The intent of this assignment is to carefully analyze the major end of H & A ; M. how motive. communicating. construction of the organisation. civilization. authorization affects making their major end. The undermentioned theories are being used to demo the advantages and the disadvantages of the company: Maslow’s hierarchy of demands. Human Relations Movement ( Hawthorne ) . scientific direction ( Taylorism ) . Herzberger’s Two-Factor Theory and Style theories. It will be discussed how H & A ; M encourages their employees to be self-motivated. makes certain to educate and portion the cognition and base on balls on the “spirit of H & A ; M” . It seems that H & A ; M is focused on handling people with regard and their desire is that the employees would affect in everyday`s activity. Social factors had a far greater impact on end product that physical status. Different positions of human nature than can be traced back in history. and that still has a great impact on how worlds are addressed. Treating employees with regard. giving them infinite to develop. to be inspired. is how H & A ; M motivates their employees. The assignment is looking at the construction of the H & A ; M as a tall administration based on horizontal distinction.
The undertaking is focused on theories and how are these applied on H & A ; M. as Maslow argues that the demands are universally and that the demands have to be satisfied. in the right order. from the underside and up but harmonizing to Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory. people has diverse motivational factors by things they make them experience good about work. The theory high spots that satisfaction is non reached unless dissatisfaction factors are gratified. Taylorism theory ignores people’s single differences. because it is seldom that people like to work in the exact same manner.
In add-on it is examined in the assignment the diverse mandate types. such as line. staff and functional governments. As for the manner theories. it is hard for one individual to merely pattern one of the three manner theories ; Democratic. Autocratic or the Individualistic leading manners. In existent life and harmonizing to the on the job force per unit area and the milieus. a type of situational based leading would be a more realistic term.
The Human Relations Movement harmonizing to Hawthorne theory is used to analyze the human factor in the administration as it focuses on the personality function in it.
1. 1 Introduction
What motivates people? How do you do people execute mundane. in a manner. where they think it is interesting to work. meanwhile the company expands and makes money? In history there have been different ways to cover with motive. One of the grounds is that there are different positions on human nature.
In the industrialisation period they focused more on the production side and the end product of human attempt. Later the type of work each employee does in Europe changed. from heavy manual labour. to a more cognition based labour. This displacement combined with different ways to near motive. has made it interesting to see how companies manage to maintain up the motive. Since the first shop opened. in 1947 in Sweden. selling merely women`s vesture H & A ; M changed dramatically in order to make the success they are merrily basking now. It took 17 old ages until the first shop opened in a foreign state. in Norway. By the twelvemonth 2000 they already reached the American continent and until the present yearss they covered 43 markets.
The assignment will non merely cover with the issue of how H & A ; M motivates and makes certain that the employees are able to execute. but besides it will be focused on the ends of the company. Another of import portion of our undertaking reveals the internal organisational construction and the manner all of the parts operate so all the mechanism named H & A ; M is working decently. 2. 1 Problem statement
How does H & A ; M behave to carry through its organisational ends? We will look at it on macro degree.
This assignment will concentrate on the organisation within the nominal boundaries. It appears in our job statement that we will concentrate on all H & A ; M’s ends. Since this assignment is limited in its size. the country of involvement will be about how the motive factors within the H & A ; M could hold an influence on how H & A ; M has chosen to construct their organisation to carry through their ends. In the organisation the ends are: Taking attention of the environment. CSR and the chase for net income. Besides how the construction within the H & A ; M organisation is organized will be taken into consideration.
A end is: A coveted province of personal businesss which an organisation efforts to recognize ( Rollinson. Derek 2008 ) 3. 1 Methodology subdivision
To reply the job statement harmonizing to the motive within H & A ; M. the theories there will be applied are: Maslow’s hierarchy of demands
Human Relations Movement ( Hawthorne )
Scientific direction ( Taylorism )
Herzberger’s Two-Factor Theory
Why these theories have been chosen. is to analyze the motivational factors within the H & A ; M. The theories will be used. where they make sense and to depict how H & A ; M creates motive for the employees. The theories. described in the assignment has been used to analyze what motivates people within the company to make their ends and to be satisfied in the environment they are working in. Maslow’s theory of demands assumes that human demands are virtually unlimited and that one set of demand is satisfied. another arises in its topographic point VII It can be visualised in hierarchal pyramid ( image 2 ) The different degrees of this theory have been investigated throughout the analyse subdivision in context of H & A ; M different activities.
Picture 2- ( World Wide Web. web log. makingitclear. com )
The Human Relations Movement harmonizing to Hawthorne theory is used to analyze the human factor in the administration. It highlights the personality function in it. The deficiency of human factor is emphasized in the administration procedure by the Scientific Management Theory. The cogency of this theory has been examined in the assignment. Style theories investigate the leader’s behavior in distinguishable state of affairss. It points out what is working in the theories. but non working in the world.
Harmonizing to Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory. people has diverse motivational factors by things they make them experience good about work. The theory high spots that satisfaction is non reached unless dissatisfaction factors are gratified. Distinct satisfaction factors has been examined.
The assignment is looking at the construction of the administration at H & A ; M such as horizontal distinction and tall administration.
In add-on is examined in the assignment the diverse mandate types as line. staff and functional governments. It shows how people are working in different mandates. In the assignment it has been attempted to explicate how the theories could be used to depict H & A ; M administration. 3. 2 Reviewing theories and theoretical accounts:
“First. as theories. they are much more descriptive than predictive” ( Rollinson. Derek 2008 ) .
The unfavorable judgment of Maslow: Maslow argues that the demands are universally and that the demands have to be satisfied. in the right order. from the underside and up. in the pyramid. This premise is non needfully true. Some people do non fulfill their demands in the order Maslow argue in his theory. If people are non cognizant of what Maslow describes as demands they need to hold fulfilled foremost. they merely see the top phase degree as the most of import. Some civilizations can even look at the sequence of the demands and non hold with Maslow. Peoples in some states focus more in the demand of security where others tend to concentrate on societal demands. Maslow indicates in his theory that some of the demands are more crude and others are advanced. This is a really rigorous manner of looking at motive. Another point against Maslow’s theory is that it has been hard to turn out in existent life with empirical surveies.
The fact that the theory rose from analyzing monkeys can sabotage the cosmopolitan statement that the theory has. The monkeys were besides captivated. which could hold had an influence on the footing rule the theory is build upon. An account to why the theory has become so widely known is. that it is simple and easy to understand. non the fact that the theory is true. The simpleness and the relaxation in the theory can besides give directors the thought that they know what motivates their employees. The unfavorable judgment is non saying that the Maslow’s hierarchy of demands is useless. merely connoting that it is merely a theory. There are merely single penchants that merely can’t be ignored.
Criticism of George Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne surveies: The unfavorable judgment focal point on the manner the surveies were made in a asperity mode.
Criticism of the manner theories: It is hard for one individual to merely pattern one of the three manner theories ; Democratic. Autocratic or the Individualistic leading manners. In existent life and harmonizing to the on the job force per unit area and the milieus. a type of situational based leading would be a more realistic term. The fire captain is likely non really democratic or laissez-faire in an exigency state of affairs.
Criticism of Taylorism: The theory ignores people’s single differences. because it is seldom that people like to work in the exact same manner. Taylorism does non take the social/human factor into history – but looks more at people as they were machines. Taylor assumed that wage was the lone motivation factor for the employees and “that efficiency required the separation of ‘thinking’ and ‘doing’ ” ( Rollinson. Derek 2008 ) .
4. 1 Analysis
Motivation is ( Heltbech. Henning 1998 ) :
4. 2 Motivation to make the fiscal ends within H & A ; M
“Our end is to increase our figure of shops. in both new and bing markets. by 10–15 % each twelvemonth. In prosecuting this growing. we want to do more sustainable manner accessible and low-cost to more people around the world” .
– Karl-Johan Persson. Chief executive officer at H & A ; M ( World Wide Web. HM. com )
The pyramid that illustrates Maslow’s hierarchy of demands. is a really used theory within motive and focal points on how demands should be fulfilled in the right order. where you in the top have the self-actualization ( Rollinson. Derek 2008 ) . For the company to hold employees at this phase. would be optimum. because this is where people release their full potency. The phase of self-actualization is besides the topographic point where people “do things that have ne’er been done before ” ( Rollinson. Derek 2008 ) . Therefore. if H & A ; M wants to obtain the growing. H & A ; M has been holding the last twosome of old ages. they must concentrate on motive and do certain that people have a batch of it. Motivation is a really important part to procure the fiscal growing and net income addition. An organisation like H & A ; M has to be nimble and really adaptable to new thoughts. They must besides hold the energy and excess to do the ends of net income. into existent money.
Now that H & A ; M has become a major company with 94. 000 employees. 2600 shops on over 40 markets ( World Wide Web. HM. com ) . it is still critical to do certain that the employees have the necessary motive. To do certain that the organisation is capable of executing harmonizing to the ends within H & A ; M. it is necessary to carry through the employees’ needs they have. This is. so that the employees’ focal point on the ends of H & A ; M. and non on other demands that first must be fulfilled. From the employees point of position self-actualization is what they strive for. The company must therefore make sure there is a lucifer between the employees’ want of self-actualization and the fiscal end of turning 10-15 % in figure of shops per twelvemonth.
The phase of self-actualization is where the company’s initiatives to actuate people and how the employees motivate themselves should run into. Since the employees basic demands must be fulfilled. before come ining the phase of self-actualization. H & A ; M must give “fair wage and working hours ” ( World Wide Web. H & A ; M. com ) . H & A ; M hopefully does this and has no limitations if employees want to fall in brotherhoods. Harmonizing to the information on their home page. it could be interpreted that H & A ; M enforce the democratic leading ( Rollinson. Derek 2008 ) . H & A ; M puts a batch of attempt in stating that employees have to take part in the experience of shopping at H & A ; M. To make so the employees must take action and duty ( www. HM. com ) . Compared to the autocratic leading method. which is a more rigorous manner of giving orders and stating people what to make. H & A ; M encourages their employees to be self-motivated. Accompanied with the many shop gaps. H & A ; M makes certain to educate and portion the cognition and base on balls on the “spirit of H & A ; M” .
Harmonizing to Taylor and how the scientific direction ( Rollinson. Derek 2008 ) is covering with employees and their public presentation. H & A ; M does non utilize this method in their shops ( World Wide Web. H & A ; M. com ) . H & A ; M seems more focussed on handling people with regard and employee engagement. This leads to George Elton Mayo who with his Hawthorne surveies lead to the: Human Relations Movement. With his surveies. he showed that “…working satisfaction is strongly dependent on informal societal factors for illustration friendliness. cooperation between group members. Second. that these societal factors had a far greater impact on end product that physical condition” ( Rollinson. Derek 2008 ) . In the line of the surveies from Mayo. we see that H & A ; M is to some extend it utilizing the theory to make a good working ambiance. and that should hopefully pay off in higher effectivity among employees. From the societal portion of position. as the Hawthorne surveies showed were of import. H & A ; M encourage people to work in squads. The teamwork should take to a greater pleasance in working with others and to work together to carry through the ends.
H & A ; M even has its ain incentive plan. where all employees are encouraged to make a long term committedness with H & A ; M. Sing the place within H & A ; M. all the employees are included in the plan. Having the head on motive. the incentive plan would give employees more attending and promote them to be themselves ( www. H & A ; M. com ) . That could give a spillover-effect towards more satisfied clients. who so hopefully would wish to shop at H & A ; M once more. This manner H & A ; M can take for the long term growing and non utilize excessively many resources on direction. but concentrate on good leading. Making the employees self-motivated and structured. H & A ; M saves money and makes the company able to “the client unbeatable value by offering manner and quality at the best price” ( World Wide Web. hectometer. com ) .
Motivation of the employees within the organisation is besides about how people outside the organisation are treated. . “86 per cent of British workers believe it is of import that their employer should be responsible to society and the environment ” ( Rollinson. Derek 2008 ) . Take the statement into consideration. even though H & A ; M is Swedish. it seems like H & A ; M follows this statement. 4. 3 Motivation within the CSR and the environment
Harmonizing to Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) companies are non merely responsible for themselves. the production and net income. but they should besides take duty for environment and society. As a consequence. the companies carry out undertakings. which are non concentrating on net income. but take attention environment and society. In instance of H & A ; M which is one of the world’s taking manner companies presented in 43 states far and broad the CSR is represented as a structured corporate construct. To carry through this end H & A ; M is strive to better the providers working conditions.
” We want to remain and make echt betterment. Our attack has allowed our providers to be more unfastened with us. and has besides increased our ability to assist them better the workplace. ” -Helena Helmersson Head of Sustainability at H & A ; M-Annual study 2011 ( World Wide Web. hectometer. com )
Harmonizing to Maslow’s Needs Theory such an purpose fulfils the degree of self-actualisation. In this reading the thrust exceeds/transcends the physiological demands and incites the employees non to be satisfied and desire to success. Maslow assumes that demands which are satisfied no longer hold a motivational consequence ( Rollinson. Derek 2008 ) .
H & A ; M makes an attempt to beef up communities as a portion of CSR. It has invested SEK 49. 5 million in assorted societal undertakings in 2011. chiefly in India and Bangladesh. In add-on the company gives contribution to disaster financess and donate big figure of garments to donate administrations. H & A ; M besides take part in long-run societal activities. for case for a 5 twelvemonth concerted plan has been taken topographic point to give kids chance to go to school and guarantee proper health care ( World Wide Web. about. hectometer. com ) . Most of activity has been taken topographic point in India and the Asiatic states. The necessities of CSR is well-illustrated by the company’s societal activities. Analyzing these procedures on organizational degrees with the usage of Maslow’s Needs Theory.
Esteem demands and self-actualisation are reached. Esteem has been achieved by guarantee valuable societal aid in different states. It increases the moral of colleagues and besides gives motive on a higher degree to put farther ends. In the visible radiation of Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory in such a degree of societal activity several incentives are presented. Thus it hits the satisfaction. Incentives for case duty. the nature of work and sense of accomplishment ( Rollinson. Derek 2008 ) : In add-on to societal duty such a powerful company as H & A ; M has to concentrate on environmental issues excessively. One the one manus it is an external demand. on the other manus H & A ; M has been made attempts to do environmental protection to an of import internal motive.
“We want to our clients to experience confident that everything they buy from us is designed. manufactured and handled with considerations for people and the environment. ” -Helena Helmersson ( World Wide Web. hectometer. com )
H & A ; M does non have mills. but alternatively purchase their garments from the providers. It follows that H & A ; M works in close corporation with the providers and makes them to maintain the footings of the Code of Conduct ( World Wide Web. about. hectometer. com ) and adhere the rigorous chemical restrictions in order to carry through the demands as H & A ; M providers. Harmonizing to Maslow’s it reach the demands of security demands as it makes the providers to be predictable. Furthermore the standardisation of working procedure creates a safe construction. H & A ; M is now harmonizing to the Textile Exchange. the world’s largest consumer of organic cotton. By 2020 all of the cotton H & A ; M uses must come from more sustainable beginnings. Organic cotton is portion of the solution every bit good as cotton grown under the Better Cotton Initiative ( BCI ) and recycled cotton. In the visible radiation of Maslow’s Theory it can carry through the self-actualization demands. The responsible company colleague purposes to believe for the hereafter as a portion of motive factor. It drives them to make their sustainability on a long tally. 4. 4 Structure
H & A ; M is a innovator in the industry of inexpensive but smart manner. If there is a web of the stores. there should be a bosom of all construction. its caput office is in Stockholm where are the chief sections for design and purchasing. finance. histories. enlargement. interior design and show. advertisement. communications. logistics. security. IT and environment are located. Structure is intended to ease accomplishing organisational ends and sing the first chart H & A ; M is a tall organisation and has a comparatively big figure of degrees in its hierarchy of authorization. Even though employee satisfaction may be lower because of the many beds of bureaucratism and because they have fewer chances to take on duties. on World Wide Web. glassdor. com the norm of satisfaction degree of ex-employees of H & A ; M is 3. 2 out of 5.
On the other manus sing the basic agreements for distinction and integrating in H & A ; M construction. utilizing the horizontal distinction it can be seen that in figure no. 1 it is presented the functional grouping. By utilizing this method merely the specializer are brought together so it is encouraged the efficient usage of resources and besides there isn`t any duplicate. The construction is easy understood by those involved as the specializer can understand each other better so the coordination in these groups in made easier.
Altough the functional ends can be put in forepart of the companies ends and the consequence can be a sub-optimal public presentation. within H & A ; M there wasn`t a seeable state of affairs like this yet.
“As organisations grow their constructions go much more vertically and horizontally differentiated. which in general footings has two opposing effects. First. clear economic advantages accrue from specialisation and formalisation. and there is highly strong grounds that larger houses adopt these rules outperform those that are more slackly structured. ” ( Child 1984 )
This takes us to the manner you really take your employees and the authorization each hierarchal degree gives you. It is widely known that if you want to make a end you should hold a rigorous vision of how are you traveling to make it. In concern universe is the same. but here comes another job. frequently you are non able to make you end on your ain. So you have to engage some people to assist. Employees may hold good thoughts and inspiration of working. but they may hold a different end in their life so you need to take your hired workers to compensate manner to your end. There comes a demand of authorization. people who are interested in your end and who can assist to make it. H & A ; M is immense organisation. that gross revenues stylish apparels in sensible monetary value.
Sing that H & A ; M is a universe broad organisation it needs to hold rigorous governments. Here every shop has same. tried construction of governments and it goes in this order Manager. Department Manager. Gross saless Advisor. Visual Merchandiser. Each of those has his/her ain country to cover and to concentrate on. In the concern universe there are three types of governments and these are named like this: 1. Line Authority
2. Staff Authority
3. Functional Authority
1: Line authorization is the power to give orders to subsidiaries. Line directors are responsible for achieving the organisational ends every bit expeditiously as possible. Production and gross revenues directors typically exercise line authorization
2: Staff authorization provides power to give advice. support. and service to line sections. Staff directors do non command others. Examples of staff authorization are found in forces. buying. technology. and finance.
3: Functional authorization is staff’s ability to originate actions within a given country of expertness. Functional Authority allows determinations to be implemented straight by the staff. In an organisation functional authorization can be found in accounting. labour etc countries.
At H & A ; M we can detect all these three types of authorization being applied because every shop has line and staff authorization in order to make companies end. to maintain path of all of the gross revenues. But each store has to have usher lines about how everything should travel on and there comes functional authorization. it gives order to both and for staff and for line authorization.
If you want to successfully lead people in the manner to assist you to make your end you have to demo the right authorization. Your authorization will be accepted merely if you fulfill the undermentioned conditions: 1. The person can understand the order being communicated. 2. The single believes the order is consistent with the intent of the organisation. 3. The single sees the order as compatible with his or her personal involvements. 4. The person is mentally and physically able to follow with the order. H & A ; M shows great success. so it must hold all authorization in the right manner. In H & A ; M every individual works as a portion of construction. non as a separate worker. The leaders and proprietors take attention of all the employees. seeking to raise rewards for workers every bit much as possible. so everybody enjoys and has a point to work better and faster. In dealingss with interior decorators H & A ; M helps them to do their presentations of new aggregations and from there come some of the benefits. for interior decorators ( it is easier to do presentations and acquire widely known ) and for H & A ; M ( more people notice them. as stylish apparels store ) . So harmonizing to this H & A ; M reaches the major end in all ways and carry throughing the workers demands. holds workers. attentions of them. has a consecutive manner to end and leads all company workers to it success.
H & A ; M has developed the mechanistic organisational design as the construction is stiff and we can see in Figure no. 1 that each person has its ain topographic point in the hierarchy but the most of import thing is that the 2nd degree is direct responsible to CEO Karl-Johan Persson. Within H & A ; M the communicating is perpendicular and the power and the cognition are at the top and the higher the role/job is the more duties and duties are attached.
5. 1 Discussion
To be motivated in your occupation. has to make with how the direction has decided to form the company. and how they treat you and the outside universe. There are different ways of looking at the human nature and that can hold an consequence on how people are treated. The different positions of human nature can be traced back in history. and has still a great impact on how worlds are addressed. We see that in politic statements on many degrees. in many countries. Treating employees with regard and giving them infinite to develop and to be inspired. is how the assignment describes H & A ; M. H & A ; M tries to actuate by giving the employees a high grade of inspiration to be self motivated. The issue is. if the unidirectional H & A ; M civilization dominates excessively much. that some employees may non be motivated. but frustrated. H & A ; M is seeking to pull off the motive of their 94. 000 employees. but H & A ; M’s attempt may non be recognized by all the employees. Since they are on many markets. their employees are likely non a homogenous group with the same attack to work.
The civilization in some of the states. H & A ; M has shops. may non believe the H & A ; M attack to bring forth motive. is the right 1. In some states they have a more autocratic attack to actuate and it can be hard to alter people’s civilization. Since motive likely is more single. than Maslow’s theory takes into consideration. H & A ; M has to do certain that all the employees accept H & A ; M’s manner of making motive. The self involvement motivational scheme can make future jobs for H & A ; M. if the motivational attacks lead by the direction. non fit with the employees. Since companies merely have this universe as the frame they can move within. they have to accommodate to what motivates their employees and clients.
Since the assignment did non let reaching the company. merely secondary beginnings has been used. A contact to the H & A ; M via qualitative or quantitative study could find if the attempt H & A ; M is making. is paying off. Equally far as how the H & A ; M is structured within the organisation. it is stated in the analysis. that H & A ; M has a mechanical design. utilizing the metaphor. The strength to construct an organisation and have this metaphor in the making. is that the organisation is more in control. But with the big focal point on motive of the employees during H & A ; M’s different enterprises. it could possibly be good to travel into a more organic construction.
6. 1 Decision
The assignment gives the chance to acquire cognize more about H & A ; M ends. motive and demands in add-on highlighted different theories to look into how is the company operating and concentrating to carry through the organisational ends. In the assignment the H & A ; M’s organizational behavior fulfils the term of basic demands harmonizing to Maslow’s theory. In add-on to H & A ; M’s CSR chases and environmental consciousness enables to make the higher degrees of the pyramid. The Maslow’s theory gives answer why self-actualisation. regard and security. basic needs to carry through are a portion of motivational factors in H & A ; M.
The implicit in construction of H & A ; M seems to be built up harmonizing to accomplish the long term ends of growing. to set up and run a valuable CSR plan and environmental duty. In conformity with the organisational theories the company seems to be able to keep the basic needs every bit good as a higher degree of personal motive in the long tally. In our survey. we found there is still a batch of infinite found to be enhanced on H & A ; M Corporate Social Responsibility. H & A ; M started on concentrate their CSR and they have to go on farther on. in order to act as a responsible company. H & A ; M should take a consideration to cut down harmful chemical emanations. Furthermore motivates the clients to purchase the organic merchandises instead than pollute the environment. There has been some unfavorable judgment against of H & A ; M’s environmental plan. The company should better the attempts in this country. Review of the organizational degree should be considered.