Climate Wirawan, 2010). One of the main

Climate change is something that become real nowadays.
On World Health Day 2008 highlighted the impacts of climate change to ecosystem
and human health. It was mentioned that climate change gives a bad influence to
community health such as vector-borne diseases, food and water security. It
also affects to ecosystem and environment, as results of climate change water
availability is changing and sea level is rising (Ady Wirawan, 2010).  One of the
main cause of climate change is greenhouse gasses.  Greenhouse gasses (CO2,
CH4 and N2O) in the atmosphere increase significantly caused by man-made (i.e.
fossil energy consumption, deforestation, land-use change etc). A report of
International Panel on Climate Change (1990) (Watson, Rodhe, Oeschger, & Siegenthaler, 1990) stated that if people use business as-usual emission
scenario to overcome climate change the global temperature was predicted to
increase 0.3° C/decade. As
mentioned before, the effects of climate
change have been bringing
various disastrous situation on earth, such as spreading of infectious
diseases.

While for the infectious diseases, the ones carried by mosquitoes
can spread more quickly to larger areas due to climate change. This is because
an increase in temperature which makes more places warm for the growing
mosquito population. According to the WHO report, mosquito-borne disease can
only be transmitted at a temperature of about 16-38 degrees Celsius. The rising
of global temperatures at least 2 degrees centigrade by 2100 caused by global
warming make mosquito-borne diseases such as Chikungunya, Dengue Fever,
Malaria, West Nile Virus, and even Zika Virus can spread more widely to an
unexpected area.1

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This catastrophe has moved the international community to
raise awareness on climate change as well as overcome the effects caused by the
climate change. International debate and discussion were conducted to come to
an agreement in order to tackle the impending impacts of climate change. To
answer this, Kyoto Protocol was born to implement the objective of UNFCCC
(United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)  to fight global warming by reducing greenhouse gas
concentrations in the atmosphere to a level that would prevent dangerous
anthropogenic interference with the climate system”.

Kyoto
Protocol was firstly entered into force on 16th February 2005,
signing the kick off for greenhouse gases emission reduction goal and duty for
industrialized countries. It now has a legal binding; hence industrialized
countries are faced with present and/or prospective emission reduction pressure
internationally, nationally or regionally. In order to effectively have the
emission reduction duty fulfilled, “Kyoto Protocol” sets three types of
flexible mechanism, i.e. clean development mechanism (CDM), joint
implementation (JI) and international emission trade (IET/ET). These mechanisms
hopefully will establish a practically working basis for the global emission
reductions campaign and lay a foundation for the development of carbon market.

With
the bound of “Kyoto Protocol”, CO2 emission credit for each nation becomes a
kind of scarce resource, and the emission credit of discharging additional
carbon beyond basic need displays attributes of a commodity. As the
environmental impact of CO2 is going global and in the long term CO2 will show
the same warming effect, the emission place and emission reduction place become
substitutable. Meanwhile, since CO2 emission reductions claim cost and it is
different in countries, CO2 emission credit possesses value and a commercial
market of carbon dioxide emission generated in the field of alleviating
climatic change.

Kyoto Protocol is one of world’s step to
deal with climate change. It could be an evident that proves that climate
change is a phenomenon that should be solved globally, because the effects will
not only attack certain places on the earth but the whole part.  By these reason, it is mandatory for every
country both developed and developing countries should take active actions to
mitigate climate change in any sector.  Developed
countries need to reduce their emission significantly recalling a fact there
will be a progressively smaller carbon space available to carry on the
development needs of developing counties. Moreover,
developing countries are also encouraged to take bigger roles in climate change
issues.  Developing countries contribute
to control climate change by manage the environment.  Indonesia for an instance, as one of
developing countries which has enormous natural resources   put
mitigation of climate change as a national commitment.  

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