Depression and Genetics Depression Is the feeling of extreme sadness, loneliness, hopelessness, helplessness, and worthlessness, which proceed for weeks and prevent normal functioning. It Is normal to feel sad and depressed when a significant negative change has happened In ones life, It Is considered an appropriate behavior as long as one can overcome it and resume to normal functioning within a considerable period of time.
In my paper, I will be discussing Depression illness, the main causes of this disorder and its treatment; also several factors that linked this syndrome to emetics, describing deferent studies that have lead researchers to important discoveries in the health field. Several of the factors enhancing depression are generally physiological, personal, environmental an also genetics. Age is also an important factor; the range between 35 and 45 has the highest incidence of depression especially in women.
Pregnancy and postpartum are vital stages of women with an Increased risk of depression due to hormonal alterations occurred during this period. Stress, anxiety, problems In the labor sphere as well as with the family and poor Interpersonal relationships are elevate reasons that can also be triggering depression Illness. Dependence or habitual consume of alcohol or drugs raises the risk of depression. There are several symptoms that may arise during depression, the more signs will appear and the more severe they are, the harder the recovery will be.
Perhaps the signs differ between individuals the most common appear to be depressed mood for long periods of time preventing the individual to perform daily functions properly. Disinterest in previously pleasurable activities, lack of emotional responses, sleep disturbances, decreased appetite and loss of self-esteem and self-confidence, all hose symptoms are commonly accompanied by recurrent thoughts of death or suicide and even attempts of death. Depression also comes along with many other complications besides the ones listed previously. While these are common symptoms of depression, they may also occur In patterns. For example, a person may experience depression with mania or hypotonic a condition sometimes called manic depression or bipolar disorder. Or the symptoms may be seasonal as in the case of seasonal affective disorder” reported WebMD (2005). In order to understand the concept of Depression being caused by several biological factors; researchers eave studied the brain, nerve cell communication, chemicals involved in the process of signal transition.
Some of the biological variations found in people that have developed Depression are portrayed in this study conducted in Harvard University “Research shows that the hippopotamus is smaller in some depressed people. For example, In one fem. study published in The Journal of Neuroscience, investigators studied 24 women who had a history of depression. On average, the hippopotamus was 9% to 13% smaller In depressed women compared with those who were not depressed. The more bouts of depression a woman had, the smaller the hippopotamus.
Stress, which plays a role in depression, may be a key factor here, in the hippopotamus” (Harvard Health Publications, 2000). Besides physiological factors, Depression illness has also genetics’ influence in its developmental causes. Stephanie Fairs stated in her article: The chromosome, IPPP-26, was found in more than 800 families with recurrent depression in the study. Scientists have said as many as 40 percent of those suffering from depression can be traced back to a genetic link, with environmental and other factors comprising the remaining 60 percent (Fairs, 2012).
Another studied that confirmed this research was done by Klaus Peter Leech (2004). He focused in the study of twins and the genetics of depression so, he states in his Journal: twin’s studies that revealed the following outcomes “Twin and family-based studies have accrued considerable evidence that a complex genetic mechanism is involved in vulnerability to depressive disorders. Compared with the general population, first-degree relatives of depressed individuals have a nearly 3- fold increase in their risk of developing a major depressive disorder.
In general, twin studies of depressive adults suggest that genes and specific environmental factors re critical and that shared environmental factors, although important in less severe subtypes of depression, are possibly of less significance. The heritability of unpopular depression appears to be remarkable, with estimates between 40% and 70%. Depression- associated genetic factors are largely shared with generalized anxiety disorder, whereas environmental determinants seem to be distinct” (p. 3).
There is fairly evidence that consolidates the relationship of Depression with genetics, have contributed to developed new ways of treatment for this disease. Once Depression is diagnosed the patient should start treatment. In most cases the treatment consists of a combination of drug therapy and counseling. In general, the pharmacological treatment of depression is usually limited to the moderate to severe depressive symptoms; however psychological therapy seems to be highly endorsed in all cases of depression.
According to the American Psychological Association both are recommended as treatments for depression “Medications are helpful for reducing symptoms of depression in some people, particularly when their depression is severe. Many research studies have demonstrated that psychotherapy, r talk therapy, are effective for treating depression and relieving symptoms experienced by individuals who suffer from depression. Psychological treatments may prevent a person with milder depression from becoming more severely depressed.
And although a past history of depression increases the risk of future episodes, there is evidence that ongoing psychotherapy may lessen the chance of recurrence” (American Psychological Association, 2010). As Depression, many other illness physiological or psychological are due to both, serious and slight genetic predispositions. The determination of some human sissies is very complex and to be the set of several genes that affect also on environmental factors.