Psychology Contributions Howard Gardner: Created the theory of multiple intelligences, which says that human beings have 8 different “sections” of intelligence. E. L. Thornier: Developed the puzzle box, used to study animal psychology and intelligence; postulated the idea of connectionist which is a proponent of learning and relates basic associations between cause and effect; developed the law of effect principle which states that events followed by satisfaction will be linked with the event and will most likely repeat when the event is repeated.
Charles Superman: Developed the theory of neural intelligence, which rationalized that intelligence is a broad cognitive ability that can be calculated. David Heckler: Created the Heckler Adult Intelligence Scale to measure intellectual ability in adults and the Heckler Intelligence Scale for Children which measures mental capacity in youths. Brock: Discovered an area which is called Brooch’s lobe in the left frontal lobe that is essential to language development. Wrinkle: Discovered what is now called the Wrinkle’s area, which is a part of the cerebral cortex related to speech.
Alfred Bines: Invented the first widely sable intelligence test, which is known today as the IQ test. Eric Erikson: Created the eight stages of psychosocial development that segments human development from infancy to adulthood. Lewis Termed: Expanded and standardized Alfred Bent’s intelligence test. Kibble-Ross: Created the five stages of grief- denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. Ernest Weber: Research led to the formation of Weeper’s law which states that a Just noticeable difference in stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the original stimulus.
Mary Insinuators: Contributed he attachment theory which describes the foundations of human relationships. Carl Jung: conceptualized extroverted (outgoing) and introverted (reserved) personalities as well as the collective unconscious which is a source of images related to everyone’s experiences here on Earth shared by all; also developed the complex which is a core pattern of emotions and thoughts in the personal conscious. Sigmund Freud: Developed the theory of the conscious and unconscious mind, the ‘d, Ego, and Superego, as well as the sex drive.
Herman Rorschach: Famous for the Rorschach inkblot test, which reflected the patient’s unconscious thoughts. Carol Gilligan: Worked on ethical community and basic relationships between humans, as well as gender connections. Stanley Amalgam: Various social experiments such as the small world experiment which examined the average path length of social networks in the U. S. Mary Cover Jones: Developed the desensitizing cure for phobias; considered the mother of behavior therapy. Abraham Moscow: Created Mascots hierarchy of needs, which was a theory organizing human needs according to priority.
H. Banishes: Discovered the forgetting curve and the spacing effect, spearheaded the study of memory. Frances Gallon: Created the first mental ability tests and questionnaires, pioneered work on the human intelligence. Benjamin Whorl: Developed the theory of linguistic relativity which states that the linguistics of a people determines their world view and makes it unique. John Locke: Influenced the Rasa theory which states that people only form their mind and ideas from birth according to the influences around them.
Alfred Adler: Founded individual psychology, developed the inferiority complex. Albert Bandeau: Originated the social learning theory and the theory of self-efficacy which is the belief in the ability to each one’s goals. James-Lange: Developed a theory named after them, the James- Lange theory, which is a theory on the foundation of emotions. Karen Horny: Founded Feminist Psychology, refuted Fraud’s theories about women, improved self- psychology. Cannon-Bard: Theory of emotion which states that emotions come from functions and stimulation of the hypothalamic structures and dorsal thalamus.
Hubble Weasel: Experiments with cats expanded the knowledge of sensory processing William Sheldon: Created compensate and constitutional psychology fields. Lawrence Goldberg: Developed the theory of stages of moral development. Clark Hull: Created the drive reduction theory. Phonies Gage: Mind still functioned despite severe brain damage and loss; however, his personality was severely changed, which provided more insight for psychologists. Ivan Pavlov: Developed classical conditioning in which conditioned stimulus comes to signal a second stimulus.
Albert Ellis: Developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy which is designed to resolve various emotional and behavioral issues and assist those afflicted. Baby Albert: Subject of classical conditioning in humans, where loud sound was associated with a rat in order to create a fear of the rat. Conrad Lorenz: One of the founders of theology, the study of animal behavior. Harry Harrow: Produced new understanding of human behavior through dependency, maternal- separation, and social seclusion research with rhesus monkeys. Simon (Solomon? Cash: Experimented with social conformity, including group pressure on individual opinions. John B. Watson: Established the school of behaviorism which concerned the observable actions of humans and animals Carl Rogers: Founder of person centered therapy which focuses on the client’s thoughts and emotions. B. F. Skinner: Invented he operant conditioning chamber to analyze animal behavior; created his own philosophy known as radical behaviorism which observes the science of behavior. Phillip Zanzibar: Conducted the Stanford prison experiment, which studied the mental effects of becoming a inmate or prison guard.
Robert Sternberg: Formed the trichina theory of intelligence that states there are three types of intelligence: continental, experiential, and practical. Chatters-Singer: Created the two-factor theory of emotion which states that emotion is both a function of outside stimuli and the mind. Gordon Laptop: Founding figure of personality psychology; one of the aerators of the Value scales NOAA Chomsky: Developed theory of universal grammar which states that the ability to learn grammar is embedded from birth.
William Wound: Father of experimental psychology, first “psychologist”; founded first laboratory for psychological research. Jean Piglet: Developed the theory of cognitive development which explores the development of human intelligence; also created genetic epistemology which is a study of the nature of knowledge. Martin Salesman: Developed the theory of learned helplessness, which is the condition of something that has learned to behave without helping itself.