Introduction system of collective and connected computers


web pages are to address and describe the phenomenon that sees its converging
perspectives of parallel lines intertwining across the new and the old media
environments, across space and timed technological changes and their impacts on
cultural developments.

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New Media

parallel and in the context of media concepts Habermas’ statement reflects how
the term new media is a timed extension on its prior era.   Manovich
(2001, p. 19-27) enlists new media categories ‘commonly discussed under this
topic in the popular press: the Internet, Web sites, computer multimedia,
computer games, CD-ROMs and DVD, virtual reality.”  However, his
considerations focus on five principles governing the differentiations between
old and new ‘digitized’ media, presenting them according to logic.  The
two determinant principles are one of numerical representation – Database is an example, and that of
modularity – of which, Pixel is a model.
The three principles of automation, variability and transcoding are dependent
of the first two.  Important characteristic of this “new” channels of
communication is their digital content as it is spread across the technological
devices via a Mediation process, reaching across the
entire spectrum of societal interests, from business environments to politics
and economics, from academics environments of teaching and learning to research
and development.


is a system of collective and connected computers running on the browser
software called the Word Wide Web.
Internet is an infrastructure that sees its credited inception, in 1969, as a
project run by the USA’s ARPA1’s department, the (IPTO)2, lead by the psychologist and
computer scientist, Joseph Licklider, as a study of correlated on-line
computing between agency’s workstations, its groups of researchers and its
computer sites. It relied on the innovative telecommunication packet switching
transmission technology and a decentralized design created by the duo
Davies-Baran respectively. It became fully operational in 1975.
A parallel historic event, in 1970s, impacted Internet’s phenomenon, the
creative source of the grassroots movement, which encouraged joiners to
undertake social activities entailing co-operation and collaboration to achieve
a common goal, association that served as a catalyst to Network Culture. (see also Amateur Culture).

World Wide Web

World Wide Web is a hypertext based software/program, created by Sir
Berners-Lee. Oxford dictionary defines it as: ‘a system for finding information
on the Internet, in which documents are connected to other documents using
HYPERTEXT links.’ (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2015, p. 1802). It is
commonly abbreviated “WWW”3 and used
incorrectly interchangeably, with the term Internet. The World Wide Web
functions as a “virtual container” of data, be that a set of images,
text and other forms of media. Internet is a system of network(s).
Castells’ historic account traces this “information-sharing
application”‘s (2003, p.15) launch back to the 1990s when Berners-Lee,
devised in collaboration with Robert Cailliau the software through which any
information could be accessed, providing host computer was linked to the
network: “HTTP4, HTML5 and URI6 (later called URL).” (Castells,
2003, p.15). It was released on the market in August 1991and named “the World
Wide Web.” A technological event that moved to action aspiring individuals and
professionals into developing their own versions. Its greatest feature is the
flat hierarchy to information access as storage and filing of collective assets
cannot follow traditional sequential filing, being information “scattered”
across a network of servers.


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