1. 1 Traditional Malay theater in Malaya
Malaysia has located the earlier civilization in Southeast Asia which under Hinduism cultural procedure. The art of theater in the east seashore of Malay Peninsula was imported through the immigrant between Thailand and Malaya. Beside. big population of Chinese and Indian immigrated to this land for industry benefits when Malaysia was ruled by European states. The impact of European colonised and adaptation between different cultural groups can be seen through the music. dance. nutrient. and other art plants. ( Eddin. 2009. pg. 104 ) Malay theater in Malaya such as Makyong. Wayang Kulit. and Menora dance was a deceasing intangible civilization heritage which is untouchable. It might incorporate intense belief system. cognition. accomplishments. looks and individuality representation ( UNESCO ) .
Through cultural derived and cultural interface. Animism. Shamanism. Hinduism Buddhism and Islam beliefs has merged into the traditional Malay theater. They believe: 1. Invisible being such as Gods. minor divinities. devil and monsters. mastermind. liquors and so on can posses into their organic structure. 2. The unseeable being has an of import function in the theatre public presentation. 3. Good and Bad liquors ( unseeable being ) are ever-present in the environment which ever have a connexion with the human being. the spirit might be the disease causers for human being. 4. The psyche of human might be attacked or stolen by liquors with attendant ownership. failing. disease or other negative consequences. 5. The minutess with the liquors merely can be made by certain person who has the mystical cognition. 6. A religion in the map of theatrical public presentations as redresss ( Sarwar Yousof. 1992. pg. 169 ) 1. 2 Research topographic points
This research is done in Machang in Kelantan.
1. 3 Introduction of Menora
Menora besides can be called Nora Chatri/Manohra/manora. Menora is a dance theatre that had been performed actively on the both side of the Malaysian-Thai boundary line. It is chiefly found in the north Malay Peninsula ( Kedah. Pulau Pinang. and Kelantan ) and the south portion of Thailand ( Phattalung. Nakhon Sri Thammarat. Songkhla. Trang and Patani ) ( Sooi Beng. 1997 ) . Menora. the word. have many different definitions. One of the definition was derived from the name of Manohara ( half adult female. half bird ) in the Sudhana-Manohara narrative ( a heroine Jatakas narrative ) ( Ginsberg. 1957 ) . Menora is an adaptation genre which absorbs the component of Makyong and Wayang kulit with the combination of Hindu-Buddhism belief. dance. music. storytelling and shamanism component. Menora can be performed for ritual intent or strictly for amusement and both are distinguishable. In the ritual public presentation. Menora stand as a intent for carry throughing a vow to whom that are celebrated for the attainment of adulthood either as a Menora terpsichorean or person whom is non connected with the Menora. Menora ritual public presentations can besides be arranged for giving thanks to the liquors particularly during the Buddhist jubilation of Wesak. Non-ritual public presentations are chiefly performed for marrying. public carnival ( pesta ) . anniversary jubilation of temple and national jubilations ( Bee Saik. 2004. pg. 42 ) .
1. 4 The beginning of Menora
The beginning of Menora still remains in a cryptic. In Siamese community. Menora’s origin usually was said from the part of Nakhon Si Thammarat or Ligor. However. the people of Kelantan. Kedah. or south Thailand admitted that they do non cognize when and how the Menora appeared.
Harmonizing to Ghurlam Sarwar Yousof “Pangung Semar” ( 1992 ) . Menora was started from a Siamese’s myth. A King. Thau A Thit has a beautiful girl named Mesi Mala. Mesi Mala became sick and refused to eat and imbibe when she was little. However. Mesi Mala was inspired by coconut-shell drum-beating and formed a group with other kids to play the drum-beating coconut-shell. Thau A Thit was worried about Mesi Mala’s behaviour and looked for priest-doctor for remedy. The shamanist advised the male monarch to throw out Mesi Mala and her company from the land. Mesi Mala was so expelled from the land come to an island called Pulau Kacang. Mesi Mala and her company continued their calling and improved the music and dance on the island.
After several old ages. the land of Thau A Thit was infected by an unknown disease and many people die. Thau A Thit was so advised by the priest-doctor to happen “Menora” public presentation for remedy. Mesi Mala’s Menora executing company was invited to the land for public presentation. The disease was cured. The male monarch gave his royal costume. Phra Kan. to Mesi Mala to demo honest grasp. The Menora public presentation was so started from that clip to appreciate Mesi Mala’s part.
1. 5 Performance of the Menora
In a Menora public presentation. music and dance shared an of import character in conversation and enchantment session. The dance motion and the narrative relation will be accompanied by canang. serunai. geduk. cing. gedumbak. and several braces of bamboo boness. The Menora companies usually will do up by 11 or more people. out of 8 are instrumentalists and the remainders are are actor and actress. The three histrions or actress will move as the hero. diacetylmorphine. and amusing character troughout the drama. The public presentation usually takes topographic point in a bamboo-made shed so called “panggung” . The musician and terpsichorean will ‘play’ inside the “panggung” and the audience may either sit inside along the border of “panggung” or stand outside along the “panggung” to watch the public presentation ( Sooi Beng. 1997 ) . 1. 5. 1 “Buka panggung” and “Tutup panggung” ritual
Across apart the Malay Peninsula. “Buka panggung” rite is an indispensable gap rite in the traditional Malay theater. Wai Kru is the name of the gap ritual in menora. The map of the ritual is wishing to hold a safe public presentation in the dark and salute to the instructors. The company prepares flowers. Sweets. rice. pillows. betel leaves. cooked poultry and tapers in the Wai Kru offering with the belief that good spirit will be presented throughout the public presentation with flower and nutrient and bad spirit will be ward off with the turmeric rice and benzoin fume. The performing artists will idolize the Crown ( kecopong ) and believe that they will integrate supplications to Mesi Mala. Phran Bun and Phran Thep every bit good. ( Phran Bun and Phran Thep are the amusing character in Menora ) Once it has an gap rite. it must hold a shutting ritual every bit good. The public presentation will stop up by singing Sip Song Bot ( the sum-ups of 12 narratives ) which is led by guru as the completion of the public presentation. The concluding Wai Kru will be conducted for thanking the spirit that involved in the public presentation and thanking for a public presentation without catastrophe. 1. 5. 2 Enchantment session
There will be a enchantment session started after the Wai Kru. It is of import for the performing artist to acquire into enchantment to hold huge energy and assurance for the public presentation. The guru/group leader will take the intonation with the concomitant of the music. The music will travel on aloud and sharply as ownership nears. The enchantment can be seen evidently when the voluntary start agitating his/her organic structure quickly. They believe that Mesi Mala. Phran Bun and Phran Thep will possess their organic structures harmonizing to the sex medium. Mesi Mala posses into female ; Phran Bun and Phran Thep ( the amusing character ) poses into the male organic structure. The existent narrative relation will be performed right after the enchantment session ( Sarwar Yousof. 1992 ) . 1. 5. 3 Dance in Menora
The Menora dance was built up by different gestures and motions for different map such as ritual map. structural map and life map. The dance of amusement is distinguishable with the dance of the ritual. The gestures and motions are variable and free-able for amusement which harmonizing to the guru gustatory sensation but the ritual dance motion is fixed for the map of gap ( bert taa ) . shutting and supplication to the instructors ( taa wai khruu ) . The motions and gestures can be classified into four classs: 1. The imitation of animate being
2. Lotus imaginativeness motion ( taa bua thuum )
3. The life of winging or singing
4. The motion and gesture designed by the performing artists to suit into peculiar action scene ( M. I. N. D. A. 2010 )
1. 5. 4 Repertoire in Menora
The repertory of Menora was set sequence into:
1. Khab naa adult male
-Scene opening poetic vocals. These vocals will be sing by the performing artists behind the scene with the concomitant of music. The vocals ever have a natural phenomena subject. The function playing of word will give imaginativeness of the carnal action. Example of the vocals will be pleeng Yam kham yam sii. pleeng su Rhode Island Long Lap and Pleeng su thing dap ja. 2. Pleeng naa thread/naa trek
-Poetic vocals with concomitant of music without dance. The vocals are repeated American ginseng with conversation manner by the performing artist and instrumentalist. The “fingers lap” was wear by performing artists while singing merely in this session. There will be approximately 20 to 30 sorts of vocals in Pleeg naa yarn. Example of the vocals will be pleeng khun khruu. pleeng naa rak. pleeng wii lom. pleeng mua khaa. pleeng yam dik. pleeng sib niw manta. pleeng wai chau baan. pleeng tua khaa. pleeng khrau phuuk. pleeng waa and pleeng phasaa chon. 3. Pleeng rai thread/rai krek
-sing after the Pleeng naa weave with the concomitant dance and music. The function playing of word become intense comparison to Pleeng naa yarn. There will be about 50 sorts of vocals in Pleeng rai yarn. Example of the vocals will be pleeng khruu sorn and pleeng khruu Yay. 4. Pleeng check
-the vocals are difficult to be present. The vocals will hold a longer phrase and full concomitant of the instrument comparison to rai krek and naa trek. The performing artists might hold a adept technique and deeper experience to sing the Pleeng check. Example of the vocals will be pleeng sorn random-access memory. pleeng tan lacerate pathom. pleeng phrai National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. pleeng wii lom and pleeng nang hoong. 5. Pleeng tone
-The vocals are played by the instrumentalist either in modern or old authoritative Tai vocal. The vocals are played accompany by the dance. 6. Mud toh kong turf
-The vocals were created in an improvisation manner by the performing artists with the subject of recent issue. The performing artists must hold a fast and cagey thought to improvize the vocals with the subject of societal. natural phenomena. spiritual. economic system and political issue. -When come to the new coevals the vocals merely memorized and pattern by the performing artist before the shows due to miss of creativeness.
1. 5. 5 The “lakon” in Menora
The used of narratives. “lakon” were of import throughout the public presentation. The gesture and dance motion was believed derived from the “lakon” . Each of them usually will come out a great value. There are 12 “lakon” in the menora. The “lakon” will be derived and increase clip to clip through the cultural phenomena influence. These twelve narratives are: 1. Raja Phrak Sukthon
2. Sim Mam Meang
3. Anak Raja Cahaya Bulan
4. Khraie Thong
5. See Sak Hain
6. Puteri Dua Belas
7. Raja Sakti
9. Shang Thong
10. Phrak Sen Sina
11. Nang Ten On
12. Tuan Puding Mas
( Hanapi Dollah. 2010 )
1. 6 Objective
Music and dance is the merchandise of a certain civilization and it might incorporate of cognition. instruction. and cultural scene. So. the aims to near in this thesis are: 1. To happen out the musical context ( music instrument and the manner of playing ) in the Menora. 2. To happen out the dance context ( motion of the dance ) in the Menora. 3. Transcribe music of the Menora into modern notation for better apprehension. 4. To find the relationship between music and dance in Menora ( dance and self-accompaniment method ) . 5. To happen out the context of Menora in the Malay society. 1. 7 Chapter lineation
This research structured into 5 Chapters:
In this chapter. the research paper declares the basic debut of menora. the beginning of menora and the map of menora. The nonsubjective and method besides is discussed on this chapter.
In this chapter. the research paper will concentrate on the literature reappraisal with the rubric justification. Chapter 3
In this chapter. the research paper will declares more inside informations on
methodological analysis. The manner of the conducting research will be discuss in this chapter. Chapter 4
In this chapter. the research paper will stand for the analyzed informations and written text of the menora music. Chapter 5
Decision will be made in this chapter. This chapter will turn out that how the research approaches the aim. 1. 8 Significance of Study
I pick “Menora dance” as my subject because I feel that “Menora dance” is an interesting and a extremely rational public presentation art in Malaysia. It contain of ancestor’s instruction and ancestor’s narratives to learn the following coevals. It besides is a challenge for me because “Menora dance” is a deceasing art that merely existed in the northern portion of Malaysia and southern portion of Thailand. It has ritual of thanking to their instructor before executing. ritual of giving their passion into the art through vow. enchantment. 12 assortment narratives to state and learn. finger stretching dance and provocative music. 1. 9 Scope of survey
This Thesis will research on one Menora company in Kelantan merely. The menora in Kedah. Pinang. and Thailand might hold a different public presentation comparison to Menora in Kelantan. The map and “lakon” might different due to the local cultural gustatory sensation. Although the “lakon” and map are different but the music and dance context in the menora still remain the same.