Hope for a Future: The Downfalls of Rural US Indian Reservations Sample Essay

The past and current battles of Native Americans have created nonfunctional and dependent societies on tribal lands across the United States. Native Americans have a desire to populate in an independent society that can work while still keeping their long and vivacious civilization. There are many factors that must be accounted for before any stairss to break the reserves are put in topographic point. The importance of instruction on reserves is virtually nonexistent. About 70 % of Native American high school pupils will drop out before their senior twelvemonth ( Walters. 2011 ) . Child maltreatment. hapless living conditions. adolescent gestation. offense and ramped substance maltreatment are the major traps that reserves have fallen into. The riddance. or at least a lessening in these immoralities. has the possible to convey reserves to the independent and functional place they desire to be at. As a consequence of uneffective pacts and contracts between Native Americans and the US authorities. many Native American reserves face corruptness or are already to the full corrupt. Therefore. the root of the issues must be identified and given proper attending by both the US authorities and Indian functionaries.

In order to place the causes of corruptness and the traps of homicidal wickednesss on reserves. one must foremost understand the history between Native Americans and the US authorities and how the US reserve system came to be. In 1830. President Jackson signed the Indian-Removal Law get downing the reserve system in the United States. President Jackson is known as a hideously racist white supremacist and is a big ground why Native Americans are in the place they are today. Andrew Jackson is to fault for the Trail of Tears in 1836. By demanding over 16. 000 Cherokee Indians to migrate to Oklahoma or face decease. This migration took topographic point in the dead of winter and 1 out of every 4 Natives died. Next. in 1837. the US Congress passed a jurisprudence stoping all direct payments to tribes for land bought or forcibly taken by US functionaries. Rather. the money was to be put in trusts to subsequently “benefit” the folk. but in 1996. over $ 2. 4 billion in trust history minutess could non be accounted for by the Bureau of Indian Affairs ( BIA ) ( Neis. 1996 ) .

In 1885. Indian constabulary units were established by the BIA in 48 of the 60 reserves across the US. The units were paid for by the US authorities and were used for implementing BIA ordinances. Many of the police officers were either US authorities sources or assimilationists ( Neis. 1996 ) . It was non until 1924 that United States Indians were allowed to vote and do existent US citizens by the Indian Citizenship Act ( Cornell. Stephen. Kalt. 2012 ) . This was the beginning of a series of positive advancement for Native American rights. In 1964. an office of economic chance was created that gave anti-poverty financess straight to Native American tribes ( Neis. 1996 ) . This may sound like a positive promotion. but it was the farthest thing from positive. The deficiency of ordinances on this money within the folk created chances for even more corruptness within the reserve. This error went unnoticed for about 20 old ages. but by so it was excessively late. the seed of corruptness in the signifiers of money laundering and other fiscal offenses was already planted. One of the last promotions for Native folk was the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1979 ( Neis. 1996 ) .

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This stated that Indian spiritual beliefs are protected by the First Amendment. a prodigious measure for the security of Indian civilization. This twine of betterments to Native American rights was short lived and shortly could be seen as virtually useless. The creative activity of chancing on reserves can be traced to the cause of incrimination for the current degree of corruptness on reserves. In 1988. Congress passed the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( IGRA ) with the purpose of beef uping Native American economic systems. but the deficiency of limitations on these concerns was nonexistent and in bend caused one million millions of dollars of net incomes to be in the custodies of a choice few Indian functionaries. As stated by Reed ( 2011. P. 3 ) . “Gambling. like harlotry. is a societal job with ancient roots. ” The determination made by the United States to advance this societal ailment into communities already fighting with weak self-denial was irresponsible and selfish. “The chancing industry is believed to propagate or perpetuate societal ailments such as chancing dependence. bankruptcy. peculation. larceny and self-destruction. Casinos may non make these jobs straight. but they exploit people’s exposures ( Reed. 2011 ) . Indian gaming can be straight connected to an addition in intoxicant and substance maltreatment along with an addition in violent and fiscal offenses.

Alcoholism is considered a symptom of other societal. cultural. and personal jobs. The destructive nature of intoxicant and drugs among Indian persons. households and communities is inextricably interwoven into all facets of Native American lives. Alcohol contributes to 75-80 % of all self-destructions and about 90 % of all homicides on reserves ( French & A ; Horbuckle. 1980 ) . The rate of other alcohol-related discourtesies is eight times that of any other minority group in the US ( French & A ; Hornbuckle. 1980 ) . This fact entirely can turn out that Native Americans are more genetically susceptible to alcohol addiction. Alcoholism leads to more than merely social jobs. but besides is a big subscriber to hapless wellness. The top 3 causes of decease on rural reserves is cirrhosis of the liver. self-destruction. and homicide ( Gallic & A ; Hornbuckle. 1980 ) . In comparing to the top three slayers of non-reservationists. cardiovascular unwellness. malignant neoplastic disease and fatal accidents. Indian causes of decease are mostly preventable.

The reverberations of the alcohol addiction epidemic within reserves are about unfathomable. Not merely does this compulsion with spirits cause wellness defects. but it is the chief subscriber to the obscene degrees of kid maltreatment on Indian lands. As stated in an article from The New York Times. kid public assistance is a concern on all reserves. particularly rural lands. “In May of 2011. a 9-year old miss and her 7-year old brother were found dead. raped and sodomized. inside their father’s place on the reserve. a federal functionary said. By the clip their organic structures were discovered beneath a mattress. the kids may hold been dead for every bit long as three days” ( New York Times. 2012 ) . These two children’s names were Destiny and Travis. Destiny spent her life as a 9-year old kid caring for her five younger siblings while her parents were seldom in the image. I spent a summer on Spirit Lake reserve working with the kids and teens of the folk and witnessed firsthand the awful maltreatment that every kid endured.

I knew Travis. and Destiny was my day-to-day “bus buddy” on our manner to a day-to-day authorities provided tiffin. The province functionaries within North Dakota are cognizant of the nutrient insecurity of Indian households in their province and hold begun supplying one meal per twenty-four hours to any kid enrolled in school. Malnutrition. deficiency of personal hygiene. deficit of footwear and vesture. along with other basic necessities are all causes of maternal and paternal absence and selfishness. Along with parental absences. tribal authoritiess are a big ground why reserves are in the province of hurt they are. The Indian functionaries on Spirit Lake have gone to great steps to hide the utmost degrees of kid maltreatment and disregard within their land ( Gallic & A ; Hornbuckle. 1980 ) . As stated by Dr. Tilus of a governmentally funded wellness attention installation on Spirit Lake reserve he claims that he has “no assurance in tribal leading to supply safe. responsible. legal. ethical and moral services to the abused and ignored kids of the Spirit Lake Tribe” ( New York Times. 2012 ) .

North Dakota reserves are non the lone tribal lands to endure from under reported kid disregard and other opprobrious societal ailments. Renee Elsen on Hardin. Montana. Teachs Family and Consumer Sciences on a Crow reserve in the Big Sky province. Ms. Elsen has. “witnessed the godless and consciousless Acts of the Apostless of many important tribal members and their neglect to the importance of the lives they have brought into the world” ( Personal Communications. 12/9/2012 ) . And. Marnie Whitewolf of Pine Ridge reserve in South Dakota said in an interview with 20/20 that she believed “children need to be nourished and treated like a beautiful flower garden. Here. they grow up like weeds ( Walters. 2011 ) . ” The best hope for reconstructing order within tribal lands is to foster these kids. The kids are the hereafter of the Indian population of the US. Education is the chief key to raising kids who have a opportunity to alter their tribes’ hereafter for the better. but the current province of Native American instruction is pathetic.

Historically. the intent of Indian instruction was has been to ease assimilation ( Bowker. 2012 ) and it was non until 1978 that Indian kids were eventually allowed to larn their native linguistic communications within their schools ( Walters. 2011 ) . And. presently. many Indian kids suffer from racial favoritism from instructors in reserve schools. There are infinite instances of opprobrious and neglective instructors in the signifier of physical. verbal and emotional maltreatment. Native kids have confessed that a big contribute to the 70 % pupil dropout rate is uncaring and racially biased favoritism from white instructors. Native Americans have the highest dropout rate of all minority groups in the US ( Bowker. 2011 ) . The deficiency of importance placed on instruction within current Indian civilization is inconceivably low. Beside racial prejudices. many other factors play into the low graduation rates of Native American pupils.

Adolescent gestation. equal force per unit area. substance and intoxicant maltreatment. dysfunctional households. untreated mental wellness issues and problem with the jurisprudence have all contributed to a barren in Native American societies. Harmonizing to the Journal of American Indian Education published by Arizona State University. “Indians have highest birth rate of all minority groups in the state. and that American Indian households are three times more likely than Whites to populate in poverty” ( Bowker. 2011 ) . This research is relevant to about all Native American research in that poorness can be seen in every facet of Native life. Adolescent gestation is three times the national norm among tribal members. and has become the norm for immature misss ( Bowker. 2011 ) . Many immature adult females do non anticipate to graduate because there function in society is to delight work forces and procreate. How is a civilization supposed to alter for the better when their positions. beliefs and traditions have turned in a way of corruptness?

The United States Bureau of Indian Affairs believed if they merely gave Native Americans more fiscal support that jobs would “work themselves out” . but that was the farthest thing from a solution. Next. presenting revenue enhancement free chancing onto reserves was attempted. Obviously. this was an even bigger error so direct fiscal support. Tribes saw an addition in offense. substance maltreatment. dependence and poorness. Some critics have suggested that the US authorities should merely be exonerated from past favoritism to tribes and that all past pacts should be deemed illegal ( Cornell & A ; Kalt. 2012 ) . There is some ground in this thought in that it would assist to diminish the assistance reserve receive from the US and do them to go more independent and functional. but this procedure is about is impossible due to the deficiency of widespread involvement in the issue. along with the unreasonable sum of work and governmental clip would necessitate to be spent working on such a proposal.

But. no affair one’s position on the best solution. it can be agreed that folks must “break away from the one dimensional manner of doing a life ( 2012 ) ” through casinos and other types of Indian gaming. The hapless fiscal positions of reserves lead to other issues in their societies including the deficiency of importance placed on instruction. Once once more. the US authorities believed they could merely throw more unregulated money into Indian instruction systems. but this attack backfired. Corruptness within school decision makers. instructors and Indian functionaries caused the money to be spent in every other manner than instruction of reserve kids. Another obvious yesteryear solution to “aide” the hapless position of Indian instruction was assimilation ; the thought that one must “kill the Indian. but save the man” ( Walters. 2011 ) was an recognized manner of idea all through the late 1800s and into the early 1900s. This attack included rending Indian work forces. adult females and kids out of their places and puting them in assimilation schools all across the state. Assimilation is an attack that would ne’er work due to its immoral and unethical nature.

Truly there are many ways to repair this issue. but they all come down to three necessary parts: lovingness instructors and decision makers. specialized learning methods that include Native American civilization and. most significantly. a desire for alteration from the full tribal community ( Bowker. 2012 ) . The desire for alteration is a critical necessity that many Native Americans possess. but many have problem seting this desire into action due to the corruptness within their societies. Along with trouble pull offing fundss and making new concerns on reserves. plus the deficiency of importance placed on instruction. there are two other major subscribers to organizing a barren out of tribal communities. Crime. maltreatment. and hapless life conditions combined with inordinate maltreatment of intoxicant are flagitious immoralities that have besides funded to tribal “wastelands” . Some reserves have declared their lands “dry” and make non sell intoxicant on tribal lands. But. frequently times. environing towns have more than plenty spirits to travel around. On the dry Pine Ridge reserve in South Dakota. there are 4 off site spirits shops that combined sold over 4 million tins of beer a twelvemonth. This fact is evidently linked to the 17. 000 intoxicant related arrests that take topographic point yearly ( Walters. 2012 ) .

Prohibition was besides tried on reserves. but besides failed merely like it did in the remainder of the US in the 1920s. It is of import to turn to the fact that it has been scientifically proven that Native Americans are more likely to go addicted to alcohol due to their familial make-up ( Gallic & A ; Hornbuckle. 1980 ) . There is hope for a remedy. or decrease in alcohol addiction. in this fact entirely. With combined attempts between physicians. tribal governments. concerns and tribal members. there is a big possibility of non merely cut downing alcohol addiction. but in bend cut downing offense. kid maltreatment and disregard and increasing educational importance. The last major immorality that needs riddance on reserves is child maltreatment. combined with the hapless life conditions of rural Native American households. The degree of maltreatment on reserves has become such a big issue that many folks are being faced with altering their ways or losing all federal funding. Thomas F. Sullivan called on the authorities to “declare an province of emergency” on Spirit Lake reserve and non merely cut off federal support. but besides charge the tribe’s leader with child hazard charges.

This attack would extinguish food-commodity and nutritionary aid plans that many people on the reserves rely on ( Bauer. 2011 ) . Many rely on these plans because they do non hold entree to moderately priced nutrient ( Bauer. 2011 ) . Poor nutritionary importance is an issue that besides needs attending. but in order for a new. low-cost repast system to be introduced. Native households. parents in peculiar. must get down to move as healthy parents should. This includes sobering up. being involved in their children’s lives and being overall good function theoretical accounts to their family. Indian communities can get down to cut down on kid maltreatment by better monitoring maltreatment studies and modulating foster attention plans within their reserves. By puting attending on these four major countries ( making a functional and independent society. increasing educational importance. diminishing alcohol addiction and substance maltreatment along with better monitoring in respects to child maltreatment and child disregard ) . Native American folks have hope for a better hereafter.

When concentrating on troubled minority groups within the United States. it is important that their traditional civilization remain integral. Besides. history has shown us that every action must be exhaustively analyzed before put into action. Last. it is indispensable that we realize that all Native American battles are interconnected and they affect each other in an about direct manner. The debut of immoral concerns has led to an addition in immoral behaviour. including obsessional imbibing and maltreatment. which has sent Indian communities gyrating downward toward full blown devastation. Now. more than of all time. Americans in combination with their authorities. Native American folks and tribal governments must come together and repair the destructive communities we helped to make 100s of old ages ago. The power of American citizens has been displayed throughout all of history by coming together to support the greater good. In order to salvage a critical piece of this country’s history. Americans must come together now. Tribal communities need their aid.

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