirements of every country in reverence of all human rights ought to be made under the influence of the High Commissioner for Human Rights with the support of self-governing know-how as is the tradition in numerous other UN bodies and organizations.
I also recommend that the rights and traditional activities that NGO’s take pleasure in under the NGO ECOSOC Consultative Status and which do not subsist somewhere else in the UN system be conserved since they allow NGO’s to make significant involvement to the proceedings of the Commission on Human Rights failure of which the Commission on Human Rights would not have made the substantive improvement in individual rights endorsement and defense that it has attained.
The National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) ought to be sovereign from the administrative functions of government and that its founding contract ought to reflect this. Therefore it is vital that NHRIs should be recognized by rule or, if possible, by legitimate alteration. Where NHRIs are recognized simply by presidential or other kinds of ruling, it is easier to eliminate them, or to limit powers which are essential to their effectual implementation.
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