Coastal toxic bloom in Baltic sea, leaving

Coastal zone and its ecosystems undergo continuously changes in diversity, structure, production and abundance due the transformation of the shore, transport, pollution, fishing and climate. Coastal areas, these complex systems, are characterized by high productivity and biodiversity, increased concentration of nutrients and unique habitats and species as well as high human dependence and pressure (Kitsiou & Karydis, 2011). In China, and especially around Qingdao region, coastal areas undergo several challenges the past years including excessive algae blooms during the summer and sea ice during the winter (Yuan et al., 2016). In 1988, massive fish and invertebrate kills reported due to the Chrysochromulina polyepsis toxic bloom in Baltic sea, leaving the regional ecosystem with severe impacts (Smith et al., 1998). Anthropogenic or Cultural eutrophication in these areas can occur due to point (industrial waste) and non-point (agricultural runoff) pollution sources with nitrogen to play a vital role (Zhang et al., 2017; Kitsiou & Karydis, 2011; Scavia & Bricker, 2006). The effects of these phenomena include: high levels of chlorophyll a, reduction of biodiversity, fish kills, high concentration of bacteria, decreased water quality (e.g. transparency, oxygen and pH) and scam concentration. 

 

A transdisciplinary approach is required in order to approach this multifaceted issue. Efforts should be made in regional, national or in some cases international level, involving scientists, stakeholders and policy makers. Two different interconnected groups of impacts can be recognized; the Social and Ecological. Ecological impacts include, fish kills, food chain disturbance, decrease benthic productivity and Social impacts include issues related to human health and wellbeing, economic loss and drinking water problems (Smith et al., 1998; Kitsiou &Karydis, 2011; Scavia & Bricker, 2006).

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