setup and Methodology
3.1 Sunflower seed
The sunflower seed is the fruit
of the sunflower native to America. Sunflower oil, also known as ‘Surajmukhitel’ is a
non-volatile oil extracted from the seeds of sunflowers. There are three types
of commonly used sunflower seeds: linoleic, high oleic, and nusun developed for
Figure 3.1 of Sunflower seeds
3.2 Biodiesel Reactor
capacity biodiesel reactor is used to produce bio-diesel from sunflower seeds.The tank is filled with the
reactants for the process and then the agitator is operated for some period of
time. After the required time has completed, the content of the reactor is
drained out for further process.
3.3 Biodiesel Production:
The production of biodiesel, alkyl ester is well known. There are
three basic routes to ester production from oils and fats:
Based catalyzed transesterification of the
oil with alcohol
Direct acid catalyzed etherification of the
oil with methanol
Conversion of oil to fatty acids, and then to
alkyl ester with acid catalysis
oil/fat + 3 methanol ? 3 methyl esters + 1glycerine
Engine performance and emission
Sunflower oil is obtained by solvent extraction process. In this process
ethanol is heated in 80°C and ethanol is converted into vapor and then
condensed and then it is made to reaction with the seeds to extract oil from
theTransesterification process exchanging of the organic group R of an ester
with the organic group R of an alcohol. In this process reaction is catalyzed by use
of catalyst. In this stage the Sunflower oil is make reaction with the methanol
and catalyst. The catalyst is added to methanol so that it reacts with the oil.
In this experiment NAOH is used as the catalyst. The ratio between methanol and
oil is 5:1 and the mixture is stirred at300 rpm for 60 min.
and Glycerin separation:
When transesterification process is completed then the mixture is taken to the
separating flask and left to setting for one days. There will be two layers
formed one is the biodiesel in the top and other is Glycerin in the bottom. The
Glycerin is removal from the separating flask.
Washing: Washing is define as the obtain pure
biodiesel from Glycerin. Washing is basically done to reduce the PH value and
obtained pure biodiesel.
3.4 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:
Four cylinder 4-stroke diesel engines was used
for the study the complete technical specification and CI engine test kit used
for performance testing is given below.
3.4.: Feature of the 4 stroke, 4 Cylinder diesel engine
Rated power (H.P.)
Rated speed (rpm)
Cylinder no.a nd type
Four and four stroke
3.5 DIESEL ENGINE
3.5.1. Introduction – Four cylinder 4 stroke diesel engine is an
internal combustion engine in which compress of air only not a fuel.The
compression ratio in the cylinder is 16-24.In this system compression of air by
adiabatic condition and ignition of fuel by injection fuel on the compressed air.
In the diesel engine compression ratio is very high due to lean mixture then
highest thermal efficiency occur in diesel engine from another type of external
or internal engine.
Diesel engines are manufactured
in two stroke and four stroke versions. In two stoke diesel engine all process
carried out in two stoke of piston i.e. one revaluation of crank shaft and
infour stoke diesel engine all process carried out in four stoke of piston
i.e.tworevaluation of crank shaft in a single thermodynamic cycle. In two stoke
diesel engine smaller size flywheelused andfor given weight, two stroke engine gives twice power
compare to 4 stroke engine.Diesel engine is widely used an automobile industry. Diesel
engine is used in big vehicle like bus, locomotive engine because it’s give
Figure 3.5.1 four cylinder-
four stroke Diesel Engine
The sunflower oil become have an acid value less than one and. If acid value is
more than one, more amount of NAOH is injected to neutralize the free fatty
acids.All materials should be substantially anhydrous.
formation and frothing due to water. The resulting soaps can induce an increase
in viscosity, formation of gels and foams, and made the separation of glycerol
stoichiometric ratio for transesterification reaction requires 3mol of alcohol
and 1mol of triglyceride to yield 3mol of fatty acid ester and 1mol of
4) If molar ratios is more,
then more ester production in a less time.
transesterification process stirring is play most important role. Constant
stirring should be maintain for better result.
3.6 Experimental procedure for
determination of performance characteristics
Setup all equipment determined Brake power, Brake
Thermal efficiency, specific energy consumption, and specific fuel consumption.
Before performing actual test engine is checked for lubrication and fuel
supply. Rotating the flywheel manually and perform operation lever start the
engine. Initially engine is run on diesel fuel after use of diesel blends for
smooth running of the engine.The nozzle injection pressure is set at 180 kg/cm2.Start the engine at no load condition, then taking readings in
different load condition.Temperature will be measured by digital display on to
the engine.These processes continue done for different fuel like
diesel/biodiesel at different ratio.
3.7 Equation used for Calculation :
Brake power(BP) = (W*N/1500) KW
N is speed of engine in rpm, W is load applied in kg
Fuel consumption (FCH) = (10CC/t* Sp
Specific fuel consumption (SFCH)
= F.C.H / B.P kg / KW-hr
Brake Thermal efficiency = (B.P
* 3600)/ (F.C.H * CV)
CV = calorific value of the blend in kJ/kg F.C.H = fuel consumption in kg/hr
Brake specific energy consumption
(BSEC) = BSEC x CV
(CV= calorific value) – MJ/kg
Performance and emission characteristics:
is important to emphasize that the blend fuel and the diesel fuel that was used
as reference were evaluated under the same conditions, analyzing the performance
and emission of the fuel in varying proportion of load.The test fuels used during this
study were Sunflower Biodiesel and pure diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted
at a constant speed and varying the loads.
4.1 Fuel Properties: Compare the properties of
bended biodiesel and pure diesel oil. Property of oil is play important role in
thermal efficiency and performance and emission of engine. Viscosity of
biodiesel oil is higher than pure diesel oil. This is negative effect of
biodiesel oil. Flash point of biodiesel is higher than diesel oil. This is
positive effect of biodiesel engine.
The Fuel properties were
determined and listed in the Table-4.1
mono oxide emission: The variation of carbon mono oxideemission with respect to load is shown in
Fig.4.2. In this figure we observed that the engine emitted more carbon mono oxide
for pure diesel as compared to biodiesel blends at all loading conditions. The concentration
of carbon monoxide is decreases for the blends B20 and B100 for all loading
conditions. Thus biodiesel concentration increases, become negative effect due
to high viscosity and less increase in specific gravityin the complete
combustion process, which produces less amount of CO.
Fig 4.2 Carbon mono oxide with Varying Load
for Diesel, B100 & B20 blends
4.3Carbon di oxide emission: Figure
4.3 shows the variation in carbon di oxide for diesel and biodiesel blend B20
and B100. When the loads are increased the diesel engine emitted more Carbon
dioxide in comparison to blend diesel fuel. Carbon dioxide emission is due to
incomplete combustion of fuel and it is basically depends on engine
temperature, and Air fuel ratio.
Fig 4.3 Carbon di oxide with
Varying Load for Diesel, B100& B20 blends
4.4 Nitrogen Oxide Emission:
4.4 shows emission of nitrogen dioxide of pure diesel engine and blend diesel
B20 and B100.The NOx emission for blend B20 and B100 is more as compared to
pure Diesel engine increasing trend with respect to load. The reason behind the
situation higher average gas temperature and residence time at higher load
conditions. A reduction in the emission for all getting after adding the
ignition improve blends as compared to optimum blend was noted.
Fig 4.4 NOx with Varying
Load for Diesel, B100 & B20 blends
4.5 Brake Specific Fuel Consumption:
Figure 4.5 shows the variation in brake specific
fuel consumption (BSFC) with varying load for diesel, B20 & B100 blends. We
observed that the brake specific fuel consumption is higher than that of diesel
when the B20 and B100 blends are used in diesel engine. The BSFC of diesel
engine was slightly decreased as the engine when brake load increased. The
brake specific fuel consumption is an essential parameter by which compare the
engines and determine the fuel efficiency of engines.
Fig 4.5BSFC variation with different load
for B20, B100,& diesel.
Brake thermal efficiency:
Figure 4.6 shows the variation in the brake thermal efficiency of diesel
engine fueled with diesel, B20 and B100 blends at various load. The brake
thermal efficiency of B20 and B100 is decreasing when the blends were
increasing. The brake thermal efficiency of B20 and B100 is less than that of pure
diesel fuel at 1500 rpm constant engine speed. In this fig. we observed the
brake thermal efficiency of B100 was decreased in comparison to diesel.
Fig 4.6 Brake thermal efficiency Varying Load for Diesel, B20 & B100
A discussion of the research results and the
conclusions that have been drawn in the thesis are presented in the chapter. In this study, experiments were
conducted with a direct injection, naturally aspirated diesel engine to
investigate the performance and emission of the biodiesel and its blends
prepared from sunflower oil.Biodiesel is an ecofriendly
renewable alternative diesel fuel. In this chapter compared performance and
emission characteristics of the engine with pure diesel and blended diesel and
findthe thermal efficiency of biodiesel is slightly less compared with pure Diesel
due to presence of oxygen molecule in increasing blending.
this chapter concluded
that the use of biodiesel blends slightly increases the brake specific fuel
consumption in comparison to the diesel fuel at the same load condition. The
reason behind the situation is due to lower calorific value of bio diesel. The
CO and CO2 percentage of B20, B100 lower than diesel. This may result in lower
CO and CO2 emission with blend of biodiesel.
has many advantage high biodegradability, reduction in greenhouse gas
emissions, non-sulfur emissions, non-particulate matter pollutants, low
toxicity, and excellent lubricity and is obtained from renewable source like
vegetable oils, animal fat etc. Finally it is concluded that the biodiesel can
be used as good alternative fuel in the Diesel engine without any change to the engine.