First goal is economic growth. Countries want to implement ways to maximize production of goods, resources, and services to fulfill the need and/or wants of its population. Building on economic growth another goal is Efficiency within the economy. Looking to now maximize resources and opportunities for the economy the government applies the goal of Full employment reducing the volume of unemployment to a state where there should be no voluntary unemployment, seeking to reduce the rate of unemployment while, creating more jobs and opportunities. Next goal would be to establish strong economic stability. Create innovated ways of maximizing those resources, services, and goods at a faster period and with less work if possible. Economic equity continues to keep a diverse nation equal and fair. It is the duty of government to keep balance among the different social classes.
Part IIV – Short Essays (10 points each)
1. Six stages of policy making, in order are: Agenda Setting, Policy Formulation, Policy legitimation, Policy implementation, Policy and program evaluation, and Policy Change
Agenda setting, and problem identification are the starting points in the policy cycle process. To achieve success in public policy, the problem must be defining and understood at a proper scale. The problem articulated by individuals and institutions such as mass media, interest groups, and various parties. Members of society will express their needs, demands, and desires. Legislators take these dissatisfactions with status quo placing issues on the agenda for deliberation.
Next is the Policy formulation this is where an approach to solving a problem is established. The development of several alternatives along with workable solutions to the issues at hand. Congress, the executive branch, the courts, and interest groups may all be involved in the formulation of a policy.
Third step being the Policy legitimation in the public policy. This is where two significant issues of the policy come into play. Now dealing with substance of the policy and process of adopting the policy. Legitimation is the official authorization of the policy decision or policy program.
Fourth step into the public policy process is the implementation of the policy. Policy implementation is the stage where programs or policies see actions like spending money, laws passed, and policies regulated to begin putting programs into effect. Institutions most often do implementation of a policy other than those that formulated and adopted its statue.
Fifth step being the Policy and program evaluation phrase of the cycle. Numerous actors evaluate the impact of policies, to see if they are solving the problems showed and carrying out their goals. Evaluation looks at costs and benefits of policies as well as their direct, indirect, short, long, and unintended effects.
Last step in the policy process is the Policy change. This is when modifications of policy goal and means considering added information or shifting political movements will occur.
During the Program and Policy Evaluation stage of the policy-making process the policy analysis will come into effect.
The five stages of the policy analysis process: Verify, define and detail the problem, establish evaluation criteria, identify alternative policies, assess alternative policies, display and distinguish among alternatives and implement, monitor, and evaluate the policy
1) Verify, define, and detail the problem- This first stage should identify clearly the problem being resolved and placing the details out there for a successful analysis
2) Establish evaluation criteria- In this step must consider cost, net benefit, effectiveness, efficiency, equity, legality, and politics. These purposes will allow someone to compare, measure and select among alternatives. This step is about setting up relevant evaluation criteria.
3) Identify alternative policies- Develop options for the policy, based from research, experiments, writing scenarios, that will help create new alternatives to reach the greatest solution.
4) Assess alternative policies- This step the writer will be finding which alternatives are better than others?
5) Display and distinguish among alternatives- Step 5 is the final stage in the policy analysis if one does not care to reestablish their decision afterwards. This stage is where the makers will tell the most desirable policy possibility given the circumstances and the evaluative criteria.
6) Implement, monitor, and evaluate the policy- Once a policy is implemented, there may still be some doubt whether the problem was resolved. This stage concerns that policies and programs be kept and watched during implementation to assure that they do not change unintentionally, and to measure the impact that they are having. Also, to reintroduce new implementations.
2. When unemployment levels increase the affects to the Federal budget can become massive. Less money is generating into the Treasury through payroll and income taxes., results in more being pulled out and spent from programs that are appointed towards low income and poverty standpoints.
3. The United States has many options to reduce its annual deficits and accumulating national debt while, building strong considerations on the economic position of the country.
First possibility is to implement a stronger tax system more taxes paid throughout the year on specific items like goods, services, and government spending to better the region of focus. Then at the end of every year during normal tax season less will have to be gave because substantial amounts where already paid. Considering, such a policy could boost the economy exponential as more people would now volunteer to pay their taxes and the increase in taxes throughout the year feels justified at the end of the year.
Another choice is to decrease discretionary spending in specific departments such as the Defense, Pharmaceutical and Alcohol industries, the country has surplus amounts. Reducing discretionary spending in ways that will not affect the overall quality of life but merely reduce the surplus amounts of weaponry, drugs, and unnecessary spending federally. This allows reducing of Federal annual deficits and accumulating national debt boosting the economic dollar to apply else were to better the country.
Federal government can also reduce entitlement spending. Decreasing the amount of federal dollars put into programs will reduce federal annual deficits and accumulating national debt. However, to counteract the backlash from those needing the assistants more interactive hands on methods need to be applied simultaneously to balance the economic growth.
4. “Social Security Administration is matching the wages and taxes paid by employees and their employers to its own records, to properly post information to each worker’s SSA account for future Social Security benefit use.” When a financing mismatch occurs, this means the supply of finance did not meet the demand or the information does not match the intended person.
Entitlement programs are programs that spend money automatically providing “individuals within poverty states are assisted with personal benefits, goods, or services,” unless Congress steps in and changes the program. There have always been several opinions about entitlement programs such as Social Security and welfare for many reasons. A few strong reasons such difference of opinions on entitlement programs like Social Security and Welfare. One indifference is many feels as an economy the effects of federal dollars spent per year create a national deficit and help contributed to why the countries financial state is at risk. Where there are those individuals who feel as if entitlement programs lift millions of individuals out of poverties and eliminating or decreasing spending can hurt those million and the economy worse. Even arguments saying such programs create the breeding grounds for discriminative actions. Arguments placed on both sides of the spectrum defending why and why not entitlement programs should exist or not. Some entitlement programs are less debatable and more favorable to the average American citizen. For example, many Americans have taken fond to the Medicare and Medicaid programs created in 1965. Both very popular in the United States these two programs helping the elderly and low-income Americans buy and support private health insurance. On the other hand, entitlement programs like Food Stamps have been argued for decades and are fond less acceptable to the p