Introduction and Research Problem
1.1 Introduction: Earthquake and Tsunami
A black temblor and tsunami struck the Indonesian state of Aceh on 26th December 2004 ( See Figure 1.1 ) . It destroyed many of the coastal colonies, go forthing about 110,000 people dead. The estimated entire impact of the calamity is IDR 41.4 billion, including the IDR 27.2 billion of damaged assets and IDR 14.2 billion of losingss to the hereafter flow of the economic system ( Hakim, 2005 ) .
The Indonesian authorities rapidly responded and created a design for rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh. The bureau specifically created to put to death this design was called the Aceh and Nias Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Board ( BRR ) .
BRR identified the really considerable demands that were portion of this Reconstruction,
“ 1 ) 116,880 lodging units were destroyed, out of a sum of 820,000. Further about 152,000 lodging units ( 19 % ) suffered harm estimated at over 50 % of their value. The harm was concentrated within a 3.2-6.4 kilometer zone along the seashore, with the brunt of the devastation impacting 80 % of the lodging stock in Kota Banda Aceh, Aceh Besar, Kota Sabang and Aceh Jaya ;
2 ) The conveyance substructure along the West Coast was mostly crippled: 2,260 Bridgess, 1,360 kilometer of local vicinity roads, 603 kilometer of arterial roads, and 654 kilometer of metropolis roads were destroyed ;
3 ) Local authorities capacity was badly impacted in affected countries, with 9 % of civil retainers killed in the catastrophe. Banda Aceh was worst affected, where casualties reached 20 % of all authorities staff ;
4 ) 2,135 schools were partly or wholly damaged and about 2,500 instruction and non-teaching staff killed by the tsunami. As a consequence, about 150,000 pupils lost their instruction installations ;
5 ) The catastrophe non merely set utmost demands on the wellness system, but reduced its ability to get by at the same clip. Over 690 infirmaries were destroyed with 1000s of wellness forces diing as a consequence of the tsunami ;
6 ) A speedy appraisal in January 2005 estimated that the entire harm and loss to the productive sectors reached US $ 1 billion, dwelling of US $ 517 million harm in the piscaries sector, US $ 225 in agribusiness, and US $ 218 in the endeavor sector. ” ( BRR and International Partners, 2006:36. )
The National Development Planning Agency ( BAPPENAS ) was appointed to make the maestro program for the rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh. By April 15, 2005, a five-year maestro program was published. The maestro program was intended to go a usher for action to retrace and rehabilitate the state.
Map of Aceh
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //e-aceh-nias.org/upload/11082006110856.pdf
1.2 Aceh Recovery
Such was the extent of the catastrophe that Aceh state needed rehabilitation and Reconstruction of about all facets of life, including houses, schools, infirmaries, mosques, roads, Bridgess, H2O supplies, airdromes, ports, authorities offices and other substructure, every bit good as psychological facets, societal facets, human resources, economic sciences and banking.
The literature on catastrophe rehabilitation and Reconstruction argues that there must be good local resources for catastrophe recovery to be effectual, frequently in concurrence with resources provided by higher degrees of authorities. For illustration, Emergency Management Australia argues that,
“ Management of catastrophe recovery services should be devolved every bit much as possible to the local degree. However, resource support will frequently be required from regional or State degrees. By keeping engagement at a local degree, community input and a capacity for disaster-affected individuals to take part in the direction of their ain recovery will be maintained. In this manner, State and regional recovery schemes, services and resources addendum and complement local enterprises instead than replacing local enterprise. The local authorization may necessitate extra direction support following a major catastrophe. This should be provided through the responsible individual, bureau or commission at State/Territory degree. ” ( Emergency Management Australia, 1996:40 )
One construction for accomplishing this local engagement is through local commissions for rehabilitation and Reconstruction, as suggested by Laquian ( 2002 ) ,
“ One of the most effectual agencies of affecting the community is through community recovery commissions. These commissions comprise representatives of authorities, private and voluntary bureaus, every bit good as local councils, cultural leaders and other representative members of an affected community. ” ( Laquian, 2002:215 )
This sort of local community engagement can, harmonizing to Paradise ( 2005 ) , lead to betterments beyond recovery,
“ Community substructure and operation may in fact improved following a catastrophe, instead than merely reinstated to old degrees. “ ( Paradise, 2005:167 )
It is clear from experience elsewhere that the engagement of the affected community is really of import for a successful catastrophe recovery procedure. A starting point for this thesis is that this was likely to be the instance in Aceh. National authorities, NGOs, giver bureaus and local authorities would happen it difficult to implement the procedures of rehabilitation and Reconstruction without the active engagement of the Acehnese community.
It was known that reconstructing substructure in Aceh would take an extended sum of clip, but the Reconstruction of the part is about more than merely physical Reconstruction, as is the experience with Reconstruction after catastrophes elsewhere in the universe ( Steinberg, 2007 ) . Those involved in Reconstruction needed to be reminded that in order to reconstruct Aceh, the cultural and societal facets of the Acehnese had to be considered. As will be shown subsequently in the thesis, this includes the strongly Muslim civilization of Aceh. On the other manus, the Acehnese demands to demo their optimism by acquiring over their heartache and traveling on with their lives. The planetary understanding for Aceh instantly following the tsunami and offered by people from many parts of the universe were used as energy to assist the Acehnese.
Post-disaster Reconstruction and rehabilitation needs a maestro program. As celebrated above, the Indonesian Government established both a maestro program and a Reconstruction bureau — BRR ( Aceh and Nias Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Board ) as the cardinal histrion in the procedure of recovery. BRR was established on April 16, 2005.
At the clip, Word Bank projections were that there could be a lessening in the growing rate of the local economic system by 14 per centum for 2006. Using the same projections, unemployment rates were expected to leap from 9.3 % in 2003 to 27.5 % for 2006. However, with the fleet Reconstruction and rehabilitation of Aceh and Nias, it was expected that many of these jobs might be mitigated ( Hakim, 2005 ) .
Because many establishments were involved within the post-disaster exigency response and rehabilitation phases, it was difficult to get exact information sing what had really been achieved. There were 11 many-sided establishments, 20 states, more than 40 NGOs and several UN bureaus that were working together and/or individually ( Transparency International, 2006 ) . Many undertakings were carried out by authorities bureaus, giver establishments, non-governmental establishments and/or the private sector. BRR acted as a coordinating bureau whose function was to guarantee transparence, answerability and velocity in the rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias.
Part of the undertaking of Reconstruction and rehabilitation is to place and implement precedence actions. BAPPENAS identified the undertakings that needed to be given precedence in Aceh. These were,
“ 1 ) Manual of land enrollment in the countries affected by the tsunami in Aceh and Nias created under the spacial planning and land policy sector ;
2 ) Customss processs at Belawan Port, Medan and ILO guide on responses to back up the recovery and Reconstruction attempts in crisis-affected countries in Indonesia implemented under the economic system and labour sector ;
3 ) Undertaking on beef uping the Camat ‘s ( Head of District ) function in the recovery through tackling village-level information under the institutional development sector ;
4 ) Aceh Emergency Response and Transitional Recovery Program under the legal and judicial establishments sectors ; and
5 ) Procedures and signifiers for the enrollment of vehicles in Banda Aceh under security, public order and resiliency sectors. ” ( BAPPENAS 2005b:66 )
1.3 Problem Statement
Given the demand for the active engagement of the local community in post-disaster recovery and the cardinal place occupied by BAPPENAS and more particularly BRR in the post-tsunami Reconstruction and rehabilitation in Aceh, it is of import to measure that existent public presentation of both the procedures and establishments involved. Local appraisals had identified both positive and negative results. For illustration, discoursing the content of Aceh and Nias rehabilitation and Reconstruction design, A’an Suryana in the Jakarta Post ( April 1, 2005 ) argued that,
“ After the exigency alleviation period, the authorities embarked on the 2nd stage of the Aceh recovery plan: rehabilitation. The rehabilitation plan was chiefly aimed at restituting and reconstructing public substructure – infirmaries, mosques and schools – that were damaged or destroyed by the tsunami, and doing them functional once more. In the 2nd stage, the authorities besides focused on repairing important societal jobs, notably those related to set down ownership. In order to do the rehabilitation plan a success, the authorities established a particular organic structure to run the plan. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono straight oversees the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Body ( BRR ) , and its central offices are in Banda Aceh. Overall, the bill of exchange design has been praised for being unfastened to engagement from Acehnese. But it has besides drawn unfavorable judgment from several quarters. ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.infid.be/tsunami_blueprint.htm. )
The Jakarta Post article besides outlined the actions being taken by the Indonesian authorities in reconstructing and Reconstruction after this catastrophe, but as the treatment identified the Reconstruction procedure ran really easy and BRR, as the chief histrion in that procedure, must take much of the duty for this. The slow advancement of the post-disaster procedures was besides identified through the writer ‘s ain personal experience. This spread between purposes and results is the focal point of the research for this thesis. The overarching job addressed by the thesis is that:
The execution of the rehabilitation and Reconstruction procedure in Aceh after the recent temblor and tsunami has non been optimum
1.4 Thesis Structure
Given this overarching job, the thesis will critically measure the rehabilitation and Reconstruction plan agreements in the metropolis of Banda Aceh and their execution. It will so identity an alternate effectual model for Reconstruction in Banda Aceh as a theoretical account for devolved planning agreements for Indonesia and other states.
The chief organic structure of the thesis first identifies the current province of cognition about affairs related to catastrophes and to post-disaster Reconstruction in the literature reappraisal in Chapter Two. Chapter Two besides identifies the constructs that are used to construction the ulterior analysis ( including the development of specific research inquiries ) and therefore forms the footing of the model developed and set out in Chapter Six.
Chapter Three describes the methods used to turn to the research inquiries. Chapter Four describes the instance survey country, Aceh, and the impact of the tsunami.
Chapter Five describes the consequences of the probe, supplying an analysis of the procedure of Reconstruction in Banda Aceh. These findings are so assessed in Chapter Six. The thesis ends with decisions and recommendations in Chapter Seven.
Overall, the survey makes a positive part to post-disaster recovery surveies in developing states, and, in peculiar, to understanding the procedures of Indonesian Reconstruction planning and direction. The thesis contributes to the underdeveloped literature refering strategic attacks to reconstruction planning and direction systems and provides a deeper apprehension of relationships between authorities organisation, post-disaster direction and the demands of good administration.
Literature Review, Concepts, and Research Questions
The aim of this chapter is to supply an overview of the literature in countries that are relevant to the research. The thesis trades with the issues of post-disaster Reconstruction confronting the metropolis of Banda Aceh after the impact of the 2004 tsunami.
The focal point of the thesis is the metropolis of Banda Aceh, within the context of the state of Aceh in Indonesia. Because of this metropolis concentrate the issues dealt with demand to be set within on post-disaster recovery in an urban countries context. As van Horen ( 2004 ) indicates, a critical constituent of this urban context is that of urban administration, which is usually performed by a municipal authorities elected ( entirely or in portion, and in whatever manner ) by the citizens in the country. In the literature, nevertheless, the construct of urban administration has now expanded beyond covering with the function of municipal authoritiess to besides include the functions of the private sector and civil society ( Minnery, 2007 ) .
Van Horen ( 2004:4 ) draws attending to the importance of a relocation program, using the assorted assets he describes. The relocation program should be seen as both portion of the immediate alleviation phase after a catastrophe and as portion of ongoing Reconstruction and development.
Chapter Two therefore is a reappraisal of the relevant literature, taking to the development of research inquiries that build on the research job identified in Chapter One. The reappraisal starts with an overview of the literature on catastrophes and catastrophe direction, including the of import constructs of pre- and post-disaster planning. It so focuses more closely on a series of subjects that have been shown to be of importance for post-disaster recovery and Reconstruction. These include:
Strategic Planning of Post Disaster Recovery ;
Community-based Disaster Management ;
Good Administration in Post-Disaster Recovery ; and
Coordination and Communication in Post Disaster Recovery.
Discussion about catastrophes starts with an analysis of this construct. A definition of a catastrophe is proposed by Goel ( 2006:3 ) suggesting that the catastrophe is related to:
Break to normal life forms, including that this break could go on all of a sudden, out of the blue and with far-reaching effects so that it may do human existences to be in conditions of “ daze ” for a long clip ;
Its consequence in human existences such as loss of life, loss of beginnings of support, and belongings harm, plus agony and other effects which may harm people physically and mentally ;
Its effects on the societal support constructions such as devastation or harm of substructure, communicating and other critical services, doing life perturbation and scarceness of resources ;
This consequences in people necessitating shelter, nutrient, vesture, medical alleviation and societal attention.
Further, Turner in Goel ( 2006:5 ) provides a more directapproach, stating that a catastrophe can be defined as an happening, focused in infinite and clip. Sing the definitions above it is clear that a catastrophe is something that occurs all of a sudden, and it is hard to foretell accurately when it willhappen. Disasters brings extraordinary impacts and effects on worlds, with ensuing impacts such as loss of life, harm to belongings, loss of beginnings of income, every bit good as psychological impact in the signifier of drawn-out injury. Sing the immense impact caused by a catastrophe so comprehensive catastrophe direction it required.
Another position sees a catastrophe as the intersection between jeopardies and exposure. The catastrophe normally refers to natural happenings such as storms or temblors which result in harm such as loss of life or harm to edifices. ‘Hazards ‘ relate to natural happenings and ‘vulnerability ‘ is related to failing of a population or system such as infirmaries, H2O supply and sewerage disposal systems or other facets of substructure. Vulnerability relates to the sensitiveness of populations and their supporting substructure to the impact of jeopardies. The grade of chance that a certain system or population would be affected by a jeopardy is known as the ‘risk ‘ . Therefore, the possible impact of a catastrophe is a map of the exposure of the population and the hazard of the jeopardy ( Goel, 2006:14 ) .
From the above definition, the relationships among jeopardy, exposure and catastrophe can be shown as follows:
Correlation between Disaster, Hazard and Vulnerability
Beginning: Anwar, H.Z et Al. ( 2008:4 )
The relationship among catastrophe, jeopardy and exposure is described by John in Goel ( 2006:5 ) suggesting that “ … . The jeopardy is felt as a natural happening endangering life and belongingss… .disaster is a manifestation of this jeopardy… .. ” .
2.3 Disaster Management
Disaster direction is a comparatively new survey in direction. The thought of “ catastrophe direction ” can be approached from a scope of positions. One important facet is the fact that catastrophe direction as something that extends in clip to both before and after a catastrophe. For illustration, the University of Wisconsin high spots this wide attack to the term:
“ The term ‘disaster direction ‘ encompasses the complete kingdom of disaster-related activities. Traditionally people tend to believe of catastrophe direction merely in footings of the post-disaster actions taken by alleviation and Reconstruction functionaries ; yet catastrophe direction covers a much broader range, and many modern catastrophe directors may happen themselves far more involved in pre-disaster activities than in post-disaster responses. ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //epdfiles.engr.wisc.edu/dmcweb/AA02AimansScopeofDisasterManagement.pdf. )
The construct of catastrophe direction as something that extends to pre-disaster and post-disaster activities is supported by two bookmans, Yodmani ( 2005 ) and Kent ( 1994 ) .Yodmani ( 2005:24 ) specifically includes within the thought of catastrophe direction the procedures of fixing in progress for any catastrophe that might go on in the hereafter. Yodmani suggests that catastrophe direction includes pre-disaster planning, which has,
“ … ..three phases: catastrophe bar, extenuation, and readiness. Disaster Prevention is an action which is taken to extinguish or avoid harmful natural phenomena and their effects. Examples of bar include cloud seeding to command meteoric forms, pest control to forestall locust droves, or hard-on of dikes or levees to forestall implosion therapy. Mitigation is an action that is taken to cut down both human agony and belongings loss ensuing from utmost natural phenomena. Measures include signifiers of land-use planning, improved disaster-resistant edifice techniques, and better agricultural patterns. ” ( Yodmani, 2005:25 )
Kent besides highlights the demand to see pre-disaster readiness and hazards. He says that,
“ Readiness encompasses those actions taken to restrict the impact of natural phenomena by structuring responses and set uping a mechanism for impacting a speedy and orderly reaction. Preparedness activities could include pre-positioning supplies and equipment ; developing exigency action programs, manuals, and processs ; developing warning systems every bit good as emptying, and sheltering programs ; beef uping or otherwise protecting critical installations ; etc. Preparedness besides involves measuring hazard. Hazard is the comparative grade of chance that a risky event will happen. An active mistake zone, for illustration, would be in an country of high hazard. ” ( Kent 1994: 20 )
This attack to disaster direction has come to be called the PPRR procedure ( Emergency Management Australia, 2004 ) . The four PPRR phases are ‘prevention/ extenuation ‘ , ‘preparedness ‘ , ‘response ‘ and ‘recovery ‘ .
It has long been recognised that recovery is non merely about Reconstruction of substructure or Restoration of concern services, but involves cut downing possible hazard, prosecuting in readiness and heightening catastrophe resiliency. Families, schools and communities are cardinal stakeholders from a grassroots position to include in the development of any ‘recovery program ‘ in order to accomplish a corporate part to covering with the desolation and devastation of catastrophes. The recovery period offers an chance to beef up local organisational capacity to ease economic, societal, and physical development long after the catastrophe and so cut down exposure to future catastrophes ( Berke et al. , 1993 ) .
In turn toing both pre-disaster planning and post-disaster rehabilitation and Reconstruction it is of import to to the full take into history the beliefs and values of the local population. These values can hold a strong impact. For illustration, the survey by Paradise ( 2005 ) in Agadir, Morocco, showed that in this strongly Moslem community attitudes to temblors and the planning for possible hereafter temblors were influenced by the attack to earthquakes in the Qur’an. He notes that, “ Under Islam like in other faiths, religion can act upon perceptual experiences more frequently than experience. ” ( p. 168 )
Aceh has a strong and ancient Moslem tradition. The bulk of the population is Moslem. There are, therefore, many people who believe that natural catastrophes, particularly temblors, are a punishment from Allah for past evil actions. There have been many instances of public corruptness in Aceh in the yesteryear. Deforestation and devastation of nature militias and national Parkss throughout Indonesia is driven by greed. There have been sexual dirts and dishonesty affecting public figures, so the belief has arisen amongst some in the community that the catastrophe the state suffered was a effect of these human actions. This belief should be taken into history throughout the rehabilitation and Reconstruction procedure. The belief is that, without losing the function of Allah Almighty God, worlds have become the chief factor in the prostration of nature and civilisations and that the fate of worlds flows from their attempts either to better their life or non to make so ( Fachruddin, 1981:27 ) .
Cuny et Al. ( 1984:21 ) argued decennaries ago that “ … in covering with natural jeopardies, the huge bulk of catastrophe direction activities are related to development undertakings ; merely a little part are related to exigency response ” . Thus catastrophe direction needs to be a constituent of general development planning, or at least the planning of development undertakings, instead than being seen as merely a response to natural catastrophes. Like other facets of development be aftering it should include a acknowledgment of community values. As will be discussed below, catastrophe planning must see all facets of exposure and community resiliency. Vulnerability is frequently high in developing parts ( as was the instance in Aceh ) .
Cuny et Al. ‘s ( 1984 ) attack stems from theirwide definition of catastrophe direction: “ catastrophe direction can be defined as the scope of activities designed to keep control over catastrophe and exigency state of affairss and to supply a model for assisting at-risk individuals to avoid or retrieve from the impact of the catastrophe ” ( p. 14 ) .
From a similar position, Olshansky ( 2006:153 ) noted the connexions between post-disaster recovery and urban planning. He argued that is a critical map of the contriver. Rapid action must take under utmost fortunes and this requires the expertness that contrivers have to offer. He argued that contrivers play a cardinal function in the recovery procedure. Olshansky argued that,
“ To win, we must larn from catastrophes of the past, while besides using the planning cognition of the present. From past catastrophes, we know that successful Reconstruction requires both outside support and local citizen engagement. As contrivers, we know that the procedures should be rich in informations, imaginativeness, communicating, and engagement. Planners have an duty to take an active function and advocator for the support and full engagement necessary to accomplish these ends. ” ( p.153 )
However, attention demands to be taken in pulling lessons from other topographic points. Some may supply merely limited lessons because of the difference of the systems involved. Olshansky, for illustration, notes that some catastrophes provide merely limited lessons for the current state of affairs, because they occurred at a clip when “ the economic, technological, and governmental systems differed significantly from those of today. ” ( p.158 ) . Similar to Olshansky ‘s position, Burkle ( 2006:258 ) notes that “ Every state has some response capablenesss but no state has a perfect system, particularly where large-scale menaces challenge the unity of the public wellness and security setup. ”
Therefore, post-disaster recovery must be seen in the context of the scope of activities that should happen both before and after the catastrophe itself, and the lessons applied to any catastrophe direction state of affairs should take into history the different contexts in which catastrophes occur. The attack taken in this thesis is to recognize this context, but concentrate on the post-disaster response and recovery stages in Banda Aceh. The recovery stage is seen as the least investigated and most ill understood of the four stages of a catastrophe – prevention/ extenuation, readiness, response and recovery ( Drabek, 1986 ; Rubin, 1991 ) . Recovery after the 2004 tsunami needed to include readiness for the hereafter, nevertheless, as Banda Aceh is still vulnerable to future catastrophes, so the thesis will integrate analysis of the local planning context. Disaster direction is related to direction of all activities and actions which should be conducted before and after the catastrophe. Therefore, understanding the full catastrophe direction rhythm becomes really of import. Carter ( 1991:52 ) developed a catastrophe direction rhythm in two formats, viz. a basic format and an alternate format as follows:
Basic Format of Disaster Management
Beginning: W. Nick Carter, Disaster Management, A Disaster Managers Handbook, Asian Development Bank, Manila ( 1991:92 ) .
From the above figure we can understand that the catastrophe direction rhythm in its basic format harmonizing to Carter is divided into 7 ( seven ) stages viz. : ( 1 ) bar ; ( 2 ) extenuation ; ( 3 ) readiness ; ( 4 ) catastrophe impact ; ( 5 ) response ; ( 6 ) recovery, and ( 7 ) development.
Further, Carter besides says that the catastrophe direction rhythm can be simplified in an alternate format with major phases of readiness, response and recovery as follows:
Alternate Format of Disaster Management Cycle
Beginning: W. Nick Carter, Disaster Management, a Catastrophe Managers Handbook, Asian Development Bank, Manila ( 1991:52 ) .
The figure shows that the different phases in the catastrophe direction rhythm imply differences in actions and histrions involved. This is because of the altering conditions that apply at each phase. In this research, the author will concentrate on the Reconstruction stage of the catastrophe rhythm, although every bit is emphasized in treatment about the catastrophe rhythm it is frequently hard to make clear boundaries between one phase and the following, so that the thesis will include some treatment of what Carter calls ‘restoration ‘ ( 1991: 52 ) .
Some surveies, among them Kilby ( 2007:121 ) suggest the combination of engagement of both governmental, and non-governmental organisations, every bit good as enterprises from communities in reacting to catastrophe. The Reconstruction period normally involves big Numberss of histrions. It frequently besides involves big Numberss of organisations and persons, both local and international, covering with the direction of really big volumes of financess. The Reconstruction stage of catastrophe direction is peculiarly of import for a figure of other grounds. In add-on, Carter ( 1991:297 ) identifies the function and policies of cardinal authorities in managing jobs faced in this stage as a critical characteristic, in add-on to the obstructions of limited clip and resources. Therefore, Reconstruction becomes a peculiarly of import stage of the catastrophe direction rhythm. This current research intends to research issues such as the coordination among histrions in the stage of post-disaster Reconstruction.
In general, catastrophes result in a alteration of conditions from normal to abnormal. This affects dimensions of ( urban ) direction in general and the pattern of catastrophe direction. This dimension can be seen in comparing normal conditions ( those of mundane pattern ) with catastrophe conditions. In these changed conditions the application of practical direction constructions and attacks arealso different ( Mirza 2007:16 ) . Differences can be seen in the handiness of resources, available clip, the general state of affairs and conditions, in the nature of the space/place and in the nature of actions. The dimensional differences can be seen in the tabular array below:
Difference between Practical Management and Disaster Management
Free and limitless
Particular and limited
Situation and status
Abnormal ( exigency )
Planned and programmed
Short, immediate, pressing
Feasible and organized
Not executable and disorganised
Nature of action
Reactive and antiphonal
Beginning: Mirza ( 2007:72 )
The tabular array shows the differences between catastrophe direction and practical direction. These important differences make it of import that catastrophe direction is discussed as something different to ordinary practical direction. Here it is obvious that the unnatural state of affairs and unusual conditions extremely influence execution of direction in catastrophe conditions.
The focal point on these differences demands to be tempered by the fact that catastrophes are nil new in Indonesia, including in Aceh. Disaster happening is like an one-year modus operandi docket, traveling from one topographic point to another. Unfortunately, despite this the authorities and the assorted histrions in catastrophe handling seem unable to take lessons from them, so the errors are made once more and once more. However, the treatment on the catastrophe direction rhythm above implies that direction bureaus should larn from past catastrophes, and particularly that readiness and preventive activities in relation to future possible catastrophes are of import elements of larning from past catastrophes. The analysis in ulterior chapters will research the state of affairs in Banda Aceh.
2.3.1 Institutionalization for Disaster Management
Institutional facets are really of import in the direction of catastrophes. This is because in a crisis status caused by a catastrophe, unnatural conditions are applicable, where reactivity and velocity of action are required. On the other manus, the paradigm of catastrophe direction is besides sing a important alteration: from exigency response to put on the line decrease, from fatalistic-reactive to planned-proactive, from centralized to decentralized and from authorities centric to participative ( Kumorotomo and Purwanto, 2007 ) . This paradigm displacement requires the authorities to alter its paradigm of the manner it manages catastrophes. This alteration is expected to be able to assist get the better of uneffective catastrophe response in Indonesia. In respect to institutional agreements there are some institutional standards that must be considered to back up this altering attack to disaster direction. As described by the Team of Public Administration Master Gadjah Mada University ( 2006: page1 ) , these are:
1. Comprehensive: institutional agreements should enable the catastrophe managing direction system to travel from being merely an exigency response attack to disaster hazard direction covering all its stages and phases.
2. Integrated: given the complex range of catastrophe managing direction, the proposed institutional agreements should be able to suit the authorizations, involvements and parts of assorted stakeholders so that it becomes a multidisciplinary and
multi-sectoral integrity beyond ego-sectoral splitters.
3. Community engagement: institutional agreement should incarnate the aspirations of the community. Equally far as possible these aspirations should be identified through direct engagement instead than through representation. Engagement should non be simply symbolic.
4. Strengthening the part: in conformity with spirit of regional liberty, so the institutional agreements should enable catastrophe direction execution relevant to the part. This means that local authoritiess should be able to retroflex or utilize these institutional agreements in the part and explicate their authorizations, governments, duties and resources into
the proposed agreements.
5. Quick response: the people demand of the authorities that the system is speedy and antiphonal to disaster exigency events. Thus, institutional agreements should let speedy action, which is antiphonal to disaster exigencies.
6. Accountability: catastrophe managing direction institutional agreements should incarnate the authorities ‘s duty to carry through the people ‘s rights for protection from injury, including from catastrophe. In making this, the agreements should supply a decision-making way that can be traced and so embodies answerability and leads to fulfilment of constitutional duty of the authorities.
Whilst proactive actions to cut down the hazards posed by jeopardies in the hereafter are of import, the institutionalization of catastrophe handling should be able to set up clear mechanisms and processs in order that impacts do non impact catastrophe victims excessively long. The characteristics identified above supply some of the overarching rules that should be incorporated. But institutional agreements are besides of import at the operational degree. Covering with the importance of catastrophe managing institutionalization at this latter degree, Dwiyanto ( 2006:37 ) suggests the demand to regenerate catastrophe managing direction establishments. Thingss to be considered are that ( 1 ) Catastrophe managing direction should be conducted institutionally and managed professionally by professionals working full clip ; ( 2 ) Agreements of dealingss refering function sharing and coordination among the authorities degrees ( cardinal, provincial, and regency/municipality ) demand to be carefully thought out and set in topographic point ; and ( 3 ) agreements of dealingss among authoritiess, catastrophe managing direction organic structures and parties which are concerned with the catastrophe besides need to be made.
Furthermore Dwiyanto ( 2006:41 ) argues that the national and local contexts are of import in puting the organisational construction for appropriate catastrophe handling in a part or a state. The construction needs to take into history the cardinal affairs as follows:
“ 1. Physical and geographical conditions of a state. For illustration, the distance can go an of import factor, as an archipelagic state.
2. Naturally range and strength of menace of catastrophe and the extent of demands to turn to this in commissariats of catastrophe direction.
3. Some official counsels issued by the authorities refering catastrophe direction. For illustration, ordinances and policies sing the catastrophe.
4. Broad construct is needed to depict the range of activities that can be handled by organisational construction. For illustration, whether it covers all facets of catastrophe direction rhythm or merely some parts merely.
5. In the same manner, a common definition demands to be made from governmental constructions level what that will underlie chief portion of the construction.
6. General appraisal should besides be made of the demand, value and practicality of decentalisation. For illustration, effectual decentalisation is a valuable plus if the chief portion of the organisation can non play function due to impacts of the catastrophe. ”
Further, it is necessary to find which will be the cardinal degree of authorities in turn uping catastrophe direction organisations. The difference will be seen in little and big states. This is because the coverage country of the state that allows it to be handled nationally. Meanwhile, for big states may be better to utilize the national, regional or provincial, and local degrees within the catastrophe direction organisation. This is because the degrees are day-to-day activities of authorities. In fact, where the country and distances are big it may non be possible to form or transport out catastrophe response activities countrywide. In this manner, catastrophe direction can be seen as parallel to wider development procedures, which can be centralized or decentralized. Because of the demand for local engagement and the sharing of duties identified in the treatment above local capacity becomes an of import consideration.
In fact, local institutional capacity edifice is important to guarantee the long-run continuity of any development procedure. Healey ( 1998:31 ) notes that,
“ Institutional capacity can be understood to consist of three dimensions of cognition resources, relational resources, and capacity for mobilisation, all of which are interrelated and reciprocally supportive ” .
A brief amplification on these dimensions of institutional capacity will assist supply a model for the analysis that is portion of the instance survey. In any development procedure, it is necessary to be able to mobilise resources such as support, equipment, and people in order to consequence betterments in material quality of life. The application of cognition resources and relational resources shapes the capacity to mobilise public sector decision-makers to supply material resources, but more significantly to construct the healthy societal and economic base that is necessary to ‘drive ‘ on-going development.
Kenny ( 2007:36 ) characterised “ the post-tsunami capacity edifice in Aceh as being of three types: as community development ; as skilling and preparation ; and as Reconstruction ( the rebuilding of capacity without reassigning preparation or accomplishments ) ” . Yet the Director of BRR, the Aceh Reconstruction authorization, made a point that its aims did non include such long term purposes as constructing the capacity of local authorities ( AFP, 2007 ) . ‘Capacity constructing ‘ can intend many different things to different people. Kenny ( 2007 ) makes the point that people in Aceh merely regarded what she characterised as the community development type attack to capacity edifice as true capacity edifice. However, one of the types of capacity edifice that Kenny claims was devalued ( skill transportation at the local degree ) was found to be one of the most effectual agencies of capacity edifice in an ADB survey of Sri Lanka ( ADB, 2006 ) .
In a more general sense, Healey ( 1998:22 ) produced a model for institutional capacity edifice utilizing five classs. The five categorizes of Healey ‘s model for institutional capacity edifice can be seen briefly in Appendix 22.
Supporting Healey ‘s model, Van Horen ( 2004:24 ) links institutional capacity edifice to the edifice of wider community capacity in a development context. The ingredients and the links between community capacity and institutional capacity can be seen in the figure of Appendix 21. Van Horen ( 2005:1 ) argues that institutional capacity is required for the ongoing care of community capacity, when he says that,
“ Institutional capacity edifice was the key to successful Reconstruction and development but some authorities functionaries had ne’er heard of the methodological analysis… … … … … If institutional capacity is built up, this puts in topographic point the ingredients that are necessary to guarantee that the long-run betterment procedure will go on. If institutional capacity is non built, it is merely a affair of clip before services begin to deteriorate and the community is no better off than they were before the intercession began ” .
Van Horen ( 2004: 19-22 ) describes five sorts of community plus that are required straight for urban upgrading and, he argues, besides for wider development. These are physical assets ( p. 19 ) , natural assets ( p. 19 ) , human capital ( pp. 19-20 ) , relational capital ( p. 20 ) and economic assets ( pp. 21-22 ) . As celebrated, he besides argues strongly that reform of the institutional or administration model is needed to back up the long-run care of capacity built up through the development of these five signifiers of plus ( pp. 22-25 ) . Get downing from van Horen ‘s ( 2004 ) treatment, consideration of these signifiers of community plus has been extended and modified as the footing for the treatment in this thesis, reassigning them from treatment about urban upgrading to do them allow for application to disaster direction.
Physical assets include chiefly substructure, which consists of clean H2O, waste direction, cloacas, roads, electricity, instruction and wellness installations and other public installations that involve the community. It should be noted that community engagement in relation to substructure concerned with catastrophe direction is non merely limited to work forces but besides includes engagement by adult females. Their engagement in the activities of community organisations is intended to supply supervising of the substructure development concerned. This supervising is undertaken to run into the desires and outlooks of occupants. Ultimately if this desire is achieved so the quality of community life will besides be better. Activities of substructure development will besides absorb much labor from within the community itself. This will so increase community incomes and so assist in run intoing peoples ‘ day-to-day demands.
The instance of re-housing people affected by catastrophes provides a utile illustration of the importance of physical assets and community engagement, before the catastrophe strikes the wealth and supports of families within the community may change well. But after a serious catastrophe they all need new places because they have nowhere to populate any longer. Some people may non desire to construct a house in the same location because of possible hereafter catastrophes ( and in some instances governments may forbid reconstructing in the same topographic point so as to cut down future hazards ) . If this is the instance they need other options. But wherever communities are re-housed, substructure demands to be provided. Communities should be involved in the planning and rebuilding of lodging. If possible they should be able to work as labourers in the building of the houses so that they have an income. In other words, physical assets such as substructure and lodging are critical to post-disaster communities and there are a figure of ways that community members can be involved in their proviso.
As van Horen ( 2004: 19 ) notes natural environmental assets are frequently ignored in upgrading and renovation but they are still of import. The rehabilitation of Rhizophora mangle trees, which can assist cut down the impact of storm rush and implosion therapy, is one illustration of constructing natural assets relevant to natural catastrophes. Enhancing natural assets includes preserving elements of the natural environment that still survive after a catastrophe, supplying information to the populace on the importance of continuing the environment, and supervising environmental conditions.
Constructing human capital includes bettering cognition and accomplishments, every bit good as bettering wellness conditions so that this capital can be used fruitfully ( van Horen, 2004: 19-20 ) . There is besides a strong function for local authorities in supplying this preparation and bettering these conditions in order to beef up the capacity of a community freshly affected by catastrophe.