Literature review of concepts and theories of Motivation Essay

In the ferocious epoch of competition, organisations presents are more stressing on the direction of Human Resources ( Robert. L, 2008 ) . Motivation ; a cardinal scheme in Human Resource Management has helped practicians mostly plenty to subject the term “ Motivation ” for a treatment. Tips et Al. ( 2004 ) , asserted that employee motive plays a critical function in the direction field ; both theoretically and practically. It is said that one of the of import maps of human resource director is to guarantee occupation committedness at the workplace, which can merely be achieved through motive ( Petcharak, 2002 ) .

Based on these logical thinking, this paper shall include analytical and empirical surveies to uncover the disagreements and feasibleness facet of the sphere, as Rai ( 2004 ) put frontward ; motive is important for good public presentation and therefore it is progressively of import to analyze what motivates employees for better public presentation. This subdivision offers a reappraisal of literature, which explores the constructs, types and theoretical facets including content and procedure theories, theories of motive developed in other psychological countries every bit good as empirical groundss in organisational contexts.

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2.1 Motivation Motivation is defined as “ a human psychological feature that add to a individual ‘s grade of committedness. It is the direction procedure of ini¬‚uencing employees ‘ behaviour ” . ( Badu, 2005 )

Conversely, Bartol and Martin ( 1998 ) associate motive to the force that stimulates behavior, supply way to behavior, and underlies the inclination to predominate. In other words persons must be sufficiently stimulated and energetic, must hold a clear focal point on what is to be achieved, and must be willing to perpetrate their energy for a long period of clip to recognize their purpose in order to accomplish ends.

However, other than motive being a force that stimulates behavior, Vroom ( 1964 ) emphasized on the ‘voluntary actions ‘ . Supported by Steers et Al. ( 2004 ) , Vroom ( 1964 ) defined motive as “ a procedure regulating pick made by individuals… among alternate signifiers of voluntary activity. ” Similarly Kreitner and Kinicki ( 2004 ) assumed that motive incorporate those psychological procedures that create the rousing, way and continuity of voluntary actions that are end oriented.

Quite otherwise from the other definitions, Locke and Latham ( 2004 ) identified that motive influence people ‘s acquisition of accomplishments and the extent to which they use their ability. Harmonizing to the writers “ the construct of motive refers to internal factors that impel action and to external factors that can move as incentives to action. The three facets of action that motive can impact are way ( pick ) , strength ( attempt ) , and continuance ( continuity ) . Motivation can impact both the acquisition of people ‘s accomplishments and abilities ; and besides the extent to which they utilize their accomplishments and abilities ” ( Locke and Latham, 2004 ) .

In a nut shell, different writers have put frontward the construct of motive otherwise. However, these definitions have three common facets, that is, they are all chiefly concerned with factors or events that stimulate, channel, and prolong human behaviour over clip ( Steers et Al. 2004 ) .

2.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic motive Following Lakhani and Wolf ( 2005 ) , Lakhani and Von Hippel ( 2003 ) and Lemer and Tirole ( 2004 ) , the current scholarly believing favours a model that considers two constituents of motive given by intrinsic and extrinsic constituents. Consequently, Lawler ( 1969 ) intrinsic motive is the grade to which feelings of regard, growing, and competency are expected to ensue from successful undertaking public presentation. This position bounds intrinsic motive to an anticipation attack and anticipation theory which clearly indicates that intrinsic and extrinsic motives summate ( Porter & A ; Lawler, 1968 ) .

Furthermore, as per to Amabile et Al. ( 1993 ) Persons are said to be per se motivated when they seek, involvement, satisfaction of wonder, self look, or personal challenge in the work. On the other manus persons are said to be extrinsically motivated when they engaged in the work to derive some end that is portion of the work itself.

As per to the writer this definition of intrinsic and extrinsic motive is based on the single perceptual experience of the single perceptual experience of undertaking and his or her grounds for prosecuting in it. Furthermore, Amabile et Al. farther argued that intrinsic incentives arise from an person ‘s feelings with respects to the activity and they are necessary to adhere to the work itself. Conversely, extrinsic incentives although they may be dependent on the work, they are non logically an built-in portion of the work.

Furthermore, in line with the construct of intrinsic and extrinsic motive, De Charms ( 1968 ) suggest that external wagess might sabotage intrinsic motive. He farther proposed that persons seek for personal causing and because of the desire to be the “ beginning ” of his behaviour ; adult male keeps fighting against the restraint of external forces. Therefore, De Charms hypothesized that when a adult male perceives his behaviour as arising from his ain pick, he will value that behaviour and its consequences but when he perceives his behaviour as arising from external forces, that behaviour and its consequences, even though indistinguishable in other respects to behavior of his ain choosing, will be devalued.

De Charms ( 1968 ) further argued that intrinsic and extrinsic motive may interact, instead than total that is the debut of extrinsic wagess for the behaviours that was per se honoring may diminish instead than heighten the overall motive. The writer argued that the debut of an extrinsic wages put the person in a dependent place relation to the beginning of the wages. The venue of causality for his behaviour alterations from ego to the external wages and therefore the person ‘s perceptual experience of self-denial, free pick, and committedness deteriorate and hence do his motive.

In add-on Frey ( 1997 ) note that high intrinsic work motive germinating from work which is interesting involves the trust and trueness of personal relationships and is participatory. However, under certain fortunes, intrinsic motive can be diminished, or ”crowded-out ” by external intercessions like monitoring or pay-for-performance inducement strategies. This was besides supported by Frey and Jegen ( 2001 ) who reviewed the literature on intrinsic motives and found that the grounds does propose that inducements sometimes do ”crowd-out ” intrinsic motives. Besides, Frey ( 1997 ) suggests that the of import affair is whether the external intercession is in the signifier of a bid or a wages. Commands are most controlling in the sense that they seize self-government from the agent, while wagess might still let liberty of action.

The maximization of employee ‘s motive to achieve the organisation ‘s ends can merely be obtained through a complete apprehension of motive theories ( Reid 2002 ) . There is a broad assortment of theoretical models that have been developed in the efforts to explicate the issues related to motive. Stoner, Edward and Daniel ( 1995 ) has described two different positions on motive theory, given by the earliest positions and the modern-day attack which can farther be subdivided into content and procedure theories.

2.3 Theories of Motivation 2.3.1 The earliest positions of motive One of the earliest positions of motive is Frederick W Taylor et Al. ( 1911 ) scientific direction theory. Taylor ( 1911 ) with respects to employee motive proposed a paternalistic attack to pull offing workers and argued that workers are “ economic work forces ” and in order to actuate them, workers should be paid higher rewards.

The writer besides argued that the higher is the pay rate, the higher will be the flat motive and productiveness. Furthermore, Taylor points out that many payment methods were uneffective, as they did non honor efficiency and he believed that a differential piece-work inducement system should be replaced with a piece rate inducement system ( Wren, 2005 ) . In other words workers should be paid harmonizing to the figure of units produced in order to actuate them to work.

On the other manus in line with edifice on the construct of motive Elton Mayo ( 1953 ) came up with the Human Relations attack whereby the accent is laid on non-economic incentives. Harmonizing to Elton Mayo ( 1953 ) , if aims of organisation ‘s are to be met, it must try to understand, regard and see the emotions, sense of acknowledgment and satisfaction that is the non-monetary demands of workers. He believed that employees are non merely concern with money but besides they need to hold their societal demands to be met in order to be motivated to work. He is of position that workers enjoy interactions and directors should handle them as people who have worthwhile sentiments.

Furthermore, McGregor ( 1960 ) postulates Theory X and Theory Y which is based on premises about people and work. Harmonizing to this theory, there are two types of premise made with respects to employees whereby theory X assumes that employees are lazy and hence theory X suggests that in order to actuate employees a more bossy manner of direction is required. On the other manus theory Y assumes that workers enjoy work, committed to aims of the organisation and will use self control and ego directed in the chase of organisational aims and hence does non necessitate external control.

2.3.2 Contented theories of motive Contented theories tend to concentrate on single demands and effort to explicate the factors within a individual that stimulate and halt behaviour ( Reid, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to Bassett-Jones and Lloyd ( 2005 ) , content theory presume a more complex interaction between both internal and external factors, and explored the fortunes in which persons react to different types of internal and external stimulations.

The most good known content theory of motive is the hierarchy of demands which has been put frontward by Abraham Maslow ( 1943 ) . Harmonizing to Maslow, people are motivated by five types of demands and in order to actuate people to work more fruitfully there is a demand to offer them chance to fulfill those demands. He proposed that basic demands are organized in a hierarchy of predominance and chance of visual aspect ( Wahba and Bridwell, 1973 ) .

These demands include physiological demands, safety demands, societal demands, self-esteem and self-actualization. Maslow argued that one time a lower order demand is fulfilled, the following degree of demands in the hierarchy comes into drama that is one time employees satisfy the lower order demands they will next see the following degree of demands. The writer further argued that unrealized lower demands dominate 1s believing and behaviour until they are satisfied ( Berl et al. 1984 ) .

However this theory has besides been criticized to a big extent, for illustration Wahba and Bridwell ( 1973 ) argued that based on the 10 factor analytic surveies that have attempted to prove Malow ‘s theory ; there is no clear grounds that human demands are classified into five different classs, or that these classs are organized in a particular hierarchy. The writers contradict Malow ‘s proposition and points out that, “ none of the surveies has shown all of Maslow ‘s five need classs as independent factors ” , for illustration some surveies have showed that the self-actualization demands may emerge as an independent class.

They besides argued that surveies have besides proved the issue of need want and the domination of behaviour to be different from that suggested by Maslow. Furthermore consequences have besides proved that either self-actualization or security are the least satisfied demands and societal demands are the most satisfied. Therefore it is hard to find the general form of the grade of satisfaction and these tendencies are non the same as proposed by Maslow ( Wahba and Bridwell, 1973 ) .

Conversely, Alderfer ( 1972 ) in the effort to turn to the short approachs of Malow ‘s theory proposed an option to Maslow ‘s theory which he termed as the ERG theory and contend a three degree hierarchy. Alderfer grouped Maslow ‘s five classs of demands into three classs given by Existence, Relatedness and Growth. Harmonizing to the writer, people are motivated by these three groups of nucleus demands and he asserted that as one degree of demand is satisfied another takes over but if a demand is non satisfied on a uninterrupted footing, the person may make up one’s mind to give such a demand a low precedence.

However, while Maslow and Alderfer presented the construct of motive in a hierarchy, McClelland ( 1961, 1971 ) , ignored the construct of hierarchy and set frontward a theory known as the acquired demand theory that emphasize on three types of demands viz. , need for association, need for accomplishment and demand for power. McClelland is of position that person ‘s experiences are acquired through life experiences that is they are learned. Harmonizing to this theory persons possess several demands, and when these demands are activated they serve to actuate behaviour and this is to the reverse of Maslow ‘s proposition of a uninterrupted patterned advance throughout the hierarchy of demands ( Steers et al. 2004 ) .

Furthermore, besides put otherwise Herzberg et Al. ( 1959 ) sought to understand how work activities and the nature of an employee ‘s occupation influence motive and public presentation. They proposed a theory that involves what they termed as “ incentives ” and “ hygiene factors ” . Harmonizing to Herzberg the most important difference between the incentives and the hygiene factors is that the incentive factors involve psychological growing while the hygiene factors involve physical and psychological hurting turning away. The writers examined incentives and hygiene factors in the workplace and proposed that where occupation satisfaction was high at that place would be matching high motive. Herzberg ( 1959 ) further argued that work motive is influenced to a big extent by the grade to which a occupation is per se ambitious and provides chances for acknowledgment and support.

However despite that Herberg ‘s theory has been widely accepted by directors ( e.g Latham 2007, Miner 2005, Steers and Porter 1983 ) , this theory has been criticized by many writers. For illustration Reid ( 2002 ) argued that the work of Herzberg is an scrutiny of occupation satisfaction instead than motive of employees. Reid besides argued that no affair how much accent is laid on factors that are per se rewarding, if hygiene factors such as low wage is non addressed, their full consequence can non be felt.

Furthermore, besides Brenner et Al. ( 1971 ) contradict Herzberg proposition that motive factors increase occupation satisfaction and hygiene factors leads to occupation dissatisfaction and points out that his survey and others indicated that the employees received occupation satisfaction and occupation dissatisfaction from both the motivation and the hygiene factors. Similarly Locke ( 1976 ) assessed Herzberg two factor theory and argued that occupation satisfaction and dissatisfaction consequence from different causes.

2.3.3 Emperical surveies of content theories Zakeri et Al. ( 1997 ) carried out research in the Persian building industry to happen out degree of Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands are the most motivative factors and whether these factors are actuating factors or merely hygiene factors as proposed by Herzberg. A list of 20 factors was chosen harmonizing to Maslow ‘s categorization of demands and the lists were presented to the building crafts- work forces and secret agents whereby Zakeri et Al. ( 1997 ) found five most motivation factors in falling order viz. ; ‘fairness of wage ” , “ Incentive and fiscal wagess ” , “ on-time payment ” , “ good working installations ” and “ safety ” . The writers argued that despite Herzberg ‘s proposition that money is non a satisfier, this study along with others proved that money is the most motivative factor.

In add-on Arnolds and Boshoff ( 2002 ) conducted research in a figure of houses in South Africa to look into the impact of need satisfaction on self-esteem and of self-esteem on public presentation purpose as suggested by Alderfer ( 1972 ) . Harmonizing to the empirical consequences, self-pride was found as a important determiner of employee occupation public presentation and consequences showed that supplying frontline employees chances to execute ambitious work, let engagement and learning them new things on the occupation will heighten their self-pride every bit good as their public presentation purposes ( Arnolds and Boshoff, 2002 ) . The writers argued that the experiment besides showed that the satisfaction of periphery benefits does non hold a important impact on public presentation purposes via self-pride as an intervening variable and this support Herzberg ‘s et Al. ( 1959 ) theory.

2.3.4 Process theories of motive Along with the content theories, there are besides different procedure theories. Harmonizing to Viorel et Al. ( 2009 ) the content theories emphasize on specific factors that motivate workers with respects to certain necessities and aspirations, while the procedure theories emphasize on the procedures and the psychological forces that have an impact on motive. They start from the premiss that motive starts with the desire to make something. The procedure theories provide more realistic rules with respects to motivation techniques and therefore they are more utile to directors compared to content theories ( Viorel et al. 2009 ) .

Vroom ( 1964 ) , in the involvement to analyze motive developed an option to the content theories which is known as the anticipation theory. Vroom suggest that there are three mental constituents that are considered as instigating and directing behaviour and these are referred to as Valence, Instrumentality, and Expectancy. He argued that employees rationally analyze different on-the-job work behaviours and so take those behaviours which they believe will take to their most valued work-related wagess and results.

Furthermore, Porter and Lawler ( 1968 ) expanded Vroom ‘s work to place the function of single differences for illustration employee abilities and accomplishments and the function lucidity in associating occupation attempt to existent occupation public presentation. Porter and Lawler besides explained the relationship between public presentation and satisfaction and argued that this relationship is mediated by the extent and quality of the wagess that employees receive in return for their occupation public presentation.

In add-on to expectancy theory Adams ( 1963 ) , developed the equity theory to clear up how employees respond cognitively and behaviorally with respects to unfairness in the workplace. Adams suggested that employees develop beliefs about what constitutes a just and just return for their occupation public presentation and parts hence employees ever compare their attempts and the associated wagess with that of other employees and in instance there is a state of affairs whereby there is an component of unfairness or unfairness there is an instability that is a perceptual experience of unfairness will ensue. The writer is hence of position that when perceptual experience of unfairness occurs the employee will acquire engaged in activities and make attempt in order to cut down the unfairness.

On the other manus, rather otherwise Latham and Locke ( 1979 ) came up with the end puting theory. Harmonizing to Latham ( 2004 ) , the underlying premiss of the end puting theory is that “ one ‘s witting ends affect what one achieves ” . The writer argued that this is because a end is said to be the nonsubjective or purpose of an action and holding a specific end consequence to improved public presentation. Employees with specific difficult ends tend to execute better compared to those with obscure ends and that a end is a criterion for measuring an person ‘s public presentation. Furthermore, Latham besides suggested that “ to the extent that the end is met or exceeded, satisfaction additions ; and conversely, to the extent that public presentation falls short of the end, one ‘s satisfaction lessenings ” .

While content theories have tended to concentrate on demands of people and procedure theories have focused on factors actuating people, Adair ( 2006 ) have brought some new issues in the field of employee motive and developed a new theory of motive known as the Fifty-Fifty regulation. Unlike the writers of content and procedure theories, Adair is of position that motive lies both within an person every bit good as external to the person. Harmonizing to the writer, 50 per centum of motive prevarications within a individual and 50 per centum lies outside the individual nevertheless Adair points out that this theory does non asseverate for the precisely even proportion in the equation but it merely emphasized on the thought that a considerable portion of motive prevarications within a individual while a considerable portion lies outside and beyond its control.

2.3.5 Emperical surveies of procedure theories With respects to Adams Equity theory, Levine ( 1993 ) calculated pay remainders for more than 8,000 fabrication employees. Wage remainders rei¬‚ect employees ‘ rewards relative to employees with similar demographics and human capital in footings of instruction and preparation ( Ambrose and Kulik, 1999 ) . Levine found that employees with higher pay remainders reported that they were less likely to go forth, were more satisi¬?ed with their wage, were willing to work harder than they had to, and were more committed to the organisation. Therefore in line with this statement, the writer pointed out that employees with low pay remainders might be expected to see unfairness or unfairness relation to similar others and exhibit negative responses.

Furthermore Arnolds and Boshoff ( 2002 ) conducted research in a figure of South African houses whereby they analyzed the application of the anticipation theory put frontward by Vroom ( 1964 ) and they argued that the satisfaction with wage and periphery benefits does non impact on the public presentation purposes of frontline employees because these demand satisfactions do non hold any esteem valency for these employees. In other words, frontline employees do non hold a higher respect of themselves if they are acquiring adequate wage to carry through basic necessities ( Arnolds and Boshoff, 2002 ) .

Besides based on the Goal Setting theory, Stansi¬?eld and Longenecker ( 2006 ) performed a survey in a traditional fabrication works in the Midwestern USA to develop a theoretical account of efficient and effectual end scene and feedback patterns for fabrication. Harmonizing to the writers the survey showed that an information system, easing end scene and feedback can play a critical function in bettering single public presentation degrees. Stansfield and Longenecker besides found that employee motive and public presentation were both improved in the survey, which lead to better organisational public presentation and proi¬?tability. The writers besides argued that end scene and feedback can make competitory advantage for makers with a minimal investing of clip and capital if they implement these patterns with proper coordination.

2.3.6 Reinforcement Theory B.F. Skinner ( 1953 ) compared to necessitate and treat theories, came up with a different theory known as the support theory in which he proposed that people ‘s behaviour is dependent upon its effects. He suggested that if effects of behaviour is positive so such behaviour will be repeated and vice-versa. Skinner ( 1953 ) argued that behaviour can therefore be reinforced through different signifiers of support or wagess. Harmonizing to him persons can be influenced in four different ways given by positive support ( a wages such as congratulations so that the individual repeat the behaviour ) , negative support ( honoring employees by taking unwanted effects ) , extinction ( intentionally withheld positive support to deter unwanted behaviour ) and penalty ( using unwanted effects for unwanted behaviours ) .

Through these theories, it can be said that work motive has been characterized by dimensions such as interesting occupation, ability to execute, acknowledgment, equal wage, and feedback on public presentation ( Dwivedula and Bredillet, 2010 ) . However harmonizing to Meyer et Al. ( 2004 ) it is besides really of import to see differences in the psychological provinces, or mentalities that can attach to motive. Therefore, Meyer et Al. ( 2004 ) argued that motive theories developed in other countries of psychological science render a convincing instance that motive is multidimensional.

2.3.7 Adaptation-Level Theory Bowling et Al. ( 2005 ) argued that “ the adaptation-level theory ( Helson, 1948, 1964a, 1964b ) , offers one possible account for the temporal stableness of occupation satisfaction ” . Bowling explained that the theory postulates that person ‘s rating of an result is said to be a map of old experiences outcomes. For illustration, an employee who has worked for old ages without a wage rise would be expected to react positively to flush a little wage addition because this alteration in wage would be different from that person ‘s version degree, nevertheless the positive response would be impermanent as the person ‘s version degree would finally alter as the experience of the wage addition is integrated into the employee ‘s version degree ( Bowling et al. 2005 ) .

2.3.8 Self-Regulatory Theory Furthermore rather otherwise, Higgins ( 1997, 1998 ) proposed the regulative focal point theory that draw of import differences in the procedures through which persons approach pleasance and avoid hurting. Huggins proposed that persons have two types of motivational systems given by a system that regulates wagess ( publicity focal point ) and one that regulates penalties ( bar focal point ) .

Harmonizing to the writer people who operate chiefly within the publicity focal point are concerned with achievements, are reasonable towards the being or absence of wagess, follow a end attainment scheme, are more originative and are more willing to take hazards. However, people who operate within the bar focal point tend to be more concerned with responsibilities and duties and are more sensitive to the being or absence of penalties. Furthermore the regulative focal point is ascertained both by situational and chronic factors ( Higgins, 1997, 1998 ) .

2.3.9 Activation theory On the other manus Anderson ( 1976, 1983 ) came up with the activation theory whereby he argued that the strongest motivation factor is the work itself nevertheless over clip as the worker get used with the environment and learns the responses required in the insistent undertaking there may be a autumn in the activation degree or occupation stimulation.

It is of import to foreground that over clip all work tends to go insistent after the occupation has been practiced and hence a broad scope of dysfunctional and non-task activities must be pursued to countervail the autumn in the occupation stimulation degree ( Milbourn 1984 ) . Furthermore harmonizing to Milbourn ( 1984 ) , if dysfunctional activities are addressed, directors can see enriching occupations through occupation redesign to cut down humdrum at work in order to keep occupation stimulation.

2.4 Motivational patterns in Organizational environment Harmonizing to Islam and Ismail ( 2008 ) the theories mentioned continue to offer the foundation for organisation and managerial development patterns to a big extent. Along with the above theories, during the last decennary, based on employees ‘ motive many empirical surveies have been carried out ( Islam and Ismail, 2008 ) . For illustration, Bent et Al. ( 1999 ) carried out research in little nutrient fabrication concerns whereby respondents were asked to finish, utilizing a five-point Likert graduated table about how they felt motivated and so how satisfied they were with their occupations and the writers found that the grade of positive motive was high.

Harmonizing to Bent et Al. ( 1999 ) the employees were either really or reasonably motivated with their occupations, nevertheless it was of import to observe that no respondents stated that they were either really motivated or really disgruntled with their occupation. The writers besides argued that issues which are associated with single direction manner include deficiency of grasp from direction to experience for the work of employees and that there was besides hapless communicating lending to low occupation satisfaction and this contrasts with the designation by employees, of the motivation or fulfilling qualities of a good direction manner.

Furthermore VaitkuvienA- ( 2010 ) conducted research in two Swedish fabrication companies given by, the company Frilight AB and Enitor Plast AB and reported that the workers were found satisfied with the working conditions, preparation of staffs and calling chances. The writer argued that the Swedish employees were motivated and that the employees do non avoid duties and follow waies. VaitkuvienA- ( 2010 ) besides found that about all employees are stimulated with the organizing of recreational Tourss, vacations and events.

Harmonizing to the writer more than half of employees in the Sweden fabrication companies are stimulated through gifts on assorted occasions ( birthdays, vacations ) , free repasts at work, wellness insurance coverage, work, apparels, equipment, travels for the company employees, yearss off, acknowledgment and good working conditions and therefore the writer pointed out that the employees of the fabrication companies consider non-financial motive tools to be more of import.

Finally, Dwivedula and Bredillet ( 2010 ) , in line with the writers Cummings and Blumberg ( 1987 ) pointed out that surveies from the fabrication sector emphasize on the importance of supplying liberty, and skill assortment to the employees which are otherwise absent. On the other manus Adler ( 1991 ) observed and concluded that fabrication houses rely on occupation rotary motion, and voluntary occupation exchanging to actuate the employees.

Furthermore, Galia ( 2008 ) supported by Dwivedula and Bredillet ( 2010 ) reported that more late it has been observed that, in a study of 5000 fabrication i¬?rms by SESSI ( Industrial Statistics Department of the Gallic Ministry of Economics, Finance, and Industry ) , patterns such as liberty at work, inducements to advance creativeness have been widely adopted in order to actuate the workers.

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