Climate Change And Its Impact On Sri Lanka Commerce Essay

3. It is shown that clime variableness is the chiefly set uping cardinal factor on the one-year output variableness of tea industry. Hence, clime alteration in Sri Lanka is the critical factor for direct and indirect impacts on tea production. It was found that increase the temperature and alterations in rainfall form in order to increase the length of dry and wet seasons per twelvemonth are two cardinal factors on the variableness of tea production in the chief tea turning parts. This paper predicts future outputs in tea production for Sri Lanka utilizing assorted irrigation methods under different clime scenarios, husbandman ‘s awareness plan of clime alteration and possible Change land usage forms which can be used for lands in landslide and flood country. Further, develop the drouth immune tea assortments ( Genetically modified works ) and do husbandmans cognizant of clime alteration in Sri Lanka.

Chapter II

Methodology

Purpose

1. The purpose of this paper is to convert the reader and to give an thought about Sri Lankan tea plantation history of Ceylon tea plantation, its importance to citizens and clime alterations in Sri Lankan part with educating the jobs faced by present twenty-four hours Sri Lankan tea industry due to climate alterations while turn toing the actions can do to increase the production and quality of Sri Lankan Tea industry while minimising the jobs related to climate alterations in Sri Lanka.

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Tea Industry has been a major beginning of income of this state for decennaries after colonial governments. Sri Lanka is one of the states bring forthing quality Tea with natural spirit in it. But, climate alteration in the universe due to assorted grounds is a natural phenomenon which we can non command. Although Sri Lanka has historically had a clime conducive to the growing of tea, important clime alterations have had an inauspicious impact on the tea plantations industry in order to degrade the quality and productiveness.

Therefore the purpose of this research undertaking is to place the impacts that lead to degrade the quality and productiveness in Sri Lankan Tea industry due to climate alteration and to happen solutions to get the better of the jobs.

THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

It is hypothesized that monsoon rainfall fluctuation and increasing temperature in tea turning parts to be degraded the quality and productiveness of Sri Lankan Tea industry in order to effected national economic system of Sri Lanka.

Scope OF THE STUDY

5. The range of the survey covers an appraisal of the future impacts of clime alteration such as utmost rainfall and increase temperature for production of Tea in Sri Lanka and new executions that are applicable in preventative redresss every bit good as an analysis of their effectivity. The paper will concentrate on placing the failings of the bing methods in order to logically increase production.

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

6. The needed informations for the research will be drawn from the undermentioned beginnings ;

a. Primary beginning. Will include information collected by questioning individuals who are working in authorities and private sector that have a function or engagement in the weather forecasting, production of Sri Lankan tea industry, big graduated table Tea exporters every bit good as obtaining provender back and their positions from experts on the root cause of the job.

B. Secondary beginning. Information will be gathered from relevant books, diaries, treatise every bit good as cyberspace.

STRUCTURE OF THE PAPER

7. The paper will be structured as follows,

a. Chapter I. The first chapter will incorporate the debut to the

paper.

B. Chapter II. The 2nd chapter will incorporate the Methodology of the survey and will consist of the followers.

( 1 ) Purpose

( 2 ) Statement of the Problem

( 3 ) Research hypothesis

( 4 ) Scope of the survey

( 5 ) Method of informations aggregation

( 6 ) Structure of the paper

c. Chapter III. The 3rd chapter will present the background information that will necessitate about the capable country, so that they will be better able to understand the findings of research.The chapter will be sub-divided as follows,

( 1 ) History of Ceylon tea

( 2 ) Export public presentation

( 3 ) Axial rotation of Tea in economic system of Sri Lanka

( 4 ) What is climate alteration?

( 5 ) Global Climate alteration

( 6 ) Reasons behind the clime alteration

( 7 ) Vulnerability of South Asia for clime alteration

( 8 ) Climate in Sri Lanka

d. Chapter IV. The 4th chapter will analyze the informations collected and the chapter will be sub-divided as follows,

( 1 ) Introduction

( 2 ) Monsoon Rainfall variableness

( 3 ) Temperature alteration

( 4 ) Flood and Landslide

( 5 ) Data related to Tea industry

e. Chapter V. The 5th chapter will analyze the world of the job by analyzing informations which was collected and measure the infectiveness of the bing methods that can be implemented to supply an effectual solution to the jobs. The chapter will be sub-divided as follows

( 1 ) The alterations in clime parametric quantities and its influence on tea industry in Sri Lanka

( 2 ) Impacts due to alter on rainfall government

( 3 ) Impact due to increased ambient temperature

( 4 ) Impact due to other grounds

a. Drought harm

B. Flood and Land slide

( 5 ) Possible response schemes to minimise the impacts of clime variableness on tea industry

f. Chapter VI The 6th chapter will reason the paper with the recommendations.

Chapter III

CLIMATE CHANGE AND TEA INDUSTRY IN SRI LANKA

THE STORY OF CEYLON TEA

1. The tea works “ Camellia Senses ” is a originated assortment which was cultivated between the part of India and China. The java was chief harvest produced on the island of Ceylon, until the 1860. Then in the twelvemonth 1869 the ruin of the java cultivation started when the cultivation was plagued with ‘coffee-rust fungus ‘ . This fungus destroyed about all cultivation, hence plantation proprietors were compelled to diversified into other harvests in order to avoid the entire ruin. The proprietors of ‘Loolecondera Estate ‘ pioneered the tea cultivation. They were in tea concern since late 1850s. In the twelvemonth 1867 a Scots patriot James Tayor appointed to be in charge of the first 19 estates of tea cultivation in Sri Lanka.

2. Taylor with his dedication and committedness gave a spring start to the tea concern. By 1872 he developed a to the full equipt mill. In the twelvemonth 1873 his attempts were rewarded at the London auction. In that twelvemonth Taylor earned a recorded net income by forwarded the best tea from Ceylon at the London auction.

Figure 3.1 Pioneer in Ceylon tea plantation

3. Till the twelvemonth 1971 more than 80 per centum of the island ‘s tea estates were owned and managed by British companies. Then, Sri Lankan authorities introduced the Land Reform Act. This act empowered the province to command bulk of the plantations go forthing about merely tierce of the tea plantations in private custodies. With an purpose of bettering the efficaciousness of direction a restructuring plan has been initiated since 1990. The reconstituting plan involves the private sector companies ( both Sri Lankan and foreign ) as pull offing agents of the state-owned plantations.

4. Depending on the lift of the land of tea plantations, Sri Lankan tea is divided into two classs, high grown and low adult tea. Tea estates were concentrated in the mid lifts ( 600-1,200 metres ) and higher lifts ( 1,200 metres and above ) during the initial old ages of tea plantation. Then bit by bit tea turning was expanded to low lifts ( 600 metres and below ) . The distribution of tea plantation in Sri Lanka is chiefly concentrated in the Central hills, Sabaragamuwa, Uva, Southern territories of Galle and Matara and in some countries of the south-western inclines of the island as shown in figure 3.2

Figure 3.2 Distribution of Tea land in Sri Lanka[ 1 ]

Sector

Land country

( hectares )

Tea

188,971

Rubber

162,098

Coconuts

442,288

Mick

915,000

Sugar cane

24,862

Fruit and veggies

213,952

Other field harvests

173,288

Table 3.1 Land country under agribusiness in Sri Lanka in twelvemonth 2000[ 2 ]

EXPORT PERFORMANCE

5. Agricultural exports contribute 19 % in entire export net incomes. Agricultural exports grew by 10 % in 2004 reflecting the higher public presentation of the three major harvests. Tea was benefited by higher monetary values. Tea monetary values increased by 7 % to US dollars 2.46 per Kg in 2004: chiefly due to an increased demand for low adult tea from the Middle- East, Russia and other former Soviet Block states.

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Sri Lanka

20.90 %

21.20 %

20.80 %

20.20 %

21.20 %

Kenya

19.20 %

16.30 %

18.60 %

18.70 %

19.50 %

China

15.80 %

17.70 %

18.00 %

17.70 %

18.80 %

India

15.00 %

15.40 %

12.90 %

13.80 %

12.00 %

Dutch east indies

7.80 %

7.90 %

7.20 %

7.00 %

6.50 %

Argentina

4.10 %

3.70 %

4.10 %

4.00 %

4.20 %

Nyasaland

3.40 %

2.90 %

3.00 %

2.80 %

2.90 %

Uganda

1.80 %

2.00 %

2.20 %

2.20 %

2.50 %

Table 3.3 World per centum Share of Tea Exports[ 3 ]

Figure 3.3 World exports of tea

ROLE OF TEA IN SRI LANKAN ECONOMY

6. As statistics suggests ( Vide Table 3.3 ) Sri Lanka is among the largest Tea exporting states. In 1996 the tea sector contributed 15 per cent of entire export value while exportation of manufactured garments has emerged as the taking individual export merchandise in Sri Lanka. A comparing of net incomes through export by other merchandises in the twelvemonth 2008 has been depicted in the tabular array below ( table 3.4 ) .

Sector

Value in Rs. million

Entire exports

( % )

Tea

426

15.05

Rubber

71

2.50

Coconut

75

2.66

Other export harvests

86

3.04

Fisheries merchandises

51

1.80

Gems and jewelry

193

6.85

Fabric and garments

1,310

46.44

Industries

503

17.81

Petroleum merchandises

72

2.54

Re-exports

16

0.57

Others

21

0.73

Entire exports

2,822

100.00

Table 3.4 Entire export net incomes in Sri Lanka in 2008[ 4 ]

Figure 3.4 Percentage of universe exports gaining of tea in 2009

WHAT IS CLIMATE CHANGE?

7. The clime alteration means the gradual alteration in conditions harmonizing to a form over a long period of clip, and so it can be resulted in the alteration of clime for that peculiar country. Natural alterations in clime normally occur over such long periods of clip that they are frequently non noticed within several human life-times. This alteration that occur easy and bit by bit enables the workss, animate beings, and micro-organisms on Earth to germinate and accommodate to the new climatic conditions, This new temperatures, new rainfalls and precipitation forms are some of the outstanding factors for the natural choice of assorted harvests.

Global CLIMATE CHANGE

8. Contrasting to above quickly alterations of clime imposes a existent menace for the endurance of assorted harvests. For illustration, over the past 130 old ages from 1861 to 1991 ( shown in figure 4.2 ) the planetary temperature has risen from 0.6 to 1.2 oF ( 0.3 to 0.7 oC ) . The rapid increasing of the curve from 1911 onwards suggests that alterations in mean planetary temperature at greater rates over clip. Further, average planetary temperature will increases in future at a rate of 0.4 oF ( 0.2 oC ) by each decennary.

9. However, in early old ages increase of atmospheric temperature can be deemed as less important as the increases of atmospheric temperature occurred over a long periods of clip. The slower rate of clime alteration gave ample clip to the workss and animate beings to acquire adjusted to the new clime. The current rates of temperature alteration are much faster than those of Earth ‘s yesteryear. Hence workss, animate beings, and micro-organisms may non hold adequate clip to be adapted to the all of a sudden created new clime.

Figure 3.5 Global Temperature Changes ( 1880 – 2000 )[ 5 ]

REASON BEHIND THE CLIMATE CHANGE

10. There are many factors responsible for clime alteration. Some of the factors can non be controlled while others are in the sphere of adult males control. The factors such as fluctuations in solar radiation, divergences in the Earth ‘s orbit, mountain-building and Continental impetus are the natural factors of temperature hikings. However, alterations in nursery gas concentrations can be controlled by commanding some of worlds ‘ activities.

a. Home plate tectonics

The gesture of tectonic home bases over the 1000000s of old ages re-configures planetary land, ocean countries and generates topography. The place of the continents determines the geometry of the oceans and hence influences forms of ocean circulation. The locations of the seas are of import in commanding the transportation of heat and wet across the Earth, and hence, in finding planetary clime.

B. Solar end product

The major beginning which energy input to the Earth is prevailing by Sun. Therefore, both long- and short-run fluctuations in solar strength are tends to impact planetary clime.

c. Orbital fluctuations

Little fluctuations in Earth ‘s orbit lead to big scale climatic alterations. Distribution of sunshine that reach the Earth ‘s surface is straight relates with the Earth ‘s orbit. There are three types of orbital fluctuations such as fluctuations in Earth ‘s eccentricity, alterations in the tilt angle of Earth ‘s axis of rotary motion, and precession of Earth ‘s axis. When these factors act uponing the Earth clime combined together, it produces a big impact on clime.

d. Volcanism

Volcanism is a procedure of conveying stuff from the crust and mantle of the Earth to its surface. Volcanic eruptions, geysers, and hot springs, are illustrations of volcanic procedures which release gases and/or atoms into the ambiance.

e. Ocean variableness

The ocean is playing a important function in the clime alteration. On longer clip graduated tables, ocean procedures such as thermohaline circulation play a cardinal function in redistributing heat by transporting out a really slow and highly deep motion of H2O, and the long-run redistribution of heat in the universe ‘s oceans.

f. Human influences

Some human activities are straight act uponing the alterations in the environment. Harmonizing to the bookmans there are substantiated groundss to turn out that human activity is the cause for rapid addition in mean planetary temperatures over the past several decennaries.

Increases in atmospheric CO2 degree can be attributed human activities such as maga emanations from fossil fuel burning, followed by aerosols ( particulate affair in the ambiance ) and cement industry. Other factors such as land usage, ozone depletion, carnal agribusiness and deforestation are besides concern in the functions worlds play – both individually and in concurrence with other factors – in impacting clime, microclimate, and steps of clime variables.

Figure 3.6 Additions in Atmospheric CO2 Levels[ 6 ]

VULNERABILITY OF SOUTH ASIA FOR CLIMATE CHANGE

11. High degrees of poorness and population denseness has made South Asia particularly vulnerable to the impacts of clime alteration. The monsoons and their associated drouths and inundations are expected to go more intense with climate alteration.

12. South Asia ‘s population is likely to transcend 2.2 billion from the current degree of 1.5 billion by 2050. About 75 % of South Asians are hapless and history for approximately 70 % of people lives in rural countries. About 60 % of the rural hapless people depend on agribusiness and contributes merely 22 % of regional GDP. A big concentration of poorness, high population densenesss and clime variableness have all combined to do South Asia extremely sensitive to the effects of clime alteration.

Figure 3.7 South Asia population projections[ 7 ]

Climate IN SRI LANKA

Monsoons

13. Sri Lanka is influenced by the four distinct season ‘s monsoons. North-east monsoon brings rain in the northern and eastern parts in December and February and south-west monsoon get rain from May to September in the western, southern and cardinal parts of the island. In south-west monsoon some of the windward slopes receive up to 250 centimetres of rain per month, but the leeward inclines in the nor’-east and east receive small rain. The northeasterly inclines of the mountains may be inundated with up to 125 centimetres of rain during North-east monsoon.

Figure 3.8 Four seasonal rainfall in Sri Lanka[ 8 ]

14. The inter-monsoonal months are occurs in October and November and periodic squalls, sometimes tropical cyclones conveying cloud-covered skies. Another inter-monsoonal period occurs from March until mid-May, with light, variable air currents and flushing thundershowers.

Average temperature

15. Sri Lanka is positioned between 5 and 10 north latitude endows the state with a warm clime, moderated by ocean air currents and considerable moisture.The mean annual temperature in Sri Lanka from 28 to 32oC. The average low temperature is 16°C in Nuwara – Eliya on Central Highlands and high of 32oC in Trincomalee on the nor’-east seashore. The coastal countries are cooled by sea zephyrs. Day and dark temperatures may change by 4 to 7 oC.

Average Annual Max Temperature

Average Annual

Temperature

Average Annual Minute

Temperature

Figure 3.9 Average temperatures in Sri Lanka[ 9 ]

Chapter IV

DATA ON CLIMATE CHANGE IN SRI LANKA AND TEA INDUSTRY

Introduction

Sri Lanka is an island over the country of 65,525 Sq. kilometer. It located between 6 – 10 of north latitude and between 80 – 82 of east longitude. It has maximal length of 432 kilometers ( Devundara to Point Peduru ) and maximal width 224 kilometer ( Colombo – Sangamankanda ) . Three zones can be divided by its distinguished lift such as cardinal upland, fields, and the coastal belt.

Change of clime is being accelerated in an alarming rate consequent to the human activities such as fossil fuel combustions, alteration of land usage patterns, emanation of industrial gases etc. The planetary heating has made more important by the enhanced nursery consequence and it has contributed to increase the surface temperature of the Earth averaging to 33 oC. Atmospheric concentration of CO2 has quickly being increased from 280 ppm in industrial aera to 365 ppm at nowadays.

MONSOON RAINFALL VARIABILITY

Variability of Northeast monsoon rainfall over Sri Lanka has been increased from 1931 – 1960 and 1961-1990 periods ; variableness of Southwest monsoon rainfall has been decreased during 1961-1990 compared to 1931-1960. But, one-year norm of rainfall over Sri Lanka has been increased from 234 to 263 millimeter during the old ages of 1931 to 1960 with the standard divergence of? ? ? ? ? ? ? .When 1961 to 1990 period compared, it has decreased 7 % by an sum of 144 millimeter. However, high variableness of one-year rainfall has reported at Baticaloa, Kurunegala, and Rathnapura meteoric Stationss in the recent yesteryear when compared to other meteoric Stationss.

Season

CV ( 1931-60 ) %

CV ( 1961-90 ) %

First inter-monsoon

23

27

Southwest monsoon

21

16

Second inter-monsoon

22

23

Northeast monsoon

31

42

Year

11

14

Table 4.1 Variability of all Sri Lanka rainfall during the period of 1931-60 and 1961-90[ 10 ]

Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dce

2001

190.6

56.5

3.3

153.2

138.5

109.4

260.0

36.0

257.0

121.3

168.1

187.1

2002

48.6

31.9

90.0

200.8

106.0

120.5

109.2

148.9

42.5

252.0

174.3

192.7

2003

179.5

62.1

145.1

148.1

127.6

71.1

121.8

84.2

58.6

122.9

233.3

19.5

2004

51.3

26.5

54.6

165.8

174.1

178.9

74.6

73.5

135.1

273.1

221.0

312.6

2005

54.8

26.7

53.7

104.2

117.6

106.9

160.4

60.4

156.6

140.3

291.2

74.3

2006

259.2

75.3

153.9

180.0

248.7

168.1

217.8

101.8

145.6

304.4

458.8

241.7

2007

225.7

23.4

55.7

158.0

80.3

226.5

99.4

64.6

216.4

223.9

138.7

162.1

2008

153.8

103.3

306.5

183.0

61.5

36.1

134.3

75.0

59.7

187.4

154.7

131.7

2009

38.4

4.4

147.9

62.1

258.0

97.8

93.7

85.6

121.0

201.8

243.8

285.4

2010

67.7

19.4

134.4

198.5

207.3

283.6

188.0

175.3

Table 4.2 Average Rainfall ( millimeter ) in Nuwara Eliya during period of 2001 – 2010[ 11 ]

Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dce

2001

359.4

174.5

226.0

356.7

363.1

262.5

271.7

58.0

335.1

365.6

486.6

158.9

2002

70.2

125.2

142.0

276.0

418.9

351.0

180.0

190.3

172.2

609.1

344.5

322.9

2003

91.0

71.7

284.4

444.7

718.3

433.4

425.9

355.1

454.3

309.9

340.9

91.6

2004

89.3

97.9

222.5

443.9

522.5

275.0

356.3

166.1

430.8

671.1

244.3

221.9

2005

52.2

92.8

284.1

302.9

226.5

313.7

262.4

243.3

309.3

609.8

503.3

204.5

2006

222.7

201.3

270.7

275.6

416.9

427.5

186.0

403.4

258.3

560.9

358.6

153.7

2007

91.6

9.0

84.8

460.0

208.5

320.9

245.2

443.0

409.2

509.0

178.3

145.0

2008

51.4

177.8

286.4

650.8

503.0

387.3

557.0

214.9

194.6

400.9

312.7

146.7

2009

22.2

57.8

290.1

188.5

414.2

592.7

203.8

419.5

379.2

330.0

280.7

215.4

2010

233.6

111.9

157.5

438.3

658.5

451.5

367.4

385.5

310.3

Table 4.3 Average Rainfall ( millimeter ) in Rathnapura during period of 2001 – 2010[ 12 ]

TEMPERATURE CHANGE

Annual mean temperature has shown a important lifting tendencies during the recent few decennaries in Sri Lanka. The rate of addition of average temperature is 0.016 oC per twelvemonth for the period of 1961-1990. Annual average maximal temperatures have increased in about all Stationss with the rate of about 0.021 oC per twelvemonth. Annual average minimal temperatures besides have increased with higher gradients with the rate of about 0.02 oC per twelvemonth. It is apparent that the mean one-year surface temperature has increased across the state.

Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dce

2001

15.6

15.7

16.8

17.1

17.8

16.1

16.0

15.9

16.2

16.1

15.7

15.1

2002

15.3

15.8

17.0

17.3

17.5

16.5

16.0

15.9

16.3

16.4

16.3

15.7

2003

15.3

16.0

16.6

17.2

17.6

17.3I

16.6I

16.1

16.5

16.5I

16.4

15.3

2004

15.8

15.8

17.1

17.5

16.6

15.8

15.8

16.3

16.1

16.2

16.2

15.8

2005

15.8

16.4

17.0

17.8

17.7

16.6

16.0

16.5

15.9

16.1

16.2

15.0

2006

15.1

15.8

16.3

16.5

16.8

16.8

15.7

16.2

16.3

16.4

16.5

15.3

2007

14.9

15.1

16.5

17.1

17.7

16.8

16.3

16.4

16.1

15.8

15.9

15.3

2008

15.4

15.4

16.0

17.1

17.5

16.5

16.0

16.6

16.5

16.2

16.1

15.1

2009

14.4

14.9

16.5

16.6

16.3

15.8

15.4

16.5

16.3

16.1

16.0

16.3

2010

15.6

17.0

17.3

17.8

17.9

16.8

16.1

16.3

Table 4.4 Average Temperature ( oC ) in Nuwara Eliya during period of 2001 – 2010[ 13 ]

Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dce

2001

26.7

27.2

28.7

28.3

28.2

27.6

27.1

27.6

27.7

27.4

27.2

27.1

2002

27.2

28.1

28.7

28.5

27.9

27.7

27.3

27.4

28.1

27.1

27.4

26.7

2003

27.1

28.3

28.2

28.5

28.1

27.5

27.1

27.3

26.9

27.1

26.8

27.3

2004

28.1

28.1

28.4

28.3

27.4

27.2

26.8

27.1

26.6

26.8

27.0

26.6

2005

27.3

28.0

28.7

28.3

28.5

27.5

27.2

27.5

27.0

27.0

26.6

26.7

2006

26.6

27.8

27.9

28.0

27.4

27.2

27.1

26.7

27.1

27.3

27.2

26.6

2007

26.6

28.3

28.8

28.2

28.3

27.5

27.2

27.1

27.0

26.5

27.3

26.6

2008

26.7

27.5

27.5

27.3

27.4

26.7

26.5

26.8

27.2

27.3

26.9

27.2

2009

27.2

28.0

28.2

28.5

28.0

26.9

27.3

27.0

26.9

27.6

26.7

27.0

2010

27.1

28.2

29.2

28.6

27.9

27.4

27.1

27.1

27.2

Table 4.5 Average Temperature ( oC ) in Rathnapura during period of 2001 – 2010[ 14 ]

FLOODS AND LAND SLIDE

Floods are caused by heavy down pour of rainwater peculiarly in all seasons, monsoons and inter monsoons. A inundation happens an country of land is covered with H2O, when a river overflows. Some inundations develop easy, sometimes over a period of yearss. But, brassy inundations can develop rapidly, sometimes in merely a few proceedingss and it does frequently hold really unsafe when a dike interruption.

District

Affected Families

Deaths

Houses destroyed

Houses partly damaged

N’Elliya

132

1

286

0

Kulatara

21,550

8

7,658

35

Galle

36,703

17

1,273

560

Matara

68,075

80

8,850

17,822

Ratnapura

47,756

137

5,726

6,902

Table 4.6 Flood countries in Sri Lanka[ 15 ]

DATA RELATED TO TEA INDUSTRY

6. The export trade in Sri Lanka has been given the highest precedence since the late seventiess with the debut of export oriented fabrication and trading activities for accomplishing economic prosperity in the state. During the last two decennaries, Sri Lanka has experienced a steady enlargement in the sector which has resulted in a important addition in export and import trade.

Year

Tea Production Kg manganese

1996

245.96

1997

258.42

1998

276.86

1999

280.05

2000

283.76

2001

305.84

2002

295.09

2003

310.03

2004

303.22

2005

308.10

2006

310.8

2007

304.6

2008

318.4

Table 4.7 Sri Lanka Tea-Production 1996 – 2008 ( Million Kilograms )[ 16 ]

Year

High Grown

( hour angle. )

Med. Grown

( hour angle. )

Low Grown

( hour angle. )

Entire ( hour angle. )

1990

73,138

83,223

65,397

221,758

1991

73,331

82,467

65,893

221,691

1992

74,141

85,510

62,185

221,836

1994

51,443

56,155

79,711

187,309

1995

51,443

56,155

79,711

187,309

1996

52,272

56,863

79,836

188,971

1997

51,444

58,155

79,711

189,310

1998

51,444

58,155

79,711

189,310

1999

51,444

58,155

79,711

189,310

2000

52,272

56,863

79,836

188,971

2001

52,272

56,863

79,836

188,971

2002

52,272

56,863

79,836

188,971

2003

40,302

69,529

100,790

210,621

2004

40,302

69,529

100,790

210,621

2005

41,137

71,018

109,814

221,969

2006

41,137

71,018

109,814

221,969

2007

41,137

71,018

109,814

221,969

2008

41,137

71,018

109,814

221,969

2009

41,137

71,018

109,814

221,969

Table 3.2 Registered Tea adult country ( 1990 – 2009 )[ 17 ]

Chapter V

THE CHANGES IN CLIMATE PARAMETERS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON

Tea INDUSTRY IN SRI LANKA

THE CHANGES IN CLIMATE PARAMETERS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON

Tea INDUSTRY IN SRI LANKA

The technological progresss made on improved harvest direction, irrigation, works protection and fertilisation, conditions and clime are still cardinal factors in tea productiveness in Sri Lanka. Farming systems and agronomic patterns in most agricultural parts of Sri Lanka have evolved in close harmoniousness with the predominating climatic conditions of several climatic parts of the island. Climate of the island has changed such as right sum of rainfall does non come at the right clip of the turning seasons, variableness of both south-west and

North-east monsoon rains and rains of convectional beginning have increased significantly during recent decennaries. Furthermore, increasing ambient temperature is besides bring downing several direct and indirect negative impacts on the tea productiveness.

The impact of clime alteration on any tea turning part depends how and what strength the rainfall government in a given country is variable along with the increasing environmental temperature of the same country.

IMPACTS DUE TO CHANGES ON RAINFALL REGIME

Sing above collected information, it is a good known fact that one-year rainfall in Sri Lanka has shown a neither important increasing nor diminishing tendency except a few locations. However, variableness of seasonal rainfall has increased during recent decennaries particularly with regard to the nor’-east monsoon. But, in some instance occurred utmost rainfall due to climate alteration, dirt erode, inundations and land slide, rinse off fertiliser and other chemicals has become a common characteristics of the of Sri Lanka and under such state of affairss, harvests losingss in footings of quantitatively and qualitatively are inevitable.

Given the physical conditions of most of the great dirt groups that are being used for tea industrial activities in Sri Lanka, even a little negative going of expected rainfall is likely to several cause, it will be so damaging to the intensive production systems.

IMPACTS DUE TO INCREASED AMBIENT TEMPERATURE

Bing a tropical island with uniformly high temperature government, most of the cultivated harvests in Sri Lanka operate at a close upper limit of the optimal temperature scope of several harvests. Therefore, quality and production of harvest are amendss due to high temperature in Sri Lankan tea industry under a altering clime. It is good established fact that high temperature hurts in tea industry such as drought harm, dirt wet depletion, premature dehydration of harvest, cut down H2O for irrigation, H2O precipitation, if the works is exposed to an ambient temperature that exceeds 35 oC.

Recent observations of mean Temperature ( oC ) in Nuwara Elliya and Rathnapura country during period of 2001 – 2010 ( Table 4 and 5 ) have confirmed that frequence of such temperature events has increased significantly in both Dry and Intermediate zones. Decreased diurnal temperature government at about all locations of the state, particularly due to the increasing nighttime minimal temperature, is likely to do negative impacts on increased insect amendss and infestation by all sort of pathogens such as bacteriums, virus and Fungi, quality and production of the tea leave, in the state.

IMPACTS DUE TO OTHER RESONS

Droughts Damage

When there is non adequate H2O to back up agricultural, human or environmental H2O demands, name a drought period. A drouth can be caused by drying or anything that reduces the sum of H2O available. The effects of drought vary greatly depending on agricultural, urban and environmental H2O demands. The drouths in Sri Lanka are caused by a figure of grounds like failure of monsoons and increasing the temperature.

Flood and Land slide

Extreme sum of positive rainfall is likely to be caused of inundation and land slide. It may happen terrible amendss to bing irrigation substructures and therefore, restricting the H2O handiness for harvest production of tea industry that are under irrigation. Even though storing H2O prolonger clip in tea turning country due to deluge status, tea harvest tends to bust up and low productiveness.

THE IMPACT OF FUTURE CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON TEA INDUSTRY

Future Scenarios of Rainfall

Variability of rainfall would be the cardinal factor of finding the alteration of clime. It can be predicted that more frequent and intense alterations can happen. In add-on, it has been predicted that wet countries will acquire more rain and later dry countries will be more drier than the past due to the predicted clime alteration. Harmonizing to the consequences obtained, it can be fathomed that the southwest monsoon rainfall, which normally confines to the western and south-western parts of the island and the nor’-east monsoon rainfall that occur over the eastern and northern countries will be significantly increased peculiarly in the old ages 2025.

Future Scenarios of Temperature

The planetary mean temperature is projected to be risen in the scope of 1.4 – 5.8 oC by the twelvemonth 2100 under the different emanation scenarios and it is revealed that the average temperature during the nor’-east monsoon and sou’-west seasons is projected to increase about 2.9 oC and 2.5 oC severally by the twelvemonth 2100.

POSSIBLE RESPONSE STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON TEA INDUSTRY

Bing a developing state, the most appropriate response scheme for clime alteration is adaptation activities instead than extenuation exercisings or follows combination of both of them every bit long as it success ends. But, given the state of affairs of local environment, the most practical and sustainable response scheme available for tea industry is the version. The undermentioned list that may be adapted by different facet to minimise the exposure to climate alteration in tea turning country.

Suggested Adaptation Technical Strategies

Change irrigation method

Promote micro-irrigation ( trickle, sprinkler etc. )

Rehabilitation of minor armored combat vehicles and irrigation canal web

Re-use of drainage H2O, if suited

intensive irrigation direction patterns wherever possible

Make husbandmans aware of clime alteration

promote husbandmans on dirt and wet preservation patterns

Promote to dirty trial based fertiliser application

promote to better the H2O usage and conveyance efficiency

Change land usage form in land slide country

Use genetically modified Plant

Develop drouth resistant tea assortments

Develop high temperature opposition tea assortments

Develop plague and disease opposition tea assortments

Suggested Adaptation Policy Schemes

Execution of the Soil Conservation Act

Strict enforcement of National Environmental Act and other related regulations

Adoption of proper national land usage policy

Easy recognition strategies

Dirt and wet preservation

Micro-irrigation

High quality Plants

Large scale drainage betterment undertakings

Effective usage of long scope conditions prediction for agricultural planning

Introduce effectual selling scheme

Introduce authorities policy on every facet of the economic system enduring for a few decennaries in front.

However, some of these proposed schemes are non new to our farming community and they are already in pattern. But, there is a timely demand of implementing them in a co-ordinated and systematic mode and sustainable manner to turn to the climatic alteration issues. There may besides be re-evaluated the bing methodological analysiss and present new constructs applicable to tea industry by responsible implementing bureau with possible safeguards to avoid cost consequence.

Chapter VI

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Decision

In decision, it is reveled that the variableness of sou’-west monsoon and northeast monsoon rainfall will increase in the hereafter. Rainfall alteration is predicted to be higher during the southwest monsoon season than the nor’-east monsoon season. Much higher increases have been noticed on the windward side of the cardinal hills in each monsoon and less increases have been noticed on the leeward side. Therefore, there is a strong possibility of holding H2O scarceness in the tea turning parts where the rainfall is less, particularly on the leeward side of the cardinal hills and adjoin countries in each monsoon. Water scarceness will bring forth subsidiary jobs due to the population growing and increasing demand for H2O in the hereafter. This state of affairs may be aggravated as the average temperatures are besides has been projected to be increased. Apart from the direct impact of increased variableness of rainfall and rise of ambient temperature, indirect effects of increased rainfall strengths are of particular significance in footings of land debasement which has a important bearing on the harvest production in Sri Lanka. But, it is excessively early to generalise that such menaces would non happen in the hereafter.

The cost of your healthy and cheering cup of tea is merely merely if you can let devouring quality of the tea. So, if you resolve to seek truly high quality cup of tea with all the attempt and accomplishment that has been put into them and it will be a antic merchandise.

Recommendation

3. The variableness of rainfalls and increasing temperature that could earnestly be affected particularly in the tea industry and hence some version steps which was discussed supra demand to be taken into consideration in order to get by with the awaited clime alteration.

4. Developing the Sri Lankan tea industry such as quality tea, owned trade names to local and abroad markets with a position to guaranting the long term sustainability of the tea industry is really indispensable. The development of Sri Lankan tea industry to defy on clime alteration will besides be contribute towards making greater stableness and value for Sri Lankan companies engaged in export. The scheme poses a challenge to Sri Lankan houses and is touch to accomplish, but the benefits are significant peculiarly in the long tally. However, before it is excessively late the disposal should back up such an enterprise in order to make farther value to the industry, to better the economic system of Sri Lanka.

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