It is caused by release of some

It is one of the most important natural host defense
mechanisms since it marshals the attack on the injurious agent and leads to
repair of the affected tissue. It is triggered when body tissues are damaged anyhow.

Most of the body defense elements are located in the blood and when body
defense cells and defense chemicals leave the blood and enter the tissue around
the injured or infected site it triggered inflammation. It is caused by release
of some chemicals from tissues and migrating cells. Most strongly implicated
are the prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes (LTs), histamine, bradykinin,
platelet-activating factor (PAF) and interleukin-1 (Vane et
al., 1987).

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Inflammation occurs in response to physical trauma, intense
heat and irritating chemicals, as well as to infection by viruses and bacteria, Hypersensitivity reactions and Tissue
necrosis. This response is essential for preventing the spread of harmful agents
to nearby tissues, disposal of cell debris and pathogens and setting the stage
for the repair process. The inflammatory
process begins with chemical “alarms”, a series of inflammatory chemicals that
are released in the extracellular fluid. Injured tissue cells, phagocytes,
lymphocytes, mast cells and blood proteins are all sources of inflammatory
mediators, the most important of which are histamine, kinins, prostaglandins,
complement, and lymphokines. Despite the fact that some of these mediators have
individual inflammatory roles also, they all promote dilation of the small
blood vessels in the near vicinity of the injury. As further blood flows into
the area, a local hyperemia (congestion with blood) occurs which accounts for
the erythema and the heat of the inflamed area.  


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