Grade Biology Exam Essay

Exam Review Intro to Biochemistry Types of bonding: Ionic Results from the attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or molecules. They must lose or gain electrons to become charged. For example, a sodium molecule and a chlorine molecule form an ionic bond to create sodium chloride (Nasal) Covalent Results from the sharing of one or more pairs of valence electrons to create a stable molecule.

For example, the covalent bonding of hydrogen ions creates hydrogen gas (H2O) or the covalent bonding between carbon and hydrogen can create variations of a hydrocarbon like methane (CHI) Hydrogen The attractive force between a partially positively charged hydrogen atom and a partially negative charged atom (like oxygen or nitrogen) in another molecule.

For example, in water molecules, there are many hydrogen bonds that exist which is why water has it’s unique qualities like high surface tension (refer to pig. 15 in textbook if confused) Hydrophobic Functional Groups: Functional Group Name of Compound Formula Hydroxyl Alcohols R -OH Carbonyl Leaderless Keystones R – (end) R – (middle) Carbonyl Carboxylic acids R -C=O OH

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Amino Amines Amides R-N-H NH Slothfully Tools Phosphate Organic phosphates (double bond between O and P) o R-O-P-O Alaskan (single carbon bonds) R-C-C-H Alleles (double carbon bonds) R-C=C-H Alleles (triple carbon bonds) Ester linkage


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