Positive Criminology. an attack which attempts to explicate condemnable actions non as an exercising of free will or of one’s choosing. but instead as a effect of multiple different internal and external. Cesare Lombroso ( 1835 – 1909 ) . an Italian criminologist positions that felons are born non made. and condemnable an illustration of nature. non nurture. Focused on biological and psychological factors to explicate condemnable behaviour. and studied corpses of executed felons in an attempt to find scientifically whether felons were physically any different from non-criminals. he believed that people were born felons and facial characteristics of felons included things like tremendous jaws and strong eyetooth dentition. “Atavism” In the sixtiess. rationalist criminologists argued that condemnable behavior lies in unnatural chromosomes. the XYY theory argued that violent male ( cistrons ) felons have an unnatural Xyy ( ace male ) chromosome ( XY is the normal form in males ) The Positivist theory of felons being born instead than made died out. and there were moral deductions with this.
Classical criminology is an attack to the legal system that arose during the Enlightenment in the 1700s. Philosophers like Cesare Beccaria. John Locke. and Jeremy Bentham expanded upon societal contract theory to explicate why people commit offense and how societies could efficaciously battle offense. The constructs continue to play a big function in the legal systems of many states today. although the attack in the modern universe tends to be a spot more flexible. It is of import to understand the context in which classical criminology was developed. During the Enlightenment. Europe was altering radically. with many states emerging from feudal monarchies and radically reforming their Torahs. Across Europe. the jurisprudence was wildly inconsistent and applied even more inconsistently. Judges and other legal functionaries frequently lacked extended preparation. and prescribed penalties wholly out of proportion to some offenses while disregarding others.
Many people recognized the demand for a more unvarying and effectual justness system. and this attack was the consequence. Harmonizing to the theoreticians. human existences are self-interested animate beings. but they are besides highly rational. While people will be given to make things that are in their ain ego involvement. they besides understand that some actions really conflict with this. and many societies develop a societal contract that dictates human behaviour. with worlds reciprocally holding to forbear from activities that hurt each other or society. Peoples besides have free will. which means that they can choose to go against the societal contract. For illustration. person might steal or slay to carry through a self-interested end. By holding consistent penalties in topographic point that are relative to the offense and applied quickly. classical criminologists argue. the legal system will make hindrances to offense.
Rather than perpetrating a offense with a grade of uncertainness about the penalty. people in a state with a clear and concise legal system will be good cognizant of the effects of go againsting the jurisprudence and the societal contract. and they may believe twice earlier perpetrating offense. One of the large jobs with classical criminology is that it does non let for palliating fortunes. Person who robs a concern for net income is treated precisely the same as person who robs a concern in order to eat. and some people feel that this is inhumane. Others feel that the premise of free will is besides slightly questionable. as people may be forced into doing determinations as a consequence of their fortunes or socioeconomic category.
Sociological criminology is the largest figure of criminological theories have been developed through sociological enquiry. These theories have by and large asserted that condemnable behaviour is a normal response of biologically and psychologically normal persons to peculiar sorts of societal fortunes. Examples of these attacks include the theory of differential association. which claims that all condemnable behaviour is learned and that the acquisition procedure is influenced by the extent of the individual’s contact with individuals who commit offenses. The more an single associates with such individuals. the more likely it becomes that he will larn and follow condemnable values and behaviours. Sociological criminology include the undermentioned theories ;
Social Disorganization ( Chicago School ) is identified with neighborhood surveies of offense and delinquency that focus peculiarly on the spacial forms of such behaviour. particularly as reflected in maps of their spacial distributions. It assumes offense as a merchandise of geopolitical environmental. or name as urban ecology ( by Park and Burgess ) . The rapid societal alterations ( e. g. population growing. rapid in-migration or migration ) causes the dislocation of normative construction or community. the left-alone childs becomes the delinquent subcultures. the offense is the transitional vicinities that manifest societal disorganisation and value struggle. And the urban ecology urban metropoliss can be compartmentalize in five zones. from Centre to outside are 1. Cardinal Business District ; 2. Transitional Zone ; 3. Working Class Zone ; 4. Residental Zone and 5. Commuter Zone. and the offense and societal jobs are normally happened in Zone 2. which is contained many recent immigrant groups. deteriorated lodging. mills and abandoned edifices. ( OUHK. 2013. tutorial 2. unit 2 )
Strain Theory is a sociological theory that tries to explicate why people may be drawn to delinquency or offense. Harmonizing to the theory. some offense may be linked to the presence of choler and defeat that is created by societal or personal strain. When a individual can non lawfully achieve the recognized ends of a society. he or she may turn to illicit agencies to make success. Three of the cardinal ends that contribute to strain-related offense are the chase of wealth. accomplishment of position and regard. and the demand for liberty. Sometimes is known as “American Dream” . Peoples see offense as a map of comparative want. and the theory assumes that the societal construction as the beginning of offense. ( OUHK. 2013. tutorial 2. unit 2 ) Subculture Theory is that human behaviour is learned via societal interaction. most of the delinquency/ offense is learnt by exposing to anti-social definitions or going portion of a group were delinquency is already established. ( OUHK. 2013. tutorial 2. unit 2 )
Drift Theory is stating that human existences will look offense in conformist. give alibi to do the offense become sensible and non as an illegal action. single impetus in/ out of delinquency by ‘neutralization ‘ ( e. g. denial ) . ( OUHK. 2013. tutorial 2. unit 2 ) Social Control Theories tells that there is a non-pathological relationship between a condemnable and a non-criminal. delinquent act due to a weak or the broken of ‘social bond’ ( attachment. committedness. engagement. belief ) to conventional important mention groups ( e. g. household. school ) causes the less loath to perpetrate offense. ( OUHK. 2013. tutorial 2. unit 2 ) Labeling Theory assumes that persons would be influenced by stigmatisation. crime/ aberrance as a consequence of labeling / stereotyping. a Primary aberrance ( yet to be labeled ) will be reinforced by limited chances and ‘self-fulfilling’ prognostication. and so to go a Secondary aberrance ( subsequent behaviour harmonizing to the lable given ) . ( OUHK. 2013. tutorial 2. unit 2 ) Critical Criminology is stating that the beginning of struggles inside the society is the political involvement and inequality ( capitalist V working category ) . base on this premise. the condemnable jurisprudence seems merely a protection of the laterality. and the offense defined by the powerful. ( OUHK. 2013. tutorial 2. unit 2 )
Environmental Criminology is including four chief theories which are Jane Jacobs’s compartmentalisation ; Oscar Newman’s defendable infinite ; Rational Choice Theory ( RCT ) and Everyday Activity Theory ( RAT ) . Jane Jacobs’s Compartmentalization is a modern design alteration lead to breakdown of societal control therefore lead to offense. compartmentalisation of urban infinite into different zones lead to breakdown of societal control ( e. g. deficient societal interaction. unattended countries ) therefore lead to offense. the application of compartmentalisation theory is to alter the land usage. ( e. g. blending land usage ) . or increase security for unattended countries. ( OUHK. 2013. tutorial 2. unit 2 ) Oscar Newman’s defendable infinite is likewise to Jane Jacobs’s theory. but focus more on constructing design or location. for illustration on these chief points:
1. Territoriality. 2. Surveillance. 3. Image. 4. Envirnment. the theory thinks that the factors of the high offense rate is because anon. unfastened public infinite. many corridors and issues. deficient illuming. location next to ‘bad areas’ . etc. which is a bad design in the edifice or locations. To work out these jobs. Oscar Newman suggest a thought is call Crime bar through environmental design ( CPTED ) . ( OUHK. 2013. tutorial 2. unit 2 ) Rational Choice Theory ( RCT ) emphasize the offense ‘opportunity’ . wrongdoers which is rationally weigh information on their personal demands and situational factors involved in the hard and hazard of perpetrating a offense which is addition greater than lose. It will go easier to cut down offense by addition the hazard of the wrongdoers and cut down the chance of the wrongdoers to perpetrate offense. ( OUHK. 2013. tutorial 2. unit 2 ) Routine Activity Theory ( RAT ) emphasize societal context. it thinks that offense is a map of 1. motivated wrongdoer. 2. handiness of suited mark and 3. absence of capable defenders. In this theory. assumed that motivated wrongdoer can non be alteration. we have to cut down handiness of suited mark and increase security steps to cut down offense. ( OUHK. 2013. tutorial 2. unit 2 )
As a consequence. Environmental Criminology is the most practical attack to the security director. see the Positive Criminology is the theory that felons are born. and which their biological jobs makes them to perpetrate offense. a security director can non command the clients biological jobs and how they are born. so this Positive Criminology is non a suited attack a security director to utilize ; the Classical Perspective suggested that the greater punishment issue. the less offense will be. but as a security director. when they detected offense happen. they can merely mention the offense to the legal system and the security director do non hold to compensate to publish any penalty to the felons ; the Sociological Criminology is stating that felons are infect by the societal construction. economic. societal interactions. which are the factors that a security director can non command any of them. the Environmental Criminology suggested that Crime bar through environmental design ( CPTED ) . which a security director can alter the design of a store trappings. or a plaza scenes that can cut down handiness of suited mark in the store or place and increase security steps inside to cut down offense happen in a security director control country.
The Open University of Hong Kong ( 2013 ) . LESM A204 tutorial 2 Criminology for the security director ( unit 2 ) . Hong Kong: OUHK hypertext transfer protocol: //global. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/143163/criminology/272204/Sociological-theories hypertext transfer protocol: //psychologydictionary. org/positivist-criminology/
hypertext transfer protocol: //sociologycriminology. wordpress. com/positive-theory-positivism/ hypertext transfer protocol: //www. wisegeek. org/what-is-classical-criminology. htm