Hana Whipple 4th Hour
AP World History Test Review – First Semester Exam
1. Describe the 5 main characteristics of civilization – SCAAR. What was the significance of each?
Specialized workers-skilled workers who specialize in one area.
Complex institutions- a long lasting pattern of organization in a community.
Advanced cities- the birthplaces of the first center of trade for a larger area.
Advanced technology- addition of technology innovations to existing technology.
Record keeping- method of writing to keep track of important rituals.
2. Where is the earliest evidence of humans found and how did they spread across the world? What was the importance of fire in the migration of humans?.
Africa , lake Turkana, Kenya , about 1.2 million years ago . Fire provided a source of warmth, protection, and a method for cooking food.
3.Compare and contrast the lives of women during the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras. Paleolithic era the women were mainly similar to men. They did the same work.
In the Neolithic era they started staying in one place so the women stayed at home to take care of the children.
4. What does egalitarianism mean? What was its significance in the Paleolithic era?
Egalitarianism is the belief that all people are equal in life. Equal work was distributed to both men and women.
5. Why was the surplus so important in Neolithic eras?
Agriculture allowed them to stay in one spot. Instead of moving so many times to find new land for crops.
6. Where did writing begin and what was its purpose?
Writing began in Mesopotamia around 3100BC. It’s purpose was allowing many people to write several different languages.
7. In what ways were the geography of Egypt and Mesopotamia different and what was the result? The rivers of Egypt were less controllable and occasionally overflowed and flooded the land. The rivers in Mesopotamia were more controlled and easier to work with. The rivers by Egypt caused it to be a huge vast amount of land, while Mesopotamia is guarded by the rivers, creating a type of boundaries.
8. Why did the Huang He civilization develop in isolation? What were the consequences of this isolation?
Their settlement was surrounded by mountains, meaning harder to get to. A consequence was having very limited trade. They had trade with three other river valleys, Mesopotamia, Indus, and Nile.
9. What is filial piety and how did Confucius affect government in China?
Piety is respect for one’s parents, elders, and ancestors. Confucianism taught truthfulness, generosity, respect, and diligence.
10. How did the concepts that form the basis of Hinduism come to India? What are the Vedas and what impact did they have on civilization?
It was developed from the religion that the Aryans brought to India with them in 1500 BC. The Vedas are collections of oral poetry, hymns, prayers, chants, and spells. The Vedas taught civilization new things and a new way of life.
11. Describe the technological achievements of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Buttons: made from seashell, the ruler: the oldest measuring rod (preserved), and the stepwell: set of steps leading to ponds or wells.
12. Why were animals domesticated? Why was this different in Afro Eurasia and the Americas? They were domesticated because they are raised for food, work, clothing, and medicine. Domesticated animals in the Americas upset the biological, economic, and social balance due to the introduction of disease it had.
13. What was important regarding the Austronesian migration?
It was the last phase of the great human migration that established a human presence in every habitable region on Earth.
14. Describe the differences in the outlook on life by Egyptians and Mesopotamians.
In ancient Egypt their god was considered to be very significant and couldn’t even be looked at directly it was so divine. Mesopotamia citizens didn’t consider their god to be as holy as Egypt, it was more about family for them.
15. How did Persian and Greek civilizations differ in their political organization and values?
Persia was a monarchy. But the size of the empire was small so the king could not effectively rule alone. Satraps ruled along side him. Greece was made up of independent city-states with different types of government.
16. How did democratic governments emerge in Athens and other city-states?
The Persian Wars affected the Greek city-states because they became under the leadership of Athens and never again invaded the Persian Armies.
17. What changes did Alexander’s conquests bring to conquered areas?
Led to the expansion of Greek culture into Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India.
18. Why was the Chinese empire able to take shape so quickly, while Rome took centuries?
The Chinese empire already had an effective bureaucracy, strong military, and agricultural output; along with only brief domestic repercussions. Rome took longer because they had to start from the bottom right away.
19. What internal and external factors contributed to the collapse of Rome and the Han?
The internal factors were no technological advances, tax evasion by large land owning families, tax burden, and disease epidemics. The external factors were invaders.
20. Why were centralized empires so much less prominent in India than in China? Who was the best-known Mauryan emperor and what were his rock edicts?
India’s cultural diversity made an empire less easy to construct unlike a more culturally united China. The frequency of invasions from Central Asia in comparison to China made a centralized empire less likely. Indian states made it easier unlike an all-India empire, which would be attacked easily.
21. How did the Daoist outlook differ from that of Confucianism? How did the concept of legalism shape Qin China?
Taoism focused more on individual actions rather than the education Confucianism focused on. Taoism focused on getting out of political activism while Confucianism believed that family, shapes the state government. Legalism in ancient China was a philosophical belief that human beings are more inclined to do wrong than right. The Chinese people hated legalism but were powerless against the law.
22. In what ways did Buddhism reflect Hindu traditions, and in what ways did it challenge them?
Buddhism reflected Hindu traditions in the concepts of karma and rebirth, meditation, and the hope for final release from the cycle of rebirth.
23. How did Hinduism change in response to the challenge of Buddhism?
Hinduism showed adaptability by emphasizing its mystical side.
24. What aspects of Zoroastrianism and Judaism found a place in Christianity?
Both had the aspect of believing in a god and god wanting the best for you.
25. What are the distinctive features of the Greek intellectual tradition?
Greek intellectual tradition differed from religious views and was meant to explain the world in a practical sense.
26. What was corvée labor and how did Greco-Roman slavery differ from other classical civilizations?
Corvée labor is unpaid, unfree labour. Greco-Roman slavery differed from other classical civilizations because their society depended more on slaves than other civilizations did, there were more slaves in Greco-Roman civilizations than any other, and slaves in these civilizations participated in a greater number of occupations.
27. How were Athens and Sparta different? What were the lives of women like in Athens and Sparta? Sparta was ruled by two kings, who ruled until they died or were forced out of office. Athens was ruled by archons, who were elected annually. Compared to the Spartan women Athenian women were considered unimportant. Women in Athens were classified in three different classes; slaves, citizens, and the Hetaerae. Spartan women were taught reading and writing, and also expected to protect themselves. Spartan women were depicted as warriors because of their responsibilities of owning and protecting their property.
28. Why were Christians persecuted in the Roman Empire?
Christians were persecuted for their refusal to worship the emperor.
29. Who were the scholar gentry in China? What made life difficult for peasants in China?
Scholar gentry were the civil servants of China required to perform day to day governance. Peasant life was hard due to nature, the state, and landlords.
30. What are some common elements of patriarchal societies? What event resulted in the political weakening of patriarchy in China?
Men were seen as superior to women, men had legal and property rights while most women did not, men were a part of public life while women were a part of a domestic life. Pastoral and nomadic people invaded northern China and ruled a number of the small states that had replaced the Han government.
31. What lay behind the emergence of Silk Road commerce, and what kept it going for so many years? What made silk such a highly desired commodity across Eurasia? What were the major economic, social, and cultural consequences of Silk Road commerce?
The Silk Road was used to exchange products in Eurasia. It was kept going for so long because, it had continued support from later states. Silk was a highly desired commodity across Eurasia because, it was used as currency and was a symbol of wealth.
32. What accounted for the spread of Buddhism along the Silk Road? What was the impact of disease along the Silk Roads?
Silk was associated with Buddhism and wealth, which helped promote the expansion of Buddhism. The spread of disease along the Silk Road indirectly caused the fall of the Roman Empire, but it also created the Eastern Hemisphere to become immune to these diseases.
33. What lay behind the flourishing of Indian Ocean commerce in the postclassical millennium? How was maritime trade encouraged by the unified Chinese state?
China both supplied products for and consumed the products of the Indian Ocean trading network. China also provided technological innovations including larger ships. China also encouraged maritime trading by creating and reestablishing a unified state.
34. What was the role of Swahili civilization in the world of Indian Ocean commerce?
Swahili cities provided centers that created goods from sub Saharan Africa and exchanged them for products of the Indian Ocean trading network. Merchants visited and sometimes permanently settled in Swahili cities
35. What changes did trans-Saharan trade bring to West Africa?
Construction of new and larger political structures. Islam accompanied trade, and Sudanic states created manufacturing centers
36. What caused a doubling of the population during the Tang and Song dynasties? Why are the centuries of the Tang and Song dynasties in China referred to as a “golden age?” What was the importance of canals and waterways during this time?
The population doubled because of the Song Dynasty and its economic revolution. It contained urbanization, economic specialization, and the development of a network in industrial production. It’s considered the golden age because it lasted for nearly 300 years and was a very large dynasty. The grand canal connected the Huang He and the Chang Jiang, vital routes to connect northern and southern China.
37. In what ways did women’s lives change during the Tang and Song dynasties? How was this affected by the resurgence of Confucianism? What was foot binding and what was its purpose?
Women’s lives in the Tang and Song dynasties further declined in status, their work was seen as less important. Confucianism just worsened this more. Foot binding was the binding of feet on “well-born” girls representing their freedom from manual labor.
38. Describe the Tribute System. What assumptions underlay the tribute system?.
The Chinese method of dealing with foreign lands, required payment of tribute to the Chinese emperor. Assumptions underlaying the tribute system are; that China was the “Middle Kingdom” and superior, and that it’s a way for non-Chinese authorities to acknowledge the Chinese superiority.
39. Describe Japanese political and social characteristics.
Japan’s government now consists of legislative, executive, and judicial branches. After the Second World War a constitution was drawn up. Japan is a society with strong cultural ties, and a place full of pride.
40. What is the umma and what is it based on?
The whole community of Muslims bound together by religion. It’s based on the connections in the Qur’an, where God is said to have sent to each umma its own messenger.
41. Describe Arabia before Islam. In what ways did the early history of Islam reflect its Arabian origins?
Arabia before Islam consisted of a mix of religions. Gods and goddesses were worshipped with local shrines. Islam was created on an older Arab identification of Allah with Yahweh, the Jewish High God, and Arab self-identification as children of Abraham.
42. What did the Quran expect from those who followed its teachings? What was the Hadith?
People were expected to submit to Allah as the one true God. Hadith was the record of traditions or sayings of Muhammad.
43. Describe Sharia law. What was its impact on the development of Islamic society?
The law that governs all religious, political and social aspects of Islamic law. It comes before any other forms of law that may exist.
44. Why were Arabs able to construct such a huge empire so quickly?
They accepted Christians and Jews as believers and granted second class citizenship. Hut charged a special tax to all non Muslims.
45. What is the difference between Sunni and Shia Islam?
Shia Islam believes that Ali ibn Abi Talib his cousin should’ve been the successor.
Sunni Islam believes that Abu Bakr, the father of Muhammad’s wife was the rightful successor.
46. What are Sufis? In what ways were Sufi Muslims critical of mainstream Islam?
Sufis are people who follow the mystical, deep, Sufism way of life. Sufism was critical of more scholarly and legalistic practitioners of the sharia.
47. Compare and contrast the Umayyad and Abbasid Dynasties.
Similarities: Both believed Muslim faith, in both empires, Muslims were exempt from taxes applied to non-Muslims, and both empires fell through conquest.
Differences: Women had more freedom in the Umayyad Empire, Umayyad Empire focused on developments in the Mediterranean coast while Abbasids focused on Iran and Iraq.
48. What similarities and differences can you identify in the spread of Islam to India, Anatolia, West Africa, and Spain?
Islam spread to India, Anatolia, and Spain through Islamic armies. Islam came to West Africa by Muslim traders.
49. Describe the artistic, scholastic, and scientific achievements of the Islamic Empire. Literature was a strong tradition in Arabia before Islam. Islam introduced new themes to this literature. As Islam expanded, Muslims entered regions that had artistic traditions, and they modified these. In architecture, The Great Mosque of Damascus in Syria was built over a Christian dome, mixed Byzantine architecture with Muslim ideas. In Syrian places, some architecture would have features that were Roman. The “House of Wisdom” was created so scholars gathered and translated knowledge of the world into Arabic. Algebra was created among the Islamic Empire by, Al Jabr. Along with Astrolabe, which is the measuring of angles of the sun and stars above the horizon.
50. What distinguished the early centuries of Islamic history from a similar phase in the history of Christianity and Buddhism?
Islam’s founder was a religious figure, as well as a military and political leader. From the beginning Islam had constituted itself as a state. Due to this, Islam didn’t develop as a clear separation between church and state, like Christianity and Buddhism did.
51. In what ways did Byzantium continue the patterns of the classical Roman Empire? In what ways did it diverge from those patterns?
Continuance in Byzantium’s roads, military, laws, and Christian organization. Byzantium differed with its own development of an administrative system.
52. What differences separated the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches?
Services are in different languages, Orthodox churches have a patriarch while Roman Catholic have a Pope. Orthodox churches only allow divorce under certain conditions, while Roman Catholic does not allow divorce at all.
53. In what ways was the Byzantine Empire linked to a wider world? How did links to Byzantium transform the new civilization of Kievan Rus?
It’s connected by politics and military, along with the Silk Roads. Kievan Rus used Byzantium architectural styles, along with Cyrillic alphabet.
54. In what ways was European civilization changing after 1000?
The population grew quickly, new lands were opened for cultivation, long distance trade was expanded, women found new opportunities.
55. What was the long-term impact of the Crusades on Western Europe?
Increased the popes power, increased trade between Europe and Asia, and more jobs for women.
56. How did the understanding of the relationship between reason and faith in Western Europe differ from that found in the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic world?
In Western Europe, the Roman Catholic Church was able to maintain independence from political authorities unlike the Orthodox church in Byzantine which worked with political authorities. In Western Europe there was more independence in certain areas unlike Islam and Byzantine.
57. In what ways did pastoral societies differ from their agricultural counterparts? In what ways did pastoral societies interact with their agricultural neighbors?
Pastoral societies supported smaller populations, lived in small and widely spread encampments, and offered women more opportunities. Pastoral people came together to gain money from agricultural societies through trading, or extortion.
58. What were the major steps in the rise of the Mongol Empire? What accounts for the political and military success of the Mongols?
With the use of their army they invaded and conquered the Chinese empire. Made up for small size with the help of conquered people’s joining their military forces, acquired Chinese techniques and technology, supported many religious traditions.
59. How did Mongol rule change China? How were the Mongols changed by the Chinese? The mongols united a divided China, made use of traditional Confucian rituals, which made strong political supporters like them more.
60. How did disease change the social, political, and economic aspects of European societies?
The loss of population due to diseases caused many problems. Labor shortages caused technological innovation in Europe and created more employment opportunities for women.
The plague caused disruption to trade routes to the east which, provided an opportunity for Europeans to continue their efforts to reach Asia.