Take Home Exam
Choose two questions
from the following:
assess the extent to which both modernization theory and dependency theory
is valid for development in the current third world countries with a reference
to Palestine. (Discuss the strengths and limitations of these theories).
yourself a development officer in an NGO in Palestine and you were
assigned to write a development project to be implemented in the
Palestinian community. Write a development strategic paper that will bring
about development in different areas (choose two different areas that you
think are of importance and why). (5-6 pages )
As a development
Officer in an NGO in Palestine, I choose 2 different areas to be developed
Justice and Rule
importance of early childhood development is that our children is the main
asset we have as Palestinian for the beginning or our success of our future as
Palestinian and the government’s intention to invest in this vital human
resource, developing services aimed at enhancing its outputs and ensuring a
rights-against-needs approach in order to achieve healthy, nurturing,
simulative and protective childhood. This developing strategy is designed to
ensure equal access of all children, families and even communities to quality,
comprehensive and sustainable care that is adaptive to the cultural context and
the specific characteristics of the Palestinian society. Interventions and
programmes include; antenatal and birth care, basic hygiene practices,
responsive care for infants, immunization, early detection of developmental
delays and disabilities, mental and physical health care, and early proper
stimulation. In nutrition, interventions include programmes on: prenatal diet
for adolescent mothers, breastfeeding, and malnutrition, multiple school
readiness interventions and pre-primary education.
child is important, enjoys comprehensive care, and full protection, in all
aspects of their growth and development within an approved legislative laws and
international support partnership.
the government’s efforts should be unified, all the stakeholders effort should
be unified, including private and NGO’s in order to develop a programme for
early childhood health, nutrition, education, and protection in compliance with
the national laws, legislations and policies that ensure safety, wellbeing and
health of all children in the State of Palestine.
equity: Ensure that all children receive equitable early childhood development
and intervention services.
Quality: Offer high quality early childhood development and intervention services.
Sustainability: Ensure sustainable delivery of quality comprehensive early childhood
development and intervention services through government’s commitment and
strengthened partnership with families and relevant services and institutions
local, regional and international NGO’s and UN agencies.
Support capacity building of service providers for families with children under
Legislation: Develop policies and regulations to support introduction of innovative
services for early childhood development and interventions.
Monitoring and evaluation: Develop a monitoring and evaluation system for early
childhood development and intervention services.
awareness of children’s right to be developed
1) No clear laws and regulations
Law income of
of poor families
finance through international donors
new schools been established
teachers been recruited and trained
to raise the awareness
attack on children
No basic laws
Law income and
poverty for families
and Rule of Law
Justice sector is the most important among other sectors and has a major effect
on Palestinians, who evaluate the performance of the state through their
relationship with its institutions in general, and through their relationship
with the institutions in Justice sector,
Justice sector had faced many difficulties and challenges, mostly due to a
number of internal and external factors. These factors hampered its development
over time. Most prominent of these factors was weak material and human
resources allocated to the Justice sector since its inception, leading to the
accumulation of many issues and increasing the judicial burden on those working
in the sector workers. Also another factor was the lack of security stability
between 2001 and 2006, whereas unabated invasions by Israeli forces of Palestinian
cities destabilized security and disrupted the work courts and executing judicial
decisions due, destroying infrastructure of ministries and security
headquarters. Another factor was the changes in the governance system of Palestinian
Authority during its transformation from presidential system to a
semi-presidential system in 2001-2006.
changes had resulted in ambiguous legislation regarding responsibilities and
powers of institutions in the Justice Sector and in a problematic relationship
among the main pillars of this sector, which had resulted from the desire to
strike a balance between the independence of the judicial authority and
responsibilities of the executive branch, in line with the complex political
reality of that period. Ultimately, this had a major effect on the ability of
the institutions to carry out their roles and their development and the rise of
the Justice Sector and improve its performance
independent Palestinian state based on justice, equality and the rule of law,
in which rights and freedoms are protected, and where everyone enjoys the
ability to access justice without discrimination.
state of Palestine will be committed to international legitimacy, international
law, the UN charter and all resolutions passed by the United Nations. The Palestinian
institutions of Justice Sector, formal and informal, in its all levels, seek to
attain a Justice Sector, which enjoys transparence, efficiency, specialization and
the ability to respond to requirements of national independence and the
establishment of Palestinian state, where citizens will live in with safety and
stability, and where respect for Constitution is ensured.
Guarantee of Rule
of Law, Human rights and Freedoms
sector institutions to perform their role effectively
Existence of a
senior supportive political will to develop the Justice Sector.
Existence of a
legislative framework regulating the Justice Sector.
Existence of a
number of competencies in the Justice Sector.
of computerized information systems
Existence of a
strategic plan for the sector
Existence of a
primary potent basic infrastructure to develop and modernize the sector
1) Multiplicity of legal systems in the State of
2) Weak alternative legal means for dispute
3) Lack of specialized human resources.
4) Poor communication among justice institutions.
5) Poor access to justice by marginalized groups
6) Weak institutional structures
7) Passing of administrative and financial
legislation on the basis of absolute centralism
donor institutions that can benefited from for implementing development
programs and activities of institutions.
awareness of the importance of the Justice Sector and its major services.
coordination and integration with private, civil society and academic
judicial and justice legislation, commensurate with requirements of
1) Israeli occupation and its practices on the ground
2) Continuous inoperativeness of the Legislative
3) Existence of conflict in some powers and
competences among institutions of the Justice Sector.
4) Irregularity in the flow of financial resources.
5) Lack of legislation to regulate management of
public institutions, according to the principle of administrative