Immanuel Kant’s theory of moralss is considered deontological for several different grounds. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] First. Kant argues that to move in the morally right manner. people must move from responsibility ( deon ) . [ 6 ] Second. Kant argued that it was non the effects of actions that make them right or incorrect but the motivations of the individual who carries out the action. Kant’s statement that to move in the morally right manner one must move strictly from responsibility begins with an statement that the highest good must be both good in itself and good without making.
Something is “good in itself” when it is per se good. and “good without qualification” . when the add-on of that thing ne’er makes a state of affairs ethically worse. Kant so argues that those things that are normally thought to be good. such as intelligence. doggedness and pleasance. neglect to be either per se good or good without making. Pleasure. for illustration. appears non to be good without making. because when people take pleasance in watching person agony. this seems to do the state of affairs ethically worse.
He concludes that there is merely one thing that is genuinely good: Nothing in the world—indeed nil even beyond the world—can perchance be conceived which could be called good without making except a good will. [ 7 ] Kant so argues that the effects of an act of willing can non be used to find that the individual has a good will ; good effects could originate by accident from an action that was motivated by a desire to do injury to an guiltless individual. and bad effects could originate from an action that was well-motivated.
Alternatively. he claims. a individual has a good will when he ‘acts out of regard for the moral law’ . [ 7 ] People ‘act out of regard for the moral law’ when they act in some manner because they have a responsibility to make so. So. the lone thing that is genuinely good in itself is a good will. and a good will is merely good when the willer chooses to make something because it is that person’s responsibility. i. e. out of “respect” for the jurisprudence.
He defines regard as “the construct of a worth which thwarts my self-love. “ [ 8 ] Kant’s two important preparations of the categorical jussive mood are: Act merely harmonizing to that axiom by which you can besides will that it would go a cosmopolitan jurisprudence. Act in such a manner that you ever treat humanity. whether in your ain individual or in the individual of any other. ne’er merely as a agency. but ever at the same clip as an terminal.